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Urban Geography <ul><li>Spatial development of towns/cities </li></ul><ul><li>Variations between cities </li></ul><ul><li>...
Urbanism <ul><li>Way of life </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes/values </li></ul><ul><li>Patterns of behavior </li></ul>
<ul><li>“ Oldest” City: </li></ul><ul><li>Jericho, Israel </li></ul><ul><li>Dates back to 10,000 BC – or earlier! </li></u...
Oldest Continuously Inhabited City Damascus, Syria (8,000-10,000 BC)
Architecture and Place
European Urban History <ul><li>Greeks (750 – 490 BC) </li></ul><ul><li>Romans (~100 BC – 600 AD) </li></ul><ul><li>Medieva...
Ancient Greece, 750 to 490 BC Athens
The Roman Empire (~100 BC to 600 AD)
Parthenon Oracle at Delphi Classical Architecture from the Greeks and Romans Arches And Columns
The Forum (Rome)
The Coliseum (Rome)
Roman Aqueduct (Segovia, Spain)
Roman Bridge (Salamanca, Spain)
The Medieval City in Europe  (450 to 1300) <ul><li>Centered on Catholic Church </li></ul><ul><li>Defensive /Control struct...
<ul><li>Medieval City Layout </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow, twisty streets </li></ul><ul><li>Buildings close together </li></ul...
Medieval Cities (Castles) Toledo, Spain
Tower of London
Neuschwanstein, Germany
Quebec City? (only walled city in North America Very Old!)
Gothic Architecture (Began in 12 th  Century) <ul><li>Often used for churches (Catholic) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Flying Buttre...
Notre Dame (Paris)
Westminster Abbey (London)
Mercantile  ( Trade)  Cities (1400’s-1600’s) <ul><li>Port cities / Major Route Cities (coastal / on river) </li></ul><ul><...
Radial Patterned Cities Paris Arc de Triomphe
Paris
<ul><li>Crazy!  Obnoxious! </li></ul><ul><li>Straight lines become curved </li></ul><ul><li>HIGHLY ornamented </li></ul><u...
Venice, Italy
Seville, Spain
St. Peter’s Cathedral, Vatican City
Antwerp, Belgium
Colonial City <ul><li>A city founded / claimed beyond the existing borders of a colonial power for  Three Reasons: </li></...
Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic Oldest Colonial City in the Americas
Hong Kong Owned by the United Kingdom (now China) until 1997 New Flag Old Flag
Boston
<ul><li>Most Major American Cities </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial Revolution: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steel  </li></ul></ul><u...
 
Erie Canal Illinois and Michigan Canal <ul><li>Canals acted like highways </li></ul><ul><li>Created direct shipping </li><...
U.S. Railroads and Canals 1870
Chicago = Transportation
Grid Pattern  Radial Pattern (U.S.)     (Europe)
Washington D.C. Both Grid   AND   Radial Pattern!
Modernism <ul><li>Reflection of: </li></ul><ul><li>Automobile-based society  </li></ul><ul><li>Industrialization </li></ul...
Modernist Architecture <ul><li>“ Function over Form” =  Functionalism </li></ul><ul><li>Simple, less adornment </li></ul><...
Cleveland, Ohio Modernist Not Modernist
Communist  Architecture <ul><li>Square-shaped </li></ul><ul><li>No adornments </li></ul><ul><li>Functional </li></ul><ul><...
Modernist Homes <ul><li>Horizontally Oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Unadorned </li></ul><ul><li>Squarish </li></ul><ul><li>Fra...
Suburbanization <ul><li>Modernist / Function over form </li></ul><ul><li>City conveniences without the city </li></ul><ul>...
Conflict: Urban Sprawl vs. the Environment <ul><li>Encroachment into Wilderness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Animal conflicts <...
The American City (Models) <ul><li>Three Major Models </li></ul><ul><li>Sector Model </li></ul><ul><li>Concentric Ring Mod...
Sector Model <ul><li>Sectors / population built along  transportation  lines (rail, river, road) </li></ul>Detroit: Popula...
