Cities 11 Urban Geography 111
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Transcript

  • 1. Urban Geography
    • Spatial development of towns/cities
    • Variations between cities
    • Variations within cities
  • 2. Urbanism
    • Way of life
    • Attitudes/values
    • Patterns of behavior
  • 3.
    • “ Oldest” City:
    • Jericho, Israel
    • Dates back to 10,000 BC – or earlier!
    • Went through several periods of destruction
    • Many cities in Middle East, China, Andes, Mexico, also quite old—depends on latest findings
  • 4. Oldest Continuously Inhabited City Damascus, Syria (8,000-10,000 BC)
  • 5. Architecture and Place
  • 6. European Urban History
    • Greeks (750 – 490 BC)
    • Romans (~100 BC – 600 AD)
    • Medieval Cities (450 – 1300 AD)
    • Mercantile Cities (1400 – present)
    • Colonial Cities (1498-1850)
    • Transportation Cities (1800 – present)
    • Modernism (1950 – present)
  • 7. Ancient Greece, 750 to 490 BC Athens
  • 8. The Roman Empire (~100 BC to 600 AD)
  • 9. Parthenon Oracle at Delphi Classical Architecture from the Greeks and Romans Arches And Columns
  • 10. The Forum (Rome)
  • 11. The Coliseum (Rome)
  • 12. Roman Aqueduct (Segovia, Spain)
  • 13. Roman Bridge (Salamanca, Spain)
  • 14. The Medieval City in Europe (450 to 1300)
    • Centered on Catholic Church
    • Defensive /Control structures: walls, turrets
    • Symbol of power
    • Cities unable to grow (walled in)
  • 15.
    • Medieval City Layout
    • Narrow, twisty streets
    • Buildings close together
    • Walled city (high pop density)
    • Boulevard around wall
    • Poor live
    • outside city wall
    • Located on water source
    • Metes and Bounds
      • Streets drawn
      • from point
      • to point
      • Not continuous
    Vienna, Austria
  • 16. Medieval Cities (Castles) Toledo, Spain
  • 17. Tower of London
  • 18. Neuschwanstein, Germany
  • 19. Quebec City? (only walled city in North America Very Old!)
  • 20. Gothic Architecture (Began in 12 th Century)
    • Often used for churches (Catholic)
    • “ Flying Buttresses”
    • Pointed Arches
    • Huge Stained Glass Window(s)
    • Cluster Columns
    • “ Skeletal” looking
    • Often in shape of cross from bird’s eye view
  • 21. Notre Dame (Paris)
  • 22. Westminster Abbey (London)
  • 23. Mercantile ( Trade) Cities (1400’s-1600’s)
    • Port cities / Major Route Cities (coastal / on river)
    • Reflective of exploration interests
    • Many medieval cities / city-states grew due to…
    • TRADE!
      • Venice, Genoa, Pisa
      • Antwerp, Rotterdam, Amsterdam
      • Marseilles, Paris, Seville
      • London, Lisbon, Hamburg, Many others
    • Development of centralized trade centers in city
    • Radial street pattern
    • Baroque Architecture
  • 24. Radial Patterned Cities Paris Arc de Triomphe
  • 25. Paris
  • 26.
    • Crazy! Obnoxious!
    • Straight lines become curved
    • HIGHLY ornamented
    • Ornate carvings, sculptures, entryways
    • Often c o l o r f u l
    Baroque Architecture Baroque church near Moscow Baroque Monastery in Ecuador
  • 27. Venice, Italy
  • 28. Seville, Spain
  • 29. St. Peter’s Cathedral, Vatican City
  • 30. Antwerp, Belgium
  • 31. Colonial City
    • A city founded / claimed beyond the existing borders of a colonial power for Three Reasons:
    • Colonization = Land
    • Commercial = Trade (often a port)
      • Specific resource: coffee, gold, cacao, sugar, etc.
    • Administrative = Political
    • Americas, Asia, Africa—usually founded on coast (ocean)
  • 32. Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic Oldest Colonial City in the Americas
  • 33. Hong Kong Owned by the United Kingdom (now China) until 1997 New Flag Old Flag
  • 34. Boston
  • 35.
    • Most Major American Cities
    • Industrial Revolution:
      • Steel
      • Steam engine
        • Canals
        • Railroads
        • (Power) Loom
    • Cities all over the world evolved into transportation / industrial cities—even if they were established for other reasons
    Transportation City (later evolved into Industrial City: ~1800 on)
  • 36.  
