Organizing CEs for
Instruction: Era 6 -The
Industrial Revolution as a
Global Event
Craig Benjamin (GVSU)
With special than...
Key Questions
• How do we organize for instruction global,
multi-scaled content expectations?
• How do we re-purpose lesso...
Goals for This Session
• Organize Era 6 for instruction, as an example
of what can/should be done with other eras
• Acquir...
Approaches to the Industrial
Revolution & Industrialism
• Textbooks: How does the textbook “represent” the Industrial
Revo...
Approaches to the Industrial
Revolution & Industrialism contd
- Spielvogel: zooms in on England and the region, argues tha...
Approaches to the Industrial
Revolution & Industrialism –
David Christian’s Approach
• This Fleeting World: How does the D...
David Christian’s Approach contd
– happens over three temporal patterns (“waves”); multi-
time; multi-space; fewer names; ...
Models of how the WHGCEs Treat the Relationship Between
Industrialism, Politics and Europe’s Rise to Global Domination
Components of Imperialism, Industrialism
and National and Political Revolts
Break Down of Industrialism
NOW … A GLOBAL
STORY for ERA SIX
(1700-1914)
The Industrial Revolution as a Global
Event
• How did life change between 1700 and 1914?
• What explains the changes? What...
Now Consider the following:
What do you make of these
“facts?”
What surprises you?
What supports what you’ve always known?...
Fact 1: Consider population …. or
demography …
16
World Population, 400 BCE - 2000 CE
17
But the growth
was not equal
everywhere!
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
1750 1850 1900
Millions
World Popul...
Population of India, China & Europe, 1400-
2000
19
Year Population in
Millions
% of World
Population
1750 141 19.3
1850 292 25.0
1900 482 30.0
World Population of People ...
What explains such growth?
What would you expect
happened to enable such
growth?
21
Not only was the
human population
growing, it was
moving across
and within
continents.
22
Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2002 © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Migration from Europ...
23
Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2002 © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Continuing Atlantic ...
24
Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2002 © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Labor migration from...
25
Major Global Migrations
Europeans overseas
including
Siberia
1820-1930
55-60,000,000
Africans to the
Americas
1811-1870...
Migrations, 1700-1940
• Source: Patrick Manning, Migration in World History (New York: Routledge, 2005), 146
• Note: Boxes...
What surprises you? What
challenges your understanding?
What do you think explains such
movement?
What would you expect
ha...
Consider changes in cities …
29
Growth of the Population of Boston
1690 - 7,000
1790 - 18,038
1900 - 560,892
158%
3,010%
30
Growth of the Population of Detroit
1870 – 79,577
1900 – 265,000
1930 -1,500,000
233%
466%
Most Populous Cities, 1500
Name Population
1 Beijing, China 672,000
2 Vijayanagar, India 500,000
3 Cairo, Egypt 400,000
4 ...
Most Populous Cities, 1800
Name Population
1 Beijing, China 1,100,000
2
London, United
Kingdom
861,000
3
Guangzhou,
China
...
Most Populous Cities, 1900
Name Population
1
London, United
Kingdom
6,480,000
2
New York, United
States
4,242,000
3 Paris,...
What surprises you? What
challenges your understanding?
What do you think explains such
movement?
What would you expect
ha...
Fact 2: Consider changes in
wealth and power …
36
$0.00
$500,000.00
$1,000,000.00
$1,500,000.00
$2,000,000.00
$2,500,000.00
$3,000,000.00
1700 1820 1870 1913
The Modern ...
Estimated World Income,
1000 BCE-2000 CE (Per Capita)
Source: Gregory Clark, A Farewell to Alms a Brief Economic History o...
38
Powerful,
but not
equal.
The countries
which modernized
first used it to their
advantage.
39
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
1700 1820 1870 1913
Eur./N.A
Asia
Percentage of World GDP
Western Europe and North America vs. A...
Share of World GDP
1700-1890
Share of Manufacturing Output,
1750-1900
Real Wages, English Laborers
1209-1809
Source: Gregory Clark, A Farewell to Alms a Brief Economic History of the
World (Pr...