<ul><li>Population “rings” expand throughout time (newest residential neighborhoods are furthest out) </li></ul><ul><li>Ne...
Multiple Nuclei Model <ul><li>No CBD </li></ul><ul><li>Many smaller business districts scattered throughout city </li></ul...
Cities of the World
Urban Growth <ul><li>Although Tokyo is the largest city in the world today, the fastest growing  “megacities”  in the worl...
xxxxxx Number of Core Cities in Top 30 1950  21 1980  11 2010   5
World Urban Dwellers
Urban Percentage of Population
Urban Growth Rates 4/5 growth in Periphery; 50% under poverty line
Primate Cities <ul><li>Many of the world’s largest cities are Primate Cities </li></ul><ul><li>Center of government (capit...
Gateway City <ul><li>El Paso  (U.S-Mexico) </li></ul><ul><li>Buffalo  (U.S.-Canada) </li></ul><ul><li>Hong Kong  (China-Wo...
“ World” Cities <ul><li>Disproportionate share  </li></ul><ul><li>of global, cultural, and financial influence </li></ul><...
World Cities 3 Centers in Tripolar Economy: New York, London, Tokyo
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Cities 11 Urban Geography 111

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Cities and urban geography

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Transcript of "Cities 11 Urban Geography 111"

  1. 1. Urban Geography <ul><li>Spatial development of towns/cities </li></ul><ul><li>Variations between cities </li></ul><ul><li>Variations within cities </li></ul>
  2. 2. Urbanism <ul><li>Way of life </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes/values </li></ul><ul><li>Patterns of behavior </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>“ Oldest” City: </li></ul><ul><li>Jericho, Israel </li></ul><ul><li>Dates back to 10,000 BC – or earlier! </li></ul><ul><li>Went through several periods of destruction </li></ul><ul><li>Many cities in Middle East, China, Andes, Mexico, also quite old—depends on latest findings </li></ul>
  4. 4. Oldest Continuously Inhabited City Damascus, Syria (8,000-10,000 BC)
  5. 5. Architecture and Place
  6. 6. European Urban History <ul><li>Greeks (750 – 490 BC) </li></ul><ul><li>Romans (~100 BC – 600 AD) </li></ul><ul><li>Medieval Cities (450 – 1300 AD) </li></ul><ul><li>Mercantile Cities (1400 – present) </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial Cities (1498-1850) </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation Cities (1800 – present) </li></ul><ul><li>Modernism (1950 – present) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Ancient Greece, 750 to 490 BC Athens
  8. 8. The Roman Empire (~100 BC to 600 AD)
  9. 9. Parthenon Oracle at Delphi Classical Architecture from the Greeks and Romans Arches And Columns
  10. 10. The Forum (Rome)
  11. 11. The Coliseum (Rome)
  12. 12. Roman Aqueduct (Segovia, Spain)
  13. 13. Roman Bridge (Salamanca, Spain)
  14. 14. The Medieval City in Europe (450 to 1300) <ul><li>Centered on Catholic Church </li></ul><ul><li>Defensive /Control structures: walls, turrets </li></ul><ul><li>Symbol of power </li></ul><ul><li>Cities unable to grow (walled in) </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Medieval City Layout </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow, twisty streets </li></ul><ul><li>Buildings close together </li></ul><ul><li>Walled city (high pop density) </li></ul><ul><li>Boulevard around wall </li></ul><ul><li>Poor live </li></ul><ul><li>outside city wall </li></ul><ul><li>Located on water source </li></ul><ul><li>Metes and Bounds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Streets drawn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>from point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not continuous </li></ul></ul>Vienna, Austria
  16. 16. Medieval Cities (Castles) Toledo, Spain
  17. 17. Tower of London
  18. 18. Neuschwanstein, Germany
  19. 19. Quebec City? (only walled city in North America Very Old!)