  • 37. Erie Canal Illinois and Michigan Canal
    • Canals acted like highways
    • Created direct shipping
    • routes with major cities
    • - NYC with Great Lakes
    • - Chicago with Gulf of Mexico
  • 38. U.S. Railroads and Canals 1870
  • 39. Chicago = Transportation
  • 40. Grid Pattern Radial Pattern (U.S.) (Europe)
  • 41. Washington D.C. Both Grid AND Radial Pattern!
  • 42. Modernism
    • Reflection of:
    • Automobile-based society
    • Industrialization
    • Increased Urban / Suburban Population
    • * Appears in all parts of the world
  • 43. Modernist Architecture
    • “ Function over Form” = Functionalism
    • Simple, less adornment
    • Rejection of past
    • Local: Horizontal Orientation (more land, fewer people)
    • Urban: Vertical Orientation (less land, more people)
    Tampa, FL
  • 44. Cleveland, Ohio Modernist Not Modernist
  • 45. Communist Architecture
    • Square-shaped
    • No adornments
    • Functional
    • Extremely modernist
  • 46. Modernist Homes
    • Horizontally Oriented
    • Unadorned
    • Squarish
    • Frank Lloyd Wright-esque
    • More suburban than urban
  • 47. Suburbanization
    • Modernist / Function over form
    • City conveniences without the city
    • Began after WWII (mass production, cars)
    • Automobile dependent (shopping, banking, school, etc.)
    • Led to the decline of the city
    • Loss of “neighborhood” / community
    • Loss of private ownership (i.e. “Mom and Pop shop”) to corporate chains
  • 48. Conflict: Urban Sprawl vs. the Environment
    • Encroachment into Wilderness
      • - Animal conflicts
      • Plants conflicts
    • Environmental Impacts
      • Water Pollution / Depletion
        • Overwatering of land (Las Vegas grass ban)
        • Golf courses: chemicals
        • Depletion of aquifers
        • Wetland / natural habitat destruction
      • Smog / Pollutants from vehicle emissions
      • Lack of exercise (car)
  • 49. The American City (Models)
    • Three Major Models
    • Sector Model
    • Concentric Ring Model
    • Multiple Nuclei Model
    • Three Major Districts in a City
    • CBD (Central Business District)
    • Warehouse (Industrial) District
    • Residential Districts
  • 50. Sector Model
    • Sectors / population built along transportation lines (rail, river, road)
    Detroit: Population along railways CBD
  • 51.
    • Population “rings” expand throughout time (newest residential neighborhoods are furthest out)
    • New neighborhoods may precede transportation routes
    • Expands “equally” in all directions
    Concentric Ring Model Chicago CBD
  • 52. Multiple Nuclei Model
    • No CBD
    • Many smaller business districts scattered throughout city
    Los Angeles Downtown
  • 53. Cities of the World
  • 54. Urban Growth
    • Although Tokyo is the largest city in the world today, the fastest growing “megacities” in the world are in the periphery or semi-periphery
      • Bombay, India
      • Lagos, Nigeria
      • Dubai
      • Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
      • Sao Paolo, Brazil
      • Mexico City, Mexico
    Bombay, India
  • 55. xxxxxx Number of Core Cities in Top 30 1950 21 1980 11 2010 5
  • 56. World Urban Dwellers
  • 57. Urban Percentage of Population
  • 58. Urban Growth Rates 4/5 growth in Periphery; 50% under poverty line
  • 59. Primate Cities
    • Many of the world’s largest cities are Primate Cities
    • Center of government (capital), culture, economy— EVERYTHING!
    • MUCH larger than any other city within the country
    • Primate City Pop #2 City Pop
    • London 7.6 Birmingham 2.3
    • Paris 9.6 Marseilles .8
    • Vienna 2.0 Graz .3
    • Mexico City 18.1 Guadalajara 4.6
    • Jakarta 9.8 Surabaya 3.0
    • Tokyo 28.0 Yokohama 3.5
  • 60. Gateway City
    • El Paso (U.S-Mexico)
    • Buffalo (U.S.-Canada)
    • Hong Kong (China-World)
    • Tangier (Africa-Europe)
    • St. Petersburg
    • (Russia-Rest of Europe)
    Link (door) to another country or region because of location
  • 61. “ World” Cities
    • Disproportionate share
    • of global, cultural, and financial influence
    • “ Where world’s
    • business is done”
    • Centers of world’s three largest economies:
    • U.S., Europe, Asia
  • 62. World Cities 3 Centers in Tripolar Economy: New York, London, Tokyo