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Organizing CEs for Instruction: Era 6 -The Industrial Revolution as a Global Event Craig Benjamin (GVSU) With special thanks and acknowledgement to Bob Bain and Lauren McArthur Harris (The University of Michigan)
Organize Era 6 for instruction, as an example of what can/should be done with other eras
Acquire/create/re-purpose teachable materials
Approaches to the Industrial Revolution & Industrialism
Textbooks: How does the textbook “represent” the Industrial Revolution? What do you see? What don’t you see?
Beck: regional to national to local (Manchester) to multi-regional to global impact, side boxes: more global in scope. Last chapter in section: politics, economics. Many activities and questions connected to today. Majority regional (Europe); time frame 1800-1900
Approaches to the Industrial Revolution & Industrialism contd
Spielvogel: zooms in on England and the region, argues that industrialization leads to Western domination and nationalization; starts with England and Europe, moves out to Africa (imperialism) and then to Japan and China; zooms in on two people (England and Germany) describing conditions; connecting economic revolution to other institutions
Stearns: regional perspective, distinct temporal breaks; “western civ. plus”; two paragraphs on U.S.; six sentences on Asia; all images are of Europe. Spread: why some areas and not others (talks about scholars’ ideas); more time spent on life on industrial life (regional); “tease” at the beginning of section about spreading to the rest of the world
Approaches to the Industrial Revolution & Industrialism – David Christian’s Approach
This Fleeting World: How does the David Christian “represent” the Industrial Revolution? What do you see?
What don’t you see?
Christian: Industrialism is multi-causal;
part of modernity; focuses on global
story but then looks at many regions
(Russia, Japan); shows inter-regionalism; follows some commodities; shows
increase in Europe’s GDP at “expense” of China & Asia
happens over three temporal patterns (“waves”); multi-time; multi-space; fewer names; more on inventions; connects to other contexts, (e.g. spread of ideas, gives theory for Europe’s increase in power); yet, not mentioning certain stories, or omits end to other stories
identifies historical interpretation, and historical disagreements; yet he is also making an interpretation, and presenting an argument; opportunity to explore economic relationship ; his thought experiments are creating “relevance” ; not isolated issue, but enhances global interactions; diffusion of ideas, inventions that “fueled” Industrialism existed “outside” Europe; extends to Imperialism, democracy, etc.
Models of how the WHGCEs Treat the Relationship Between Industrialism, Politics and Europe’s Rise to Global Domination
Components of Imperialism, Industrialism and National and Political Revolts
But the growth was not equal everywhere! World Population Growth in Era Six
Population of India, China & Europe, 1400- 2000
World Population of People of European Descent in Europe , the United States , and Canada For example, the population of European descent in these three regions grew significantly between 1750 and 1900. Year Population in Millions % of World Population 1750 141 19.3 1850 292 25.0 1900 482 30.0
What explains such growth? What would you expect happened to enable such growth?
Not only was the human population growing, it was moving across and within continents .
Growth of the Population of Boston 1690 - 7,000 1790 - 18,038 1900 - 560,892 158% 3,010%
Growth of the Population of Detroit 1870 – 79,577 1900 – 265,000 1930 -1,500,000 233% 466%
Most Populous Cities, 1500 Name Population 1 Beijing, China 672,000 2 Vijayanagar, India 500,000 3 Cairo, Egypt 400,000 4 Hangzhou, China 250,000 5 Tabriz, Iran 250,000 6 Constantinople (Istanbul), Turkey 200,000 7 Gaur, India 200,000 8 Paris, France 185,000 9 Guangzhou, China 150,000 10 Nanjing, China 147,000
Most Populous Cities, 1800 Name Population 1 Beijing, China 1,100,000 2 London, United Kingdom 861,000 3 Guangzhou, China 800,000 4 Edo (Tokyo), Japan 685,000 5 Constantinople (Istanbul), Turkey 570,000 6 Paris, France 547,000 7 Naples, Italy 430,000 8 Hangzhou, China 387,000 9 Osaka, Japan 383,000 10 Kyoto, Japan 377,000
Most Populous Cities, 1900 Name Population 1 London, United Kingdom 6,480,000 2 New York, United States 4,242,000 3 Paris, France 3,330,000 4 Berlin, Germany 2,707,000 5 Chicago, United States 1,717,000 6 Vienna, Austria 1,698,000 7 Tokyo, Japan 1,497,000 8 St. Petersburg, Russia 1,439,000 9 Manchester, United Kingdom 1,435,000 10 Philadelphia, United States 1,418,000
What surprises you? What challenges your understanding? What do you think explains such movement? What would you expect happened to enable such shifts in population?
Fact 2: Consider changes in wealth and power …
The Modern Revolution meant powerful economic growth in the world as a whole. World Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Dollars as valued in 1990
Estimated World Income, 1000 BCE-2000 CE (Per Capita)
Source: Gregory Clark, A Farewell to Alms a Brief Economic History of the World (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007), 2
Powerful, but not equal. The countries which modernized first used it to their advantage.
Percentage of World GDP Western Europe and North America vs. Asia The Modern Revolution shifted the world’s economic center .
Fact 3: The Fossil Fuel Revolution The biological old regime ends when vast new sources of energy come into use: Coal Electricity Gas Petroleum Nuclear
By taking energy from fossil fuels like coal instead of biomass like wood…
The Fossil Fuel Revolution Over millions of years, ancient forests change into peat, then coal.
and with better and better steam engines to harness coal’s energy…
Power loom weaving Lancashire, 1835 People could produce more efficiently.
In Britain coal mines were close to factories and cities. In China coal mines were far from factories and cities. How might history have been different if Britain’s coal mines had been located, say, in the Carpathian Mountains of southeastern Europe.?