  20. 20. Gothic Architecture (Began in 12 th Century) <ul><li>Often used for churches (Catholic) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Flying Buttresses” </li></ul><ul><li>Pointed Arches </li></ul><ul><li>Huge Stained Glass Window(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Cluster Columns </li></ul><ul><li>“ Skeletal” looking </li></ul><ul><li>Often in shape of cross from bird’s eye view </li></ul>
  21. 21. Notre Dame (Paris)
  22. 22. Westminster Abbey (London)
  23. 23. Mercantile ( Trade) Cities (1400’s-1600’s) <ul><li>Port cities / Major Route Cities (coastal / on river) </li></ul><ul><li>Reflective of exploration interests </li></ul><ul><li>Many medieval cities / city-states grew due to… </li></ul><ul><li>TRADE! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Venice, Genoa, Pisa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antwerp, Rotterdam, Amsterdam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marseilles, Paris, Seville </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>London, Lisbon, Hamburg, Many others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Development of centralized trade centers in city </li></ul><ul><li>Radial street pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Baroque Architecture </li></ul>
  24. 24. Radial Patterned Cities Paris Arc de Triomphe
  25. 25. Paris
  26. 26. <ul><li>Crazy! Obnoxious! </li></ul><ul><li>Straight lines become curved </li></ul><ul><li>HIGHLY ornamented </li></ul><ul><li>Ornate carvings, sculptures, entryways </li></ul><ul><li>Often c o l o r f u l </li></ul>Baroque Architecture Baroque church near Moscow Baroque Monastery in Ecuador
  27. 27. Venice, Italy
  28. 28. Seville, Spain
  29. 29. St. Peter’s Cathedral, Vatican City
  30. 30. Antwerp, Belgium
  31. 31. Colonial City <ul><li>A city founded / claimed beyond the existing borders of a colonial power for Three Reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>Colonization = Land </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial = Trade (often a port) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific resource: coffee, gold, cacao, sugar, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Administrative = Political </li></ul><ul><li>Americas, Asia, Africa—usually founded on coast (ocean) </li></ul>
  32. 32. Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic Oldest Colonial City in the Americas
  33. 33. Hong Kong Owned by the United Kingdom (now China) until 1997 New Flag Old Flag
  34. 34. Boston
  35. 35. <ul><li>Most Major American Cities </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial Revolution: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steam engine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Canals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Railroads </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Power) Loom </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Cities all over the world evolved into transportation / industrial cities—even if they were established for other reasons </li></ul>Transportation City (later evolved into Industrial City: ~1800 on)
  36. 37. Erie Canal Illinois and Michigan Canal <ul><li>Canals acted like highways </li></ul><ul><li>Created direct shipping </li></ul><ul><li>routes with major cities </li></ul><ul><li>- NYC with Great Lakes </li></ul><ul><li>- Chicago with Gulf of Mexico </li></ul>
  37. 38. U.S. Railroads and Canals 1870
  38. 39. Chicago = Transportation
  39. 40. Grid Pattern Radial Pattern (U.S.) (Europe)
  40. 41. Washington D.C. Both Grid AND Radial Pattern!
