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Camera projectshow
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Camera projectshow

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  • 1. How to use depth of field and shutter speed to improve your PRESENTATION NAME digital photos Company Name By Laurie MillerUse the arrows at the bottom of the pages to advance the slide.
  • 2. Have you ever thought you were going to have a great photograph only to have the camera take a photo thatlooked completely different from what you imagined?
  • 3. Huh! Those pictures didn’t come out right! Both are blurry, and I used the automatic setting on my camera. What’s wrong????1
  • 4. How would you like to take a professional style photograph that focuses on thePRESENTATIONhas clear subject, NAME Company Name and shows images the action that is occurring in the photograph? 1
  • 5. This can be accomplished through a clear understanding of: Shutter SpeedsPRESENTATION and NAME Company Name Aperture Settings on the manual setting of your digital SLR. 1
  • 6. And …………
  • 7. Can turn these photos: Blurry due Blurry & to motion unclear due to depth of field 1 Into these photos: Motion Deeper frozen depth of field 1
  • 8. At the end of this Learning Module:Learners will be able to use shutter and aperturesettings to identify the steps used to create anew photograph that has shallow/deep depth offield and freeze/blurred motion based on anexisting photograph. The prerequisite skills for this learning module are: •Understand basic concepts of photo composition •Identify basic parts of an SLR digital camera •Set camera to manual mode
  • 9. This learning module has 7 sections: Review of prerequisite skills Locate the aperture and shutter Explain and Interpret shutter speed Explain the functions of the aperture and interpret f-stop readings Differentiate between blurred and freeze motion Differentiate between shallow and deep depth of field Describe the relationship between shutter speed and aperture settings when analyzing the composition of a photoYou will be given practice at the end of each section before you moveto the next section and quizzed at the end of the whole module.
  • 10. Section 1:Review of prerequisite skills.
  • 11. Let’s begin with a quick review of the4 basic points of composition: Simplicity – the photograph should include only what you want the viewer to see. Contrast – Place light subjects on dark backgrounds and vice versa Rule of Thirds - Divide the photograph into thirds to achieve balance and interest Framing – have something in the foreground to give a sense of where the viewer is
  • 12. Let’s see what you remember:What 3 points of composition are exemplified in thephotograph below and how? a. Simplicity b. Contrast c. Framing d. Rule of thirds e. Subject f. Color Click for answers
  • 13. Let’s see what you remember:What 3 points of composition are exemplified in thephotograph below and how? a. Simplicity b. Contrast c. Framing d. Rule of thirds e. Subject f. Color Answer: a. Simplicity – The photo shows only the spider b. Contrast – the spider is a bright light color on a darker background d. Rule of thirds – the spider is in the upper third of the photo to create interest
  • 14. Now to review some terms and mechanics of SLR Digital cameras: Mode dial Shutter button Grip Lens Click on the word to review the function of each feature If you are confident you know all the terms and their functions then click on the arrow to skip the review
  • 15. Shutter button:Push the shutterbutton to take a Mode dialpicture. Shutter button Grip Lens Click on the next word you would like to review If you are finished reviewing all the terms click on the arrow at the bottom right
  • 16. Mode Dial:This dial changes the modeyour camera is in such as Mode dialmanual, automatic,portrait or landscape. Shutter button Top view of the mode dial Grip Lens Click on the next word you would like to review If you are finished reviewing all the terms click on the arrow at the bottom right
  • 17. Grip: Mode dial Shutter buttonWhere you place your right hand when taking a photo to steady the camera Grip Lens Click on the next word you would like to review If you are finished reviewing all the terms click on the arrow at the bottom right
  • 18. Lens: Mode dial Shutter button Focuses the camera onthe image to be stored on digital media Grip Lens Click on the next word you would like to review If you are finished reviewing all the terms click on the arrow at the bottom right
  • 19. Let’s see what you remember: Write your answers on a separate sheet of paperState the name and function of each numbered part 1 23 Click here to check 4 your answers
  • 20. Answers: Mode Dial: This dial changes the mode your camera is in such as manual, automatic, portrait or landscape. Shutter button: Push the shutter button to take a pictureGrip: Where you place your right hand when taking a photo to Lens: Focuses the camera on the image to be steady the camera stored on digital media
  • 21. Now that we have reviewedphoto composition and basicterms let’s end the review byputting your SLR Camera inmanual mode:
  • 22. Using the Mode Dial you can put your SLR digital camera in manual mode so you have the control to adjust your shutter speed and aperture opening. and….Remember this is You want to set it to M for manual modeyour mode dial
  • 23. Let’s see what you remember!Which part of the SLR digital camera allows you tochange your camera to a manual setting? a. Shutter b. Grip c. Mode Dial d. LensWhat letter represent manual setting? a. P b. M c. AV d. Man Click for answers
  • 24. Answers:Which part of the SLR digital camera allows you tochange your camera to a manual setting? your mode dial a. Shutter b. Grip c. Mode Dial d. LensWhat letter represent manual setting? a. P b. M c. AV d. Man
  • 25. Section 2:Locate the aperture and shutter on the camera
  • 26. The aperture of a camera is located in the photographic lens behind theglass lens of a camera. Image sensor http://media.wiley.com/assets/1007The shutter of a camera is located in the body of the camera, behindthe aperture and in front of the surface that captures the image.