Real Income in England
1260-2000
Source: Gregory Clark, A Farewell to Alms a Brief Economic History of the World (Princeto...
Comparative Income Per Capita,1800-2000
Source: Gregory Clark, A Farewell to Alms a Brief Economic History of the World (P...
What surprises you? What
challenges your understanding?
What do you think explains such
changes?
46
But a growing
population meant
that human need for
resources—for
energy—was
growing, too.
And humans
dealt with this
ne...
47
5 watts
Small wax candle, 800
BCE
48
Parson’s turbine, 1884 CE
100,000 watts
49
Fact 3: The Fossil Fuel Revolution
The biological old regime ends when
vast new sources of energy come into
use:
Coal
E...
50
By taking energy
from fossil fuels
like coal instead
of biomass like
wood…
52
and with better
and better steam
engines to
harness coal’s
energy…
53
Power loom weaving
Lancashire, 1835
People could
produce more
efficiently.
54
In Britain coal mines were
close to factories and cities.
In China coal mines were
far from factories and
cities.
How m...
56
Robert Fulton’s Clermont
steamship 1807
And travel
more
quickly.
57
George Stephenson’s
“Rocket” steam locomotive
1829
And travel
more quickly
58
The
increasing
power of
steam
engines in Era
Seven
59
The Industrial
Revolution
Fossil fuel energy in
production and
transportation
60
The Industrial
Revolution allowed for
new global economic
relationships.
61
Cotton exports from agrarian economies to
industrial economies
Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2002 © 1993-2001 M...
62
Textile exports from industrial to
agrarian economies
Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2002 © 1993-2001 Microsoft ...
63
Old limits on how
much energy
people could use
were gone!
And in Era Six
people tore down
other limits too…
64
Sounds
great!
But what did
governments need
to do to make
these ideas work?
Fact 4: New
economic ideas
• People should ...
65
Improve public
health.
Build railroads, ports,
and telegraphs.
Standardize weights
and measures.
66
Antiseptic
medicine
1867
Transcontinental
railroad
1869
Metric system
1790
67
In Era Six,
government played
a greater role than
ever before in
people’s lives.
And while that
happened,
people’s idea...
68
People moved more quickly.
Ideas moved more quickly.
69
RailroadSteamboat
Transatlantic cableNewspaper
Fact 5:
The
Communication
Revolution
70
The Speed Revolution
One hour of optimum travel:
 Walking - 5 km
 Horse-drawn coach - 10 km
 Railway locomotive (184...
71
Railway
Development
in Europe
⇐1840
⇐1850
72
Railway Development in Europe
1880
73
Railway Construction in India
1853-1931
74
India, 1877
After the Modern Revolution, much more food
went on the world market…
75
India, 1877
… and it was often shipped to where it
got the highest price,
76
not to where it was needed most.
77
And industrial
technology could
be used not only
to create, but to
destroy.
78
And more of the world was colonized than
ever before.
79
Battle of Omdurman, Sudan, 1898
Sudanese dead, 10,000
British dead, 48
80
Fact 6: The European Moment
Land surface of the world
controlled by Europeans:
•1800 35%
•1878 67%
•1914 84%
But . . . ...
81
Modernize the
army.
Modernize the
economy.
Maintain
independence.
Russia Mexico
JapanEgypt
82
People who traveled
to learn about one
part of the Modern
Revolution, like fossil
fuels,….
83
also learned about the
democratic part of the Modern
Revolution.
84
And they didn’t keep the ideas to
themselves. They communicated
them, because it was all part of the
package.
What surprises you? What
challenges your understanding?
What scale have we been
working?
Might you use any of this with
st...
Fact 7: Consider changes in social
situations …
Comparative Activity
• Through history, children had always
labored. Yet, today child labor is outlawed,
or severely outla...
Comparative Activity
• Use the following documents to develop a
theory about restrictions on child labor,
particularly the...
