At each stage we encounter a choice or “crisis” If a stage is not mastered or overcome it can cause trouble later where mastery is required. Successes and failures mould how we see the world, ourselves and others. Personality can be changed by new experience at any stage. (choosing a fork in the road)
Development depends on whether or not needs are being met. Trust comes with predictability of care. Unpredictability and uncertainty of care/support creates mistrust.
Autonomy = independence, ability to stand alone. Age 2-3 Taking care of themselves, walking, talking Independence through learning and exploring Need for encouraging caregivers Shame comes from discouragement and over-protection
Age 4-5 Child is learning to feel purposeful and take initiative Freedom, exploration and questioning “Why??” Guilt comes from criticism, lack of recognition
Age 6 to 11 Industry = making an effort Inferiority = feeling less important, defeated Expanding beyond family – school, sports, activities Importance of family life in preparing for school.
Adolescence (12-18) Focus on peers and social groups Modelling yourself after someone Influence of friends, teachers, media and less focus on family
Young adulthood Seeking out a partner, “testing the waters” of relationships Good experiences leads to intimacy Rejection, disappointment leads to isolation
Mid-life Generativity = full, productive life Stagnation = lack of development Generativity creates a sense of accomplishment (family, career, kids) Stagnation fosters lack of achievement, low self worth
Old age Integrity = completeness, pride “Am I proud of what I have done?”. Facing regrets, dissatisfaction, mistakes, failures.
1920s-1980s American psychologist and university professor Expert in moral education and logic Interested in: How people respond to moral dilemmas!
Level determined by the reasons a person gives for making a decision.
Child will care about what is right or wrong, good or bad. Judges an action based on the consequences they experience
Child acts to AVOID punishment. Acts in order to receive reward. Obey rules for positive consequence.
Personal needs determine right and wrong. Right action satisfies own needs and maybe the needs of others. “Making a trade” or doing a favour.
Make decisions to live up to the expectations of others. Family, Friends, Social Group, Nation, the Law Meeting these expectations is more important than consequences.
Good behaviours = actions that please others! Appearing to be “normal” or have “good intentions” is important. Approval indicates moral behaviour. Kohlberg believes that MOSTPeople don’t move past this stage.
Good behaviour = following the rules and respecting authority Behaving to maintain social order and display respect. Example: Respecting others’ property.
A person identifies morality and values according to validity. Less influenced by authority and personal interest. Judgements based on abstract personal principles.
Right actions determined by more “general rights” Agreed on by society as a whole Awareness of both personal values and legal Not all cultures and societies have the same concepts of right and wrong.
Right decision is a decision of personal conscience. Appeals to universal, consistent truths. Focus: Justice, Equality, Human Dignity.
We have to go step by step – no skipping stages! People typically do not reach the higher stages. Seeing and knowing people in the higher stages helps us grow. Learning by example. Stages progress from an individual to universal level.
Pre-conventional consequences they see, meeting own needs. Conventional The expectations of others Rules and social order Post-conventional Abstract personal principles LESS on authority