  • 27. Your Turn!On the diagram: identify where the aperture is located identify where the shutter is located Click here for answer
  • 28. Answer:The shutter of a camerais located in the body ofthe camera, behind theaperture and in front ofthe surface that capturesthe image. The aperture of a camera is located in the photographic lens behind the glass lens of a camera.
  • 29. R Section 3:Explain and Interpretshutter speed on the camera
  • 30. Remember the photograph of the baby at the beginning of this module - how hishands looked blurry? This was caused by a low shutter speed. The shutter determines how long the image sensor is being exposed to light or the scene being photographed, and is measured in fractions of seconds. For instance, a shutter speed of 250 would let you know that the image sensor has been exposed to light for 1/250th of a second.
  • 31. The higher the shutter speed the shorter the image sensor is exposed to the image. The lower the shutter speed the longer the camera is exposed to the image. Photographic image Shutter speedWhat you see on 1000 500 250 125 60 30 15 8 4 2 1 ½ ¼the camera screen http://www.miketurner-photography.co.uk/blog/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/shutter-speeds.jpg For instance, 1000 means the shutter is open for 1/1000th of a second and excellent for catching motion in a brief moment in time. A shutter speed of 30 means the shutter is open for 1/30th of a second and can blur a person in action due to the longer exposure.
  • 32. In general, the guideline for catching action shots is to use a shutter speed250 or above and for blurred motion use a shutter speed 30 or below. http://www.miketurner-photography.co.uk/blog/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/shutter-speeds.jpg
  • 33. Your Turn!1. Which shutter speed is faster: 250 or 30? Why?2. If you want to catch a clear picture of runners in the Olympics as they cross the finish line where should you set your shutter speed? a. 125 b. 500 c. 30 d. 1/2503. What shutter speed was likely used to create the lines of car lights in the photograph? a. 125 b. 500 c. 15 d. 1000 Click here for answers
  • 34. Answers: 1. Which shutter speed is faster: 250 or 30? Why? 250 because the shutter is opening and closing at a rate of 1/250th of a second and 30 is opening and closing at 1/30th of a second. 1/250th < 1/30th 2. If you want to catch a clear picture of runners in the Olympics as they cross the finish line where should you set your shutter speed? a. 125 b. 500 c. 30 d. 1/250 3. What shutter speed was likely used to create the lines of car lights in the photograph? a. 125 b. 500 c. 15 d. 1000To review the concept click here To move on click here
  • 35. The higher the shutter speed the shorter the camera is exposed to the image. The lower the shutter speed the longer the camera is exposed to the image. Photographic imageWhat you see on 1000 500 250 125 60 30 15 8 4 2 1 ½ ¼the camera screen http://www.miketurner-photography.co.uk/blog/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/shutter-speeds.jpg In general, the guideline for catching action shots is to use a shutter speed 250 or above and for blurred motion use a shutter speed 30 or below. The Olympic runner is an example of an action shot and the line of car lines an example of blurred motion.
  • 36. R Section 4:Explain the function of the aperture and interpret f-stop readings
  • 37. Remember the picture of the clocks at the beginning – how the second clockwas blurry? This was caused by a low aperture setting. 1The aperture is a circular opening behind your lens that determines the sizeof the hole that allows light into the camera. The size of the aperture isindicated by its f-stop and is measured by the lens focal length divided by thediameter of the aperture opening. The aperture works like the pupil in youreye. In darker places it needs to be open wider and in brighter places itneeds to be smaller.
  • 38. F-stops are the reverse of what you might think. The larger the f-stop numberthe smaller the circumference of the aperture and the smaller the f-stop numberthe larger the circumference of the aperture. silverstrandphoto.files.wordpress.com/2010So, an f-stop of 16 means that less light gets into the camera than an f-stop of4.5.
  • 39. Your Turn!1. Based on the diagrams below determine which aperture setting will let more light in and which will let less light in?2. Which f-stop will let in the least amount of light? a. f/16 b. f/2.8 c. f/5.6 d. f/83. What is the relationship between the opening of the aperture and the f-stop setting? Click here for answers
  • 40. Answers: 1. Based on