Industrial Revolution

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A good history of the industrial revolution

A good history of the industrial revolution

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  • 9:00-9:10 Introductions, Overview of the day (Lauren) 9:10-10:00 Problem framing (Bob) 10:00-10:15 Beginning the Map Era 6 in Michigan’s World History and Geography Content Expectations (Lauren)   10:15-10:30 Break   10:30-12:00 Examining Resources that Tell a Global Story (WHFUA PowerPoint, texts) Continuing to Map Era 6 (Lauren)   12:00-12:45 LUNCH   12:45-1:45 The Industrial Revolution as a Global Phenomenon (Bob)   1:45-2:00 Break   2:00-2:45 The Industrial Revolution as a Global Phenomenon (continued) (Bob)   2:45-3:00 Wrap-up: Next Steps (Lauren/Amy)  

Transcript

  • 1. Organizing CEs for Instruction: Era 6 -The Industrial Revolution as a Global Event Craig Benjamin (GVSU) With special thanks and acknowledgement to Bob Bain and Lauren McArthur Harris (The University of Michigan)
  • 2. Key Questions
    • How do we organize for instruction global, multi-scaled content expectations?
    • How do we re-purpose lessons and resources?
  • 3. Goals for This Session
    • Organize Era 6 for instruction, as an example of what can/should be done with other eras
    • Acquire/create/re-purpose teachable materials
  • 4. Approaches to the Industrial Revolution & Industrialism
    • Textbooks: How does the textbook “represent” the Industrial Revolution? What do you see? What don’t you see?
    • Beck: regional to national to local (Manchester) to multi-regional to global impact, side boxes: more global in scope. Last chapter in section: politics, economics. Many activities and questions connected to today. Majority regional (Europe); time frame 1800-1900
  • 5. Approaches to the Industrial Revolution & Industrialism contd
    • Spielvogel: zooms in on England and the region, argues that industrialization leads to Western domination and nationalization; starts with England and Europe, moves out to Africa (imperialism) and then to Japan and China; zooms in on two people (England and Germany) describing conditions; connecting economic revolution to other institutions
    • Stearns: regional perspective, distinct temporal breaks; “western civ. plus”; two paragraphs on U.S.; six sentences on Asia; all images are of Europe. Spread: why some areas and not others (talks about scholars’ ideas); more time spent on life on industrial life (regional); “tease” at the beginning of section about spreading to the rest of the world
  • 6. Approaches to the Industrial Revolution & Industrialism – David Christian’s Approach
    • This Fleeting World: How does the David Christian “represent” the Industrial Revolution? What do you see?
    • What don’t you see?
      • Christian: Industrialism is multi-causal;
      • part of modernity; focuses on global
      • story but then looks at many regions
      • (Russia, Japan); shows inter-regionalism; follows some commodities; shows
      • increase in Europe’s GDP at “expense” of China & Asia
  • 7. David Christian’s Approach contd
      • happens over three temporal patterns (“waves”); multi-time; multi-space; fewer names; more on inventions; connects to other contexts, (e.g. spread of ideas, gives theory for Europe’s increase in power); yet, not mentioning certain stories, or omits end to other stories
      • identifies historical interpretation, and historical disagreements; yet he is also making an interpretation, and presenting an argument; opportunity to explore economic relationship ; his thought experiments are creating “relevance” ; not isolated issue, but enhances global interactions; diffusion of ideas, inventions that “fueled” Industrialism existed “outside” Europe; extends to Imperialism, democracy, etc.
  • 8. Models of how the WHGCEs Treat the Relationship Between Industrialism, Politics and Europe’s Rise to Global Domination
  • 9. Components of Imperialism, Industrialism and National and Political Revolts
  • 10. Break Down of Industrialism
  • 11.  
  • 12. NOW … A GLOBAL STORY for ERA SIX (1700-1914)
  • 13. The Industrial Revolution as a Global Event
    • How did life change between 1700 and 1914?
    • What explains the changes? What are plausible, though possibly competing, explanations?
    • Evaluate the merits of arguments holding that changes in Europe’s relative strength in the world was byproduct of factors “internal” to Europe or “external” Europe.
  • 14. Now Consider the following: What do you make of these “facts?” What surprises you? What supports what you’ve always known? What challenges what you’ve always known?
  • 15. Fact 1: Consider population …. or demography …
  • 16. World Population, 400 BCE - 2000 CE
  • 17. But the growth was not equal everywhere! World Population Growth in Era Six
  • 18. Population of India, China & Europe, 1400- 2000
  • 19. World Population of People of European Descent in Europe , the United States , and Canada For example, the population of European descent in these three regions grew significantly between 1750 and 1900. Year Population in Millions % of World Population 1750 141 19.3 1850 292 25.0 1900 482 30.0
  • 20. What explains such growth? What would you expect happened to enable such growth?