Age of Workers in England
Sadler Commission, 1832
Japanese Commission, 1906
Japanese Labor
Japanese Factory Act, 1911
British Factory Acts, 1833
Return to A Thought Experiment We
Considered Last Time
Think of how early 20th
century industrialism might look at:
• Loca...
The Industrial Revolution as a Global
Event
• How did life change between 1700 and 1914?
• What explains the changes? What...
Michigan's Content Expectations
• Use Era 6 as an example of how to organize your
courses
• Identify the CEs that pertain ...
Industrial Revolution
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  • 9:00-9:10Introductions, Overview of the day (Lauren)
    9:10-10:00 Problem framing (Bob)
    10:00-10:15Beginning the Map Era 6 in Michigan’s World History and Geography Content Expectations (Lauren)
     
    10:15-10:30 Break
     
    10:30-12:00 Examining Resources that Tell a Global Story (WHFUA PowerPoint, texts)
    Continuing to Map Era 6 (Lauren)
     
    12:00-12:45 LUNCH
     
    12:45-1:45 The Industrial Revolution as a Global Phenomenon (Bob)
     
    1:45-2:00 Break
     
    2:00-2:45 The Industrial Revolution as a Global Phenomenon (continued) (Bob)
     
    2:45-3:00 Wrap-up: Next Steps (Lauren/Amy)
     
  • Lauren
  • (Lauren) Justification for choosing era
    Over the sessions you should have a really clear grasp of organizing for instruction, for blocking out lessons, using and finding resources
    Next session: political revolutions and nationalism
    Third session: Imperialism
  • (Bob)
  • .
  • Chart data adapted from Angus Maddison, The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective (Paris: Development Centre of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2001), 261.
  • Chart data adapted from Angus Maddison, The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective (Paris: Development Centre of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2001), 263.
  • http://liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/Shared/News2000/Flames/candle-earth.jpg
    Smil Vaclav, Energy in World History (Boulder CO: Westview Press, 1994), 268.
  • http://www-g.eng.cam.ac.uk/125/noflash/1875-1900/parsons.html
    Smil Vaclav, Energy in World History (Boulder CO: Westview Press, 1994), 269.
  • Smil Vaclav, Energy in World History (Boulder CO: Westview Press, 1994), 162.
  • Image: http://www.hw.ac.uk/mecWWW/watt.jpg
  • http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/history/core/pics/0253/img0053.jpg
  • http://www.mscb.ch/dampf/bilder/clermont.jpg
  • http://www.sdrm.org/history/timeline/rocket-1.jpg
  • Chart: Vaclav Smil, Energy in World History (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994), 164.
  • British Factory: http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/history/core/pics/0253/img0053.jpg
    Clermont: http://www.mscb.ch/dampf/bilder/clermont.jpg
    Rocket: http://www.sdrm.org/history/timeline/rocket-1.jpg
  • Encarta map, my lines.
  • http://www.sfmuseum.org/hist1/rail.html
    http://www.surgical-tutor.org.uk/default-home.htm?surgeons/lister.htm~right
  • http://www.sfmuseum.org/hist1/rail.html
    http://www.surgical-tutor.org.uk/default-home.htm?surgeons/lister.htm~right
  • Source: Vaclav Smil, Energy in World History, 238
  • Mike Davis, Late Victorian Holocausts: El Nino Famines and the Making of the Third World (New York: Verso, 2001), 45.
  • Mike Davis, Late Victorian Holocausts: El Nino Famines and the Making of the Third World (New York: Verso, 2001), 45.
  • Mike Davis, Late Victorian Holocausts: El Nino Famines and the Making of the Third World (New York: Verso, 2001), 52.
  • http://memory.loc.gov/master/pnp/cph/3a00000/3a03000/3a03500/3a03511u.tif
  • http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/1907powr.htm
  • http://www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0027379.html
    At the Battle of Omdurman (September 2, 1898) an army commanded by the British General Sir Horatio Kitchener defeated the army of the successor to the self-proclaimed Mahdi Muhammad Ahmad, Abdullah al-Taashi. It was a bloody demonstration of the superiority of machine guns and artillery over older weapons and marked the success of British efforts to re-conquer the Sudan. However, it was not until the Battle of Umm Diwaykarat a year later that the final Mahdist forces were defeated.
