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Sun • The Sun is one out of billions of stars. The Sun is the closest star to Earth. The Sun rotates once every 27 days. The Sun is now a middle-aged star, meaning it is at about the middle of its life. The Sun formed over four and a half billion years ago. The Sun is only one of over 100 billion stars. In ancient times, the people believed the Sun was a burning ball of fire created by the gods. Later, people thought it was a solid object, or a liquid ball. Over one million Earths could fit inside the Sun. Looking directly at the Sun can permanently damage your eyes because it is so bright. A star mostly gives off light and heat. The larger the star, the hotter its temperature. A superLayout by orngjce223, CC-BY giant star can get to be 400 times larger than our Sun, which is almost a million miles in diameter. •
Mercury • Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun and the eighth largest. Mercury is smaller in diameter than Ganymede and Titan but more massive. In Roman mythology Mercury is the god of commerce, travel and thievery, the Roman counterpart of the Greek god Hermes, the messenger of the Gods. The planet probably received this name because it moves so quickly across the sky.Layout by orngjce223, CC-BY
Venus • Venus is named for the ancient Roman goddess of love and beauty. The planet — the only planet named after a female — may have been named for the most beautiful deity of her pantheon because it shone the brightest of the five planets known to ancient astronomers. Although Venus is not the planet closest to the sun, its dense atmosphere traps heat in a runaway version of the greenhouse effect that warms up the Earth. As a result, temperatures on Venus reach 870 degrees.Layout by orngjce223, CC-BY
Earth • Our planet is an oasis of life in an otherwise desolate universe. The Earths temperature, weather, atmosphere and many other factors are just right to keep us alive.Layout by orngjce223, CC-BY
Luna(moon) • Luna is a beautiful world that lies some 384,400 kilometers (almost 239,000 miles) from Earth. It is littered with mountains, valleys, old volcano sites, and many bowl- like holes called craters. Luna is a neat world to explore because you can see it without a telescope or binoculars. I know you have seen it. In fact, you may even see it tonight, that is because Luna is ourLayout by orngjce223, CC-BY moon.
eclipse An eclipse is an astronomical event that occurs when an astronomical object is temporarily obscured, either by passing into the shadow of another body or by having another body pass between it and the viewer. An eclipse is a type of syzygy.The term eclipse is most often used to describe either a solar eclipse, when the Moons shadow crosses the Earths surface, or a lunar eclipse, when the Moon moves into the Earths shadow. However, it can also refer to such events beyond the Earth-Moon system: for example, a planet moving into the shadow cast by one of its moons, a moon passing into the shadow cast by its host planet, or a moonLayout by orngjce223, CC-BY passing into the shadow of another moon. A binary star system can also produce eclipses if the plane of the orbit of its constituent stars intersects the observers position.
Mars Mars (Greek: Ares) is the god of War. The planet probably got this name due to its red color. Mars is sometimes referred to as the Red Planet.e first spacecraft to visit Mars was Mariner 4 in 1965. Several others followed including Mars 2, the first spacecraft to land on Mars and the two Viking landers in 1976. Ending a long 20 year hiatus, Mars Pathfinder landed successfully on Mars on 1997 July 4. In 2004 the Mars Expedition Rovers "Spirit" and "Opportunity" landed on Mars sending backLayout by orngjce223, CC-BY geologic data and many pictures; they are still operating after more than three years on Mars. In 2008, Phoenix landed in the northern plains to search for water.
Jupiter The planets swirling cloud stripes are punctuated by massive storms such as the Great Red Spot, which has raged for hundreds of years.Jupiter is the fourth brightest object in the sky (after the Sun, the Moon and Venus). It has been known since prehistoric times as a bright "wandering star". But in 1610 when Galileo first pointed a telescope at the sky he discovered Jupiters four large moons Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto (now known as the Galilean moons) and recorded their motions back and forth around Jupiter.Jupiter is about 90% hydrogen and 10% helium (by numbers of atoms, 75/25% byLayout by orngjce223, CC-BY mass) with traces of methane, water, ammonia and "rock". Jupiter probably has a core of rocky material amounting to something like 10 to 15 Earth- masses.
Jupiter Jupiter has 63 known satellites (as of Feb 2004): the four large Galilean moons plus many more small ones some of which have not yet been named. Jupiter radiates more energy into space than it receives from the Sun. The interior of Jupiter is hot: the core is probably about 20,000 K. The heat is generated by the Kelvin-Helmholtz mechanism, the slow gravitational compression of the planet. (Jupiter does NOT produce energy by nuclear fusion as in the Sun; it is much too small and hence its interior is too cool to ignite nuclear reactions.)Jupiter is the fourth brightest object in the sky (after the Sun, the Moon and Venus). It has been known since prehistoric times as a bright "wandering star". But in 1610 when Galileo first pointed a telescope at the sky he discovered Jupiters four large moons Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto (now known as the Galilean moons) and recorded their motions back and forth around Jupiter.The red spot, a 40,000 km storm system, has been raging for over 300 years.Layout by orngjce223, CC-BY
Saturn In Roman mythology, Saturn is the god of agriculture. The associated Greek god, Cronus, was the son of Uranus and Gaia and the father of Zeus (Jupiter). Saturn is the root of the English word "Saturday”.Like Jupiter, Saturn is about 75% hydrogen and 25% helium with traces of water, methane, ammonia and "rock", similar to the composition of the primordial Solar Nebula from which the solar system was formed.Layout by orngjce223, CC-BY Saturns interior is similar to Jupiters consisting of a rocky core, a liquid metallic hydrogen layer and a molecular hydrogen layer. Traces of various ices are also present.
Uranus us, the first planet discovered in modern times, was discovered by William Herschel while systematically searching the sky with his telescope on March 13, 1781. It had actually been seen many times before but ignored as simply another star (the earliest recorded sighting was in 1690 when John Flamsteed cataloged it as 34 Tauri). Herschel named it "the Georgium Sidus" (the Georgian Planet) in honor of his patron, the infamous (to Americans) King George III of England; others called it "Herschel". The name "Uranus" was first proposed by Bode in conformity with the other planetary names fromLayout by orngjce223, CC-BY classical mythology but didnt come into common use until 1850. Uranus has been visited by only one spacecraft, Voyager 2 on Jan 24 1986.
Neptune In Roman mythology Neptune (Greek: Poseidon) was the god of the Sea.Neptune has been visited by only one spacecraft, Voyager 2 on Aug 25 1989. Much of we know about Neptune comes from this single encounter. But fortunately, recent ground- based and HST observations have added a great deal, too.Neptunes composition is probably similar to Uranus: various "ices" and rock with about 15% hydrogen and a little helium. Like Uranus, but unlike Jupiter and Saturn, it may not have a distinct internal layering but rather to be more or less uniform in composition. But there is most likely a small core (about the mass of the Earth) of rocky material. Its atmosphere is mostly hydrogen and helium with a small amount of methane.Layout by orngjce223, CC-BY
Pluto In Roman mythology, Pluto (Greek: Hades) is the god of the underworld. The planet received this name (after many other suggestions) perhaps because its so far from the Sun that it is in perpetual darkness and perhaps because "PL" are the initials of Percival Lowell.Layout by orngjce223, CC-BY Pluto was discovered in 1930 by a fortunate accident. Calculations which later turned out to be in error had predicted a planet beyond Neptune, based on the motions of Uranus and Neptune. Not knowing of the error, Clyde W. Tombaugh at Lowell Observatory in Arizona did a very careful sky survey which turned up Pluto anyway.
Big Bang • According to the theories of physics, if we were to look at the Universe one second after the Big Bang, what we would see is a 10-billion degree sea of neutrons, protons, electrons, anti-electrons (positrons), photons, and neutrinos. Then, as time went on, we would see the Universe cool, the neutrons either decaying into protons and electrons or combining withLayout by orngjce223, CC-BY protons to make deuterium (an isotope of hydrogen). As it continued to cool, it would eventually reach the temperature where electrons combined with nuclei to form neutral atoms. Before this "recombination" occurred, the Universe would have been opaque because the free electrons would have caused light (photons) to scatter the way sunlight scatters from the water droplets in clouds.
Black hole A black hole is a region of spacetime whose gravitational field is so strong that nothing which enters it, not even light, can escape. Around a black hole there is a mathematically defined surface called an event horizon that marks the point of no return. It is called "black" because it absorbs all the light that hits the horizon, reflecting nothing, just like a perfect black body in thermodynamics.Objects whose gravity field is too strong for light to escape were first considered in the 18th century by John Michell and Pierre- Simon Laplace. The first modern solution of general relativity that wouldLayout by orngjce223, CC-BY characterize a black hole was found by Karl Schwarzschild in 1916, although its interpretation as a region of space from which nothing can escape was not fully appreciated for another four decades.
Black hole Long considered a mathematical The core of the star collapses and becomes super dense where even the atomic curiosity, it was during the nuclei are squeezed together.The 1960s that theoretical work energy density at the core goes to showed black holes were a infinity. After a black hole has formed it generic prediction of general can continue to grow by absorbing mass from its surroundings. By relativity. The discovery of absorbing other stars and merging with neutron stars sparked interest other black holes, super massive black in gravitationally collapsed holes of millions of solar masses may form.There is general consensus that compact objects as a possible supermassive black holes exist in the astrophysical reality.Black holes centers of most galaxies. In particular, of stellar mass are expected to there is strong evidence of a black hole form when a star of more than of more than 4 million solar masses at the center of our galaxy, the Milky Way. 5 solar masses runs out ofLayout by orngjce223, CC-BY energy fuel. This results in the outer layers of gas being thrown out in a supernova explosion.
Neutron star A neutron star is a type of stellar remnant that can result from the gravitational collapse of a massive star during a Type II, Type Ib or Type Ic supernova event. Such stars are composed almost entirely of neutrons, which are subatomic particles without electrical charge and with slightly larger mass than protons. Neutron stars are very hot and are supported against further collapse by quantum degeneracy pressure due to the Pauli exclusion principle. This principle states thatLayout by orngjce223, CC-BY no two neutrons (or any other fermionic particles) can occupy the same place and quantum state simultaneously.
Supernova Early work on what was originally believed to be simply a new category of novae was performed during the 1930s by Walter Baade and Fritz Zwicky at Mount Wilson Observatory. The name super-novae was first used during 1931 lectures held at Caltech by Baade and Zwicky, then used publicly in 1933 at a meeting of the American Physical Society. By 1938, the hyphen had been lost and the modern name was in use. Because supernovae are relatively rare events within a galaxy, occurring about once every 50 years in the Milky Way, obtaining a good sample of supernovae to study requires regular monitoring of many galaxies. Supernovae in other galaxies cannot be predicted with any meaningful accuracy. Normally, when they are discovered, they are already inLayout by orngjce223, CC-BY progress. Most scientific interest in supernovae—as standard candles for measuring distance, for example—require an observation of their peak luminosity. It is therefore important to discover them well before they reach their maximum.
Nebula astronomers believe that nebulae are made from the huge collapse of gas in what they refer to as the Interstellar Medium (the gas, dust and cosmic rays that can be found between planets and stars in galaxies). As the material falls in on itself under its own weight, large stars are made in the centre. When this happens, ultraviolet radiation shoots out like a laser beam and the nebula is lit up - just like a Christmas tree.Layout by orngjce223, CC-BY
Eagle Nebula Baby stars hatch from eggs (Evaporating Gaseous Globules) the finger-like tips emerging from this pillar of gas in the eagle Nebula.This picture was taken by the Hubble Space telescope.Layout by orngjce223, CC-BY
Layout by orngjce223, CC-BY Inside a star?
Layout by orngjce223, CC-BY Birth of a star part 1
Layout by orngjce223, CC-BY Birth of a star part 2
A newborn star When a temperature of about 27,000,000°F is reached, nuclear fusion begins. This is the nuclear reaction in which hydrogen atoms are converted to helium atoms plus energy. This energy (radiation) production prevents further contraction of the star. Young stars emit jets of intense radiation that heat the surrounding matter to the point at which it glows brightly. These narrowly-focused jets can be trillions of miles long and can travel at 500,000 miles per hour. These jets may be focused by the stars magnetic field. The protostar is now a stable main sequence star which will remain in this state for about 10 billion years. AfterLayout by orngjce223, CC-BY that, the hydrogen fuel is depleted and the star begins to die.
Star death • A star with a mass much greater than that of the sun will form, live, and die more quickly than a main sequence star. The reason for this is its greater mass, for the resulting gravity squeezes the stars core and creates greater pressures, resulting in a faster fusion rate.After about 10 to 15 million years (versus over 10 billion for a main sequence star), a supergiants core has turned to carbon and has swollen into a red supergiant (Betelgeuse, a bright star forming the constellation Orions shoulder, is an example of a star in this stage). The reason it glows red is that since its outer layers haveLayout by orngjce223, CC-BY expanded, it has a much greater volume to heat, yet is only producing the same amount of energy. Thus, it is naturally cooler, and glows red.
Star life span The most massive stars have the shortest lives. Stars that are 25 to 50 times that of the Sun live for only a few million years. Stars like our Sun live for about 10 billion years. Stars less massive than the Sun have even longer life spans.Layout by orngjce223, CC-BY
The Pin Wheel Galaxy The Pinwheel Galaxy (also known as Messier 101 or NGC 5457) is a face-on spiral galaxy distanced 21 million light-years (six megaparsecs) away in the constellation Ursa Major, first discovered by Pierre Méchain on March 27, 1781, and communicated to Charles Messier who verified its position for inclusion in the Messier Catalogue as one of its final entries.On February 28, 2006, NASA and the ESA released a very detailed image of the Pinwheel Galaxy, which was the largest and most detailed image of a galaxy by Hubble Space Telescope at the time. The image was composed from 51 individual exposures, plus someLayout by orngjce223, CC-BY extra ground-based photos.On August 24, 2011, a Type Ia supernova, SN 2011fe, was discovered in M101
Layout by orngjce223, CC-BY Hyper giant star: size