  • 21. Not only was the human population growing, it was moving across and within continents .
  • 22. Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2002 © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Migration from Europe from 1750 or earlier
  • 23. Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2002 © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Continuing Atlantic slave trade after 1750
  • 24. Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2002 © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Labor migration from Asia mainly after 1750
  • 25. Major Global Migrations Europeans overseas including Siberia 1820-1930 55-60,000,000 Africans to the Americas 1811-1870 1,900,000 Asians overseas 1850-1920 2,500,000
  • 26. Migrations, 1700-1940
    • Source: Patrick Manning, Migration in World History (New York: Routledge, 2005), 146
    • Note: Boxes show millions of departures; circles show arrivals
    • Africans (1650-1940), Europeans (1840-1940), Indians (1840-1940), Chinese (1840-1940)
  • 27. What surprises you? What challenges your understanding? What do you think explains such movement? What would you expect happened to enable such shifts in population?
  • 28. Consider changes in cities …
  • 29. Growth of the Population of Boston 1690 - 7,000 1790 - 18,038 1900 - 560,892 158% 3,010%
  • 30. Growth of the Population of Detroit 1870 – 79,577 1900 – 265,000 1930 -1,500,000 233% 466%
  • 31. Most Populous Cities, 1500 Name Population 1 Beijing, China 672,000 2 Vijayanagar, India 500,000 3 Cairo, Egypt 400,000 4 Hangzhou, China 250,000 5 Tabriz, Iran 250,000 6 Constantinople (Istanbul), Turkey 200,000 7 Gaur, India 200,000 8 Paris, France 185,000 9 Guangzhou, China 150,000 10 Nanjing, China 147,000
  • 32. Most Populous Cities, 1800 Name Population 1 Beijing, China 1,100,000 2 London, United Kingdom 861,000 3 Guangzhou, China 800,000 4 Edo (Tokyo), Japan 685,000 5 Constantinople (Istanbul), Turkey 570,000 6 Paris, France 547,000 7 Naples, Italy 430,000 8 Hangzhou, China 387,000 9 Osaka, Japan 383,000 10 Kyoto, Japan 377,000
  • 33. Most Populous Cities, 1900 Name Population 1 London, United Kingdom 6,480,000 2 New York, United States 4,242,000 3 Paris, France 3,330,000 4 Berlin, Germany 2,707,000 5 Chicago, United States 1,717,000 6 Vienna, Austria 1,698,000 7 Tokyo, Japan 1,497,000 8 St. Petersburg, Russia 1,439,000 9 Manchester, United Kingdom 1,435,000 10 Philadelphia, United States 1,418,000
  • 34. What surprises you? What challenges your understanding? What do you think explains such movement? What would you expect happened to enable such shifts in population?
  • 35. Fact 2: Consider changes in wealth and power …
  • 36. The Modern Revolution meant powerful economic growth in the world as a whole. World Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Dollars as valued in 1990
  • 37. Estimated World Income, 1000 BCE-2000 CE (Per Capita)
    • Source: Gregory Clark, A Farewell to Alms a Brief Economic History of the World (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007), 2
  • 38. Powerful, but not equal. The countries which modernized first used it to their advantage.
  • 39. Percentage of World GDP Western Europe and North America vs. Asia The Modern Revolution shifted the world’s economic center .
  • 40. Share of World GDP 1700-1890
  • 41. Share of Manufacturing Output, 1750-1900
  • 42. Real Wages, English Laborers 1209-1809 Source: Gregory Clark, A Farewell to Alms a Brief Economic History of the World (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007), 41
  • 43. Real Income in England 1260-2000
    • Source: Gregory Clark, A Farewell to Alms a Brief Economic History of the World (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007), 195
  • 44. Comparative Income Per Capita,1800-2000
    • Source: Gregory Clark, A Farewell to Alms a Brief Economic History of the World (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007), 321
  • 45. What surprises you? What challenges your understanding? What do you think explains such changes?
  • 46. But a growing population meant that human need for resources—for energy—was growing, too. And humans dealt with this need by using fossil fuels. Watch!
  • 47. 5 watts Small wax candle, 800 BCE
  • 48. Parson’s turbine, 1884 CE 100,000 watts
  • 49. Fact 3: The Fossil Fuel Revolution The biological old regime ends when vast new sources of energy come into use: Coal Electricity Gas Petroleum Nuclear
  • 50. By taking energy from fossil fuels like coal instead of biomass like wood…
  • 51. The Fossil Fuel Revolution Over millions of years, ancient forests change into peat, then coal.
  • 52. and with better and better steam engines to harness coal’s energy…
  • 53. Power loom weaving Lancashire, 1835 People could produce more efficiently.
  • 54. In Britain coal mines were close to factories and cities. In China coal mines were far from factories and cities. How might history have been different if Britain’s coal mines had been located, say, in the Carpathian Mountains of southeastern Europe.?
  • 55. Coal mine in the Rhondda valley in Wales
  • 56. Robert Fulton’s Clermont steamship 1807 And travel more quickly.
  • 57. George Stephenson’s “Rocket” steam locomotive 1829 And travel more quickly