  • Meiji: http://perso.club-internet.fr/setzer/tokugawa/images/meiji.jpg
    Aleksander II: http://www.pbs.org/weta/faceofrussia/timeline/1800/img/1861.jpg.
    Porfirio Diaz: Encyclopedia Britannica Micropedia 15th ed., v. 4 (2002), p. 70
    Muhammad Ali: unknown
  • British Factory: http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/history/core/pics/0253/img0053.jpg
    Japanese Factory: Bentley v. 2 p. 866
    Clermont: http://www.mscb.ch/dampf/bilder/clermont.jpg
    Rocket: http://www.sdrm.org/history/timeline/rocket-1.jpg
  • Jefferson: http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/tj3.html
    Danton: Encyclopedia Americana 1999 v. 8 p. 491
    Toussaint L’Ouverture: www.cobblestonepub.com/.../ ToussaintArticle.html
    Bolivar: Encyclopedia Americana, v. 4 (1999), p. 161
  • Clermont: http://www.mscb.ch/dampf/bilder/clermont.jpg
    Rocket: http://www.sdrm.org/history/timeline/rocket-1.jpg
    Newspaper: http://memory.loc.gov/pnp/fsa/8d22000/8d22600/8d22696u.tif
    Transatlantic cable: D. Christian’s Industrial Rev. ppt from Big History Course
  • U.S. industrialization in the first half of the 20th c.
    Thought Experiment on Industrial Revolution
    Could we see evidence of these global patterns if we only look at Detroit
    Industrial workforce
    Fossil fuels
    Death of biological regime
    Import of raw materials, export of manufactured goods
    International workforce
    Let’s zoom right into Detroit – what components of the Industrial Revolution would we see in Detroit? Would we see
    What if then I started with Detroit, could you start with a close up case study that would trace it out…ask the questions: why this place?
  • (Bob)
  • Industrial Revolution

    1. 1. Organizing CEs for Instruction: Era 6 -The Industrial Revolution as a Global Event Craig Benjamin (GVSU) With special thanks and acknowledgement to Bob Bain and Lauren McArthur Harris (The University of Michigan)
    2. 2. Key Questions • How do we organize for instruction global, multi-scaled content expectations? • How do we re-purpose lessons and resources?
    3. 3. Goals for This Session • Organize Era 6 for instruction, as an example of what can/should be done with other eras • Acquire/create/re-purpose teachable materials
    4. 4. Approaches to the Industrial Revolution & Industrialism • Textbooks: How does the textbook “represent” the Industrial Revolution? What do you see? What don’t you see? - Beck: regional to national to local (Manchester) to multi- regional to global impact, side boxes: more global in scope. Last chapter in section: politics, economics. Many activities and questions connected to today. Majority regional (Europe); time frame 1800-1900
    5. 5. Approaches to the Industrial Revolution & Industrialism contd - Spielvogel: zooms in on England and the region, argues that industrialization leads to Western domination and nationalization; starts with England and Europe, moves out to Africa (imperialism) and then to Japan and China; zooms in on two people (England and Germany) describing conditions; connecting economic revolution to other institutions - Stearns: regional perspective, distinct temporal breaks; “western civ. plus”; two paragraphs on U.S.; six sentences on Asia; all images are of Europe. Spread: why some areas and not others (talks about scholars’ ideas); more time spent on life on industrial life (regional); “tease” at the beginning of section about spreading to the rest of the world
    6. 6. Approaches to the Industrial Revolution & Industrialism – David Christian’s Approach • This Fleeting World: How does the David Christian “represent” the Industrial Revolution? What do you see? What don’t you see? – Christian: Industrialism is multi-causal; part of modernity; focuses on global story but then looks at many regions (Russia, Japan); shows inter-regionalism; follows some commodities; shows increase in Europe’s GDP at “expense” of China & Asia
    7. 7. David Christian’s Approach contd – happens over three temporal patterns (“waves”); multi- time; multi-space; fewer names; more on inventions; connects to other contexts, (e.g. spread of ideas, gives theory for Europe’s increase in power); yet, not mentioning certain stories, or omits end to other stories – identifies historical interpretation, and historical disagreements; yet he is also making an interpretation, and presenting an argument; opportunity to explore economic relationship ; his thought experiments are creating “relevance” ; not isolated issue, but enhances global interactions; diffusion of ideas, inventions that “fueled” Industrialism existed “outside” Europe; extends to Imperialism, democracy, etc.
