Kingdoms of Southeast Asia
By L.L, D.P, & W.M
Right between the Indian & Pacific Ocean lies Southeast Asia. It
consist of two primary parts: its islands and the mainland peninsula.
Throughout history, a vast amount of people migrated to this region,
making it a region of many languages and cultures. Exactly on a
peninsula that forwards out of the mainland toward Japan is Korea,
a very mountainous land. It was governed by diverse groups of
• Southeast Asia stretches from Asia nearby Australia and it is located between the
Pacific and Indian Ocean.
• In cultural and political matters Southeast Asia has never been united. The islands
are separated by straits and seas.
• The control of trade routes and harbors has always been the key to political power in
• Southwest Asia was a home of vast languages and cultures due to the amount of
people that settled in the region over a period of time.
• To protect their ships from piracy; pass through their waterways and to use their parts
the powerful local lords charged their merchants.
• Angkor, Cambodia and Srivijaya, Sumatra in Indonesia were the earliest states that
exemplified different forms of Asia’s adaptation.
• The civilizations of Southeast Asia was located near river valleys, deltas, coastal
areas or geographical areas that had perfect land for agriculture.
• Southeast Asia is located in a fairly warm environment and is constantly attacked by
monsoon winds. These winds bring the region long lasting rains.
The Khmer Empire
• The Khmer Empire is now current day Cambodia. They built, Angkor Wat, which is the
structure in the world.
• Khmer became prosperous from its improved rice
cultivation. At the expense of their neighboring kingdoms,
in 800, the Khmer Empire had expanded their state.
Around 1200 is where it had reached maximum power.
• Elaborate irrigation systems and waterways had been
included in the building of the Khmer. This made it Possible Angkor Wat- BUILT IN THE 1100s
and easier to grow crops such as rice.
• Funan, an early Khmer kingdom, controlled most of sea trade between India and China.
• A major advance in the Khmer kingdom were in agriculture and sculpture. Isolated towers of
bricks probably built in the 7 century were the earliest known Khmer monuments. The usage
of stone was highly replaced as a substitute and sometimes just a favor over bricks.
• Cambodia had constantly been invaded by the Thai which caused the fall of the Khmer
Empire, which caused their power to decline. After the people of Thailand captured Angkor in
1434, the capital was transferred to Phnom Penh.
Influence of India and China
• Two nations that influenced Southeast Asia were China and India.
• India influenced Southeast Asia by their Hindu and Buddhist missionaries
who spread their religion and faith. Indian political ideas also had spread all
through Southeast Asia, changing its culture slowly.
• Chinese ideas and culture had moved along southward in the region making
its way through trade and migration. In the opposite circumstance, the
Chinese had spread political influence all over Southeast Asia.
• Poets of the Southeast Asian culture wrote lengthy, element poems in
Sanskrit, India’s language
Island Trading Kingdoms
• On the island of Java, the Sailendra Dynasty ruled an agricultural kingdom.
• In around 800 AD, the Buddhist temple at Borobudur was built. The temple
shows how greatly they were influenced by India.
• In the 13th century, Sailendra was invaded
by the powerful empire, Srivijaya, which ruled
the Strait of Malacca.
• The Srivijayas’ capital, Palembang, which
was established on Sumatra, became an
important center of Buddhist learning. 1. The Buddhist Temple at Borobudur.
Vietnam and Korea
• Vietnam, the region least influenced by India, was located south of China. It
was taken over by China during the Han Dynasty, and finally broke away in
the early 900s.
• The Vietnamese were influenced greatly by China. For example, they got
the belief of Buddhism from the Chinese. However, the Vietnamese did
preserve many of their customs.
• The capital of Vietnam was at Hanoi. Vietnam expanded as they conquered
neighboring nations. In 1257, 1285, and 1287, the Mongols tried to conquer
Vietnam, however they forced them to withdraw.
• Korea, which is about the size of Utah, is a peninsula which juts out of Asia.
It is very mountainous and has very little land that can be farmed. Because
of Korea’s mountains and seas, it became isolated from its neighbors.
• Korea was divided tribes that controlled
different parts of the country.
• Han empire conquers Korea in 108BC.
Diffuse Confucianism, Buddhism, and
• Mid-600s: Clans that once joined
together against the Han rule divided
into 3 federations which then rivaled
• The Silla Kingdom defeat the other 2
kingdoms and gains control of Korea.
• The Silla built Buddhist monasteries
and elegant stone and bronze
sculptures. Adapted Chinese characters
to write phonetic Korean language.
The Koryu Dynasty (935-1392 BC)
• Rebel officer named Wang Kon gains control and becomes king in 935.
• Korea utilized the Chinese Confucian civil service exams and established
universities for males. Even with these things, the nobles still had a higher
chance of obtaining good jobs, as compared to the lower classes. The poor
continued to do the hard labors while the nobles went to school, and buy
land. This indicated that power was still in the hands of the wealthy.
• Conflicts: -Rebellions of the lower classes in the 1100s.
• 1241- Mongols demand tribute of 20,000 horses, 1 million soldiers, and
children and artisans to be used as slaves.
• 1350- Mongol rule collapses. Increasing oppression and taxes in Korea.
• 1392- Koryu Dynasty is overthrown and Choson dynasty begins. Lasts for
518 years and is governed by scholar-officials and military leaders.
• Included: celadon pottery, fine poetry, writings
that described the first national history of
• Buddhist scriptures were carved on wooden
blocks and took printers 60 years. They were
then destroyed by the Mongols and then
rebuilt again to a collection of 81,000 blocks.