Development: Erikson and Kohlberg


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Development: Erikson and Kohlberg

  1. 1. Recap: The 8 Stages
  2. 2.  At each stage we encounter a choice or “crisis” If a stage is not mastered or overcome it can cause trouble later where mastery is required. Successes and failures mould how we see the world, ourselves and others. Personality can be changed by new experience at any stage. (choosing a fork in the road)
  3. 3.  Development depends on whether or not needs are being met. Trust comes with predictability of care. Unpredictability and uncertainty of care/support creates mistrust.
  4. 4.  Autonomy = independence, ability to stand alone. Age 2-3 Taking care of themselves, walking, talking Independence through learning and exploring Need for encouraging caregivers Shame comes from discouragement and over-protection
  5. 5.  Age 4-5 Child is learning to feel purposeful and take initiative Freedom, exploration and questioning “Why??” Guilt comes from criticism, lack of recognition
  6. 6.  Age 6 to 11 Industry = making an effort Inferiority = feeling less important, defeated Expanding beyond family – school, sports, activities Importance of family life in preparing for school.
  7. 7.  Adolescence (12-18) Focus on peers and social groups Modelling yourself after someone Influence of friends, teachers, media and less focus on family
  8. 8.  Young adulthood Seeking out a partner, “testing the waters” of relationships Good experiences leads to intimacy Rejection, disappointment leads to isolation
  9. 9.  Mid-life Generativity = full, productive life Stagnation = lack of development Generativity creates a sense of accomplishment (family, career, kids) Stagnation fosters lack of achievement, low self worth
  10. 10.  Old age Integrity = completeness, pride “Am I proud of what I have done?”. Facing regrets, dissatisfaction, mistakes, failures.
  11. 11. 3 Levels, 6 Sub-Stages
  12. 12.  1920s-1980s American psychologist and university professor Expert in moral education and logic Interested in: How people respond to moral dilemmas!
  13. 13.  Level determined by the reasons a person gives for making a decision.
  14. 14.  Child will care about what is right or wrong, good or bad. Judges an action based on the consequences they experience
  15. 15.  Child acts to AVOID punishment. Acts in order to receive reward. Obey rules for positive consequence.
  16. 16.  Personal needs determine right and wrong. Right action satisfies own needs and maybe the needs of others. “Making a trade” or doing a favour.
  17. 17.  Make decisions to live up to the expectations of others. Family, Friends, Social Group, Nation, the Law Meeting these expectations is more important than consequences.
  18. 18.  Good behaviours = actions that please others! Appearing to be “normal” or have “good intentions” is important. Approval indicates moral behaviour. Kohlberg believes that MOSTPeople don’t move past this stage.
  19. 19.  Good behaviour = following the rules and respecting authority Behaving to maintain social order and display respect. Example: Respecting others’ property.
  20. 20.  A person identifies morality and values according to validity. Less influenced by authority and personal interest. Judgements based on abstract personal principles.
  21. 21.  Right actions determined by more “general rights” Agreed on by society as a whole Awareness of both personal values and legal Not all cultures and societies have the same concepts of right and wrong.
  22. 22.  Right decision is a decision of personal conscience. Appeals to universal, consistent truths. Focus: Justice, Equality, Human Dignity.
  23. 23.  We have to go step by step – no skipping stages! People typically do not reach the higher stages. Seeing and knowing people in the higher stages helps us grow. Learning by example. Stages progress from an individual to universal level.
  24. 24.  Pre-conventional  consequences they see, meeting own needs. Conventional  The expectations of others  Rules and social order Post-conventional  Abstract personal principles  LESS on authority