    8. 8. Models of how the WHGCEs Treat the Relationship Between Industrialism, Politics and Europe’s Rise to Global Domination
    9. 9. Components of Imperialism, Industrialism and National and Political Revolts
    10. 10. Break Down of Industrialism
    11. 11. NOW … A GLOBAL STORY for ERA SIX (1700-1914)
    12. 12. The Industrial Revolution as a Global Event • How did life change between 1700 and 1914? • What explains the changes? What are plausible, though possibly competing, explanations? • Evaluate the merits of arguments holding that changes in Europe’s relative strength in the world was byproduct of factors “internal” to Europe or “external” Europe.
    13. 13. Now Consider the following: What do you make of these “facts?” What surprises you? What supports what you’ve always known? What challenges what you’ve always known?
    14. 14. Fact 1: Consider population …. or demography …
    15. 15. 16 World Population, 400 BCE - 2000 CE
    16. 16. 17 But the growth was not equal everywhere! 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 1750 1850 1900 Millions World Population Growth in Era Six
    17. 17. Population of India, China & Europe, 1400- 2000
    18. 18. 19 Year Population in Millions % of World Population 1750 141 19.3 1850 292 25.0 1900 482 30.0 World Population of People of European Descent in Europe, the United States, and Canada For example, the population of European descent in these three regions grew significantly between 1750 and 1900.
    19. 19. What explains such growth? What would you expect happened to enable such growth?
    20. 20. 21 Not only was the human population growing, it was moving across and within continents.
    21. 21. 22 Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2002 © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Migration from Europe from 1750 or earlier
    22. 22. 23 Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2002 © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Continuing Atlantic slave trade after 1750
    23. 23. 24 Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2002 © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Labor migration from Asia mainly after 1750
    24. 24. 25 Major Global Migrations Europeans overseas including Siberia 1820-1930 55-60,000,000 Africans to the Americas 1811-1870 1,900,000 Asians overseas 1850-1920 2,500,000
    25. 25. Migrations, 1700-1940 • Source: Patrick Manning, Migration in World History (New York: Routledge, 2005), 146 • Note: Boxes show millions of departures; circles show arrivals • Africans (1650-1940), Europeans (1840-1940), Indians (1840-1940), Chinese (1840-1940)
    26. 26. What surprises you? What challenges your understanding? What do you think explains such movement? What would you expect happened to enable such shifts in population?
    27. 27. Consider changes in cities …
    28. 28. 29 Growth of the Population of Boston 1690 - 7,000 1790 - 18,038 1900 - 560,892 158% 3,010%
    29. 29. 30 Growth of the Population of Detroit 1870 – 79,577 1900 – 265,000 1930 -1,500,000 233% 466%
    30. 30. Most Populous Cities, 1500 Name Population 1 Beijing, China 672,000 2 Vijayanagar, India 500,000 3 Cairo, Egypt 400,000 4 Hangzhou, China 250,000 5 Tabriz, Iran 250,000 6 Constantinople (Istanbul), Turkey 200,000 7 Gaur, India 200,000 8 Paris, France 185,000 9 Guangzhou, China 150,000 10 Nanjing, China 147,000
    31. 31. Most Populous Cities, 1800 Name Population 1 Beijing, China 1,100,000 2 London, United Kingdom 861,000 3 Guangzhou, China 800,000 4 Edo (Tokyo), Japan 685,000 5 Constantinople (Istanbul), Turkey 570,000 6 Paris, France 547,000 7 Naples, Italy 430,000 8 Hangzhou, China 387,000 9 Osaka, Japan 383,000 10 Kyoto, Japan 377,000
    32. 32. Most Populous Cities, 1900 Name Population 1 London, United Kingdom 6,480,000 2 New York, United States 4,242,000 3 Paris, France 3,330,000 4 Berlin, Germany 2,707,000 5 Chicago, United States 1,717,000 6 Vienna, Austria 1,698,000 7 Tokyo, Japan 1,497,000 8 St. Petersburg, Russia 1,439,000 9 Manchester, United Kingdom 1,435,000 10 Philadelphia, United States 1,418,000
    33. 33. What surprises you? What challenges your understanding? What do you think explains such movement? What would you expect happened to enable such shifts in population?