  41. 42. Modernism <ul><li>Reflection of: </li></ul><ul><li>Automobile-based society </li></ul><ul><li>Industrialization </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Urban / Suburban Population </li></ul><ul><li>* Appears in all parts of the world </li></ul>
  42. 43. Modernist Architecture <ul><li>“ Function over Form” = Functionalism </li></ul><ul><li>Simple, less adornment </li></ul><ul><li>Rejection of past </li></ul><ul><li>Local: Horizontal Orientation (more land, fewer people) </li></ul><ul><li>Urban: Vertical Orientation (less land, more people) </li></ul>Tampa, FL
  43. 44. Cleveland, Ohio Modernist Not Modernist
  44. 45. Communist Architecture <ul><li>Square-shaped </li></ul><ul><li>No adornments </li></ul><ul><li>Functional </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely modernist </li></ul>
  45. 46. Modernist Homes <ul><li>Horizontally Oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Unadorned </li></ul><ul><li>Squarish </li></ul><ul><li>Frank Lloyd Wright-esque </li></ul><ul><li>More suburban than urban </li></ul>
  46. 47. Suburbanization <ul><li>Modernist / Function over form </li></ul><ul><li>City conveniences without the city </li></ul><ul><li>Began after WWII (mass production, cars) </li></ul><ul><li>Automobile dependent (shopping, banking, school, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Led to the decline of the city </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of “neighborhood” / community </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of private ownership (i.e. “Mom and Pop shop”) to corporate chains </li></ul>
  47. 48. Conflict: Urban Sprawl vs. the Environment <ul><li>Encroachment into Wilderness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Animal conflicts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants conflicts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental Impacts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Pollution / Depletion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overwatering of land (Las Vegas grass ban) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Golf courses: chemicals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Depletion of aquifers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wetland / natural habitat destruction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smog / Pollutants from vehicle emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of exercise (car) </li></ul></ul>
  48. 49. The American City (Models) <ul><li>Three Major Models </li></ul><ul><li>Sector Model </li></ul><ul><li>Concentric Ring Model </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple Nuclei Model </li></ul><ul><li>Three Major Districts in a City </li></ul><ul><li>CBD (Central Business District) </li></ul><ul><li>Warehouse (Industrial) District </li></ul><ul><li>Residential Districts </li></ul>
  49. 50. Sector Model <ul><li>Sectors / population built along transportation lines (rail, river, road) </li></ul>Detroit: Population along railways CBD
  50. 51. <ul><li>Population “rings” expand throughout time (newest residential neighborhoods are furthest out) </li></ul><ul><li>New neighborhoods may precede transportation routes </li></ul><ul><li>Expands “equally” in all directions </li></ul>Concentric Ring Model Chicago CBD
  51. 52. Multiple Nuclei Model <ul><li>No CBD </li></ul><ul><li>Many smaller business districts scattered throughout city </li></ul>Los Angeles Downtown
  52. 53. Cities of the World
  53. 54. Urban Growth <ul><li>Although Tokyo is the largest city in the world today, the fastest growing “megacities” in the world are in the periphery or semi-periphery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bombay, India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lagos, Nigeria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dubai </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sao Paolo, Brazil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mexico City, Mexico </li></ul></ul>Bombay, India
  54. 55. xxxxxx Number of Core Cities in Top 30 1950 21 1980 11 2010 5
  55. 56. World Urban Dwellers
  56. 57. Urban Percentage of Population
  57. 58. Urban Growth Rates 4/5 growth in Periphery; 50% under poverty line
  58. 59. Primate Cities <ul><li>Many of the world’s largest cities are Primate Cities </li></ul><ul><li>Center of government (capital), culture, economy— EVERYTHING! </li></ul><ul><li>MUCH larger than any other city within the country </li></ul><ul><li>Primate City Pop #2 City Pop </li></ul><ul><li>London 7.6 Birmingham 2.3 </li></ul><ul><li>Paris 9.6 Marseilles .8 </li></ul><ul><li>Vienna 2.0 Graz .3 </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico City 18.1 Guadalajara 4.6 </li></ul><ul><li>Jakarta 9.8 Surabaya 3.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Tokyo 28.0 Yokohama 3.5 </li></ul>
  59. 60. Gateway City <ul><li>El Paso (U.S-Mexico) </li></ul><ul><li>Buffalo (U.S.-Canada) </li></ul><ul><li>Hong Kong (China-World) </li></ul><ul><li>Tangier (Africa-Europe) </li></ul><ul><li>St. Petersburg </li></ul><ul><li>(Russia-Rest of Europe) </li></ul>Link (door) to another country or region because of location
  60. 61. “ World” Cities <ul><li>Disproportionate share </li></ul><ul><li>of global, cultural, and financial influence </li></ul><ul><li>“ Where world’s </li></ul><ul><li>business is done” </li></ul><ul><li>Centers of world’s three largest economies: </li></ul><ul><li>U.S., Europe, Asia </li></ul>
  61. 62. World Cities 3 Centers in Tripolar Economy: New York, London, Tokyo
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