  • 58. The increasing power of steam engines in Era Seven
  • 59. The Industrial Revolution Fossil fuel energy in production and transportation
  • 60. The Industrial Revolution allowed for new global economic relationships.
  • 61. Cotton exports from agrarian economies to industrial economies Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2002 © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
  • 62. Textile exports from industrial to agrarian economies Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2002 © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
  • 63. Old limits on how much energy people could use were gone! And in Era Six people tore down other limits too…
  • 64. Sounds great! But what did governments need to do to make these ideas work?
    • Fact 4: New economic ideas
    • People should be able to buy and sell land freely.
    • People should be able to buy and sell labor freely.
    • People should be able to buy and sell goods freely.
  • 65. Improve public health. Build railroads, ports, and telegraphs. Standardize weights and measures .
  • 66. Antiseptic medicine 1867 Transcontinental railroad 1869 Metric system 1790
  • 67. In Era Six, government played a greater role than ever before in people’s lives. And while that happened, people’s ideas about government changed, too!
  • 68. People moved more quickly. Ideas moved more quickly.
  • 69. Railroad Steamboat Transatlantic cable Newspaper Fact 5: The Communication Revolution
  • 70. The Speed Revolution
    • One hour of optimum travel:
      • Walking - 5 km
      • Horse-drawn coach - 10 km
      • Railway locomotive (1847) - 96 km
      • Normannia steamship (1890) - 40 km
      • French rapid train - 297 km
      • Jet plane - 1000 km
  • 71. Railway Development in Europe  1840  1850
  • 72. Railway Development in Europe 1880
  • 73. Railway Construction in India 1853-1931
  • 74. India, 1877 After the Modern Revolution, much more food went on the world market…
  • 75. India, 1877 … and it was often shipped to where it got the highest price,
  • 76. not to where it was needed most.
  • 77. And industrial technology could be used not only to create, but to destroy.
  • 78. And more of the world was colonized than ever before.
  • 79. Battle of Omdurman, Sudan, 1898 Sudanese dead, 10,000 British dead, 48
  • 80. Fact 6: The European Moment
    • Land surface of the world controlled by Europeans:
      • 1800 35%
      • 1878 67%
      • 1914 84%
    But . . . duration of European world domination in the past 2000 years: 80 yrs
  • 81. Modernize the army. Modernize the economy. Maintain independence. Russia Mexico Japan Egypt
  • 82. People who traveled to learn about one part of the Modern Revolution, like fossil fuels,….
  • 83. also learned about the democratic part of the Modern Revolution.
  • 84. And they didn’t keep the ideas to themselves. They communicated them, because it was all part of the package.
  • 85. What surprises you? What challenges your understanding? What scale have we been working? Might you use any of this with students? How?
  • 86. Fact 7: Consider changes in social situations …
  • 87. Comparative Activity
    • Through history, children had always labored. Yet, today child labor is outlawed, or severely outlawed in many countries in the world.
    • When did this happen? Where did it happen?
    • Why then? Why there?
    • Why do you think child labor would become a public issue when it did?
  • 88. Comparative Activity
    • Use the following documents to develop a theory about restrictions on child labor, particularly their timing and location.
    • That is, if children had always labored in history, where were some places that were outlawing or restricting child labor? Why there? Why then?
  • 89. Age of Workers in England
  • 90. Sadler Commission, 1832
  • 91. Japanese Commission, 1906
  • 92. Japanese Labor
  • 93. Japanese Factory Act, 1911
  • 94. British Factory Acts, 1833
  • 95. Return to A Thought Experiment We Considered Last Time
    • Think of how early 20 th century industrialism might look at:
    • Local level (Detroit area)
    • Mid-regional level (Midwest)
    • National level (U.S.A.)
    • Hemispheric level (Western)
    • Global
    • What changes at each of these levels?
    • What details are added or removed?
    • How are they connected (nested)?
    • At what level does this topic become world history?
  • 96. The Industrial Revolution as a Global Event
    • How did life change between 1700 and 1914?
    • What explains the changes? What are plausible, though possibly competing, explanations?
    • Evaluate the merits of arguments holding that changes in Europe’s relative strength in the world was byproduct of factors “internal” to Europe or “external” Europe.
  • 97. Michigan's Content Expectations
    • Use Era 6 as an example of how to organize your courses
    • Identify the CEs that pertain to Industrialism and the Industrial Revolution (circle relevant ones)
    • Ask what are the key ideas or concepts?
    • Think about :
    • how you would teach these
    • materials you would use use (i.e. how would you use your school’s textbook?)
    • Then design your courses accordingly
    • Write around and discussion next!