    34. 34. Fact 2: Consider changes in wealth and power …
    35. 35. 36 $0.00 $500,000.00 $1,000,000.00 $1,500,000.00 $2,000,000.00 $2,500,000.00 $3,000,000.00 1700 1820 1870 1913 The Modern Revolution meant powerful economic growth in the world as a whole. World Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Dollars as valued in 1990
    36. 36. Estimated World Income, 1000 BCE-2000 CE (Per Capita) Source: Gregory Clark, A Farewell to Alms a Brief Economic History of the World (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007), 2
    37. 37. 38 Powerful, but not equal. The countries which modernized first used it to their advantage.
    38. 38. 39 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 1700 1820 1870 1913 Eur./N.A Asia Percentage of World GDP Western Europe and North America vs. Asia The Modern Revolution shifted the world’s economic center.
    39. 39. Share of World GDP 1700-1890
    40. 40. Share of Manufacturing Output, 1750-1900
    41. 41. Real Wages, English Laborers 1209-1809 Source: Gregory Clark, A Farewell to Alms a Brief Economic History of the World (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007), 41
    42. 42. Real Income in England 1260-2000 Source: Gregory Clark, A Farewell to Alms a Brief Economic History of the World (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007), 195
    43. 43. Comparative Income Per Capita,1800-2000 Source: Gregory Clark, A Farewell to Alms a Brief Economic History of the World (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007), 321
    44. 44. What surprises you? What challenges your understanding? What do you think explains such changes?
    45. 45. 46 But a growing population meant that human need for resources—for energy—was growing, too. And humans dealt with this need by using fossil fuels. Watch!
    46. 46. 47 5 watts Small wax candle, 800 BCE
    47. 47. 48 Parson’s turbine, 1884 CE 100,000 watts
    48. 48. 49 Fact 3: The Fossil Fuel Revolution The biological old regime ends when vast new sources of energy come into use: Coal Electricity Gas Petroleum Nuclear
    49. 49. 50 By taking energy from fossil fuels like coal instead of biomass like wood…
    50. 50. 52 and with better and better steam engines to harness coal’s energy…
    51. 51. 53 Power loom weaving Lancashire, 1835 People could produce more efficiently.
    52. 52. 54 In Britain coal mines were close to factories and cities. In China coal mines were far from factories and cities. How might history have been different if Britain’s coal mines had been located, say, in the Carpathian Mountains of southeastern Europe.?
    53. 53. 56 Robert Fulton’s Clermont steamship 1807 And travel more quickly.
    54. 54. 57 George Stephenson’s “Rocket” steam locomotive 1829 And travel more quickly
    55. 55. 58 The increasing power of steam engines in Era Seven
    56. 56. 59 The Industrial Revolution Fossil fuel energy in production and transportation
    57. 57. 60 The Industrial Revolution allowed for new global economic relationships.
    58. 58. 61 Cotton exports from agrarian economies to industrial economies Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2002 © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
    59. 59. 62 Textile exports from industrial to agrarian economies Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2002 © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
    60. 60. 63 Old limits on how much energy people could use were gone! And in Era Six people tore down other limits too…
    61. 61. 64 Sounds great! But what did governments need to do to make these ideas work? Fact 4: New economic ideas • People should be able to buy and sell land freely. • People should be able to buy and sell labor freely. • People should be able to buy and sell goods freely.
