Changing Attitudes• Defined as a problem inthe 1970s• Matters of the home wereprivate•“Not my business”• Until then, considerednecessary discipline.• Social and family valuespressured women to staywith abusive partners
Definitions Victim – has experienced mistreatment by their partners in the last 5 years. (physical, emotional, sexual) Violence – is an actionthat is intended tophysically hurt someone. Intention changesaccording to context.
Women’s Rights Pre 1970s Men were allowed to punish their children/wives using physical violence If you left your husband you were guilty of desertion Lost custody of kids No support offered Social rejection
1970s Spousal abuse was recognized as assault. Public opinions drastically changed. Prompted research to determine the causes and possible prevention measures Until this time, women had no choice but to stay.
Those who ... Experienced violence Observed violence Child abuse/partner abuse More likely, statistically, to become victims of violence or inflict it on others.
Violence as Learned If patterns of violence are learned by both victim and perpetrator, they can be unlearned. Learn more effective methods of conflict resolution. Proactive approaches for prevention.
Early Research Focus: Why do women stay in abusive relationships? Both believe the violence will not happen again. The Cycle of Violence Repeating pattern of spousal violence experienced by both victim and perpetrator.
The Cycle Tension Building Try to maintain calm, and fulfill partner’s needs. Builds wit stress or conflict. “tip toeing” Abusive Incident Assaults occur, one or more (disbelief builds) Unpredictable May require medical help, but usually hidden Calm and Penance Feels remorse, apologizes, affectionate acts
Factors Contributing Unemployment Financial hardship/bankruptcy Job stress, multiple jobs Demotions, career set backs Downgrading accommodations Child support payments
When Men are Victims http://www.ctv.ca/CTVNews/CTVNewsAt11/2 0030713/stastcan_violenceagainstmen_20030 713/
Question Until the 1970s a “culture of silence” surrounded matters of partner abuse. Today, partner abuse is equally unacceptable, yet still goes under reported. What other cultural factors might contribute to this under-reporting?