    62. 62. 65 Improve public health. Build railroads, ports, and telegraphs. Standardize weights and measures.
    63. 63. 66 Antiseptic medicine 1867 Transcontinental railroad 1869 Metric system 1790
    64. 64. 67 In Era Six, government played a greater role than ever before in people’s lives. And while that happened, people’s ideas about government changed, too!
    65. 65. 68 People moved more quickly. Ideas moved more quickly.
    66. 66. 69 RailroadSteamboat Transatlantic cableNewspaper Fact 5: The Communication Revolution
    67. 67. 70 The Speed Revolution One hour of optimum travel:  Walking - 5 km  Horse-drawn coach - 10 km  Railway locomotive (1847) - 96 km  Normannia steamship (1890) - 40 km  French rapid train - 297 km  Jet plane - 1000 km
    68. 68. 71 Railway Development in Europe ⇐1840 ⇐1850
    69. 69. 72 Railway Development in Europe 1880
    70. 70. 73 Railway Construction in India 1853-1931
    71. 71. 74 India, 1877 After the Modern Revolution, much more food went on the world market…
    72. 72. 75 India, 1877 … and it was often shipped to where it got the highest price,
    73. 73. 76 not to where it was needed most.
    74. 74. 77 And industrial technology could be used not only to create, but to destroy.
    75. 75. 78 And more of the world was colonized than ever before.
    76. 76. 79 Battle of Omdurman, Sudan, 1898 Sudanese dead, 10,000 British dead, 48
    77. 77. 80 Fact 6: The European Moment Land surface of the world controlled by Europeans: •1800 35% •1878 67% •1914 84% But . . . duration of European world domination in the past 2000 years: 80 yrs
    78. 78. 81 Modernize the army. Modernize the economy. Maintain independence. Russia Mexico JapanEgypt
    79. 79. 82 People who traveled to learn about one part of the Modern Revolution, like fossil fuels,….
    80. 80. 83 also learned about the democratic part of the Modern Revolution.
    81. 81. 84 And they didn’t keep the ideas to themselves. They communicated them, because it was all part of the package.
    82. 82. What surprises you? What challenges your understanding? What scale have we been working? Might you use any of this with students? How?
    83. 83. Fact 7: Consider changes in social situations …
    84. 84. Comparative Activity • Through history, children had always labored. Yet, today child labor is outlawed, or severely outlawed in many countries in the world. • When did this happen? Where did it happen? • Why then? Why there? • Why do you think child labor would become a public issue when it did?
    85. 85. Comparative Activity • Use the following documents to develop a theory about restrictions on child labor, particularly their timing and location. • That is, if children had always labored in history, where were some places that were outlawing or restricting child labor? Why there? Why then?
    86. 86. Age of Workers in England
    87. 87. Sadler Commission, 1832
    88. 88. Japanese Commission, 1906
    89. 89. Japanese Labor
    90. 90. Japanese Factory Act, 1911
    91. 91. British Factory Acts, 1833
    92. 92. Return to A Thought Experiment We Considered Last Time Think of how early 20th century industrialism might look at: • Local level (Detroit area) • Mid-regional level (Midwest) • National level (U.S.A.) • Hemispheric level (Western) • Global • What changes at each of these levels? • What details are added or removed? • How are they connected (nested)? • At what level does this topic become world history?
    93. 93. The Industrial Revolution as a Global Event • How did life change between 1700 and 1914? • What explains the changes? What are plausible, though possibly competing, explanations? • Evaluate the merits of arguments holding that changes in Europe’s relative strength in the world was byproduct of factors “internal” to Europe or “external” Europe.
    94. 94. Michigan's Content Expectations • Use Era 6 as an example of how to organize your courses • Identify the CEs that pertain to Industrialism and the Industrial Revolution (circle relevant ones) • Ask what are the key ideas or concepts? • Think about: - how you would teach these - materials you would use use (i.e. how would you use your school’s textbook?) Then design your courses accordingly Write around and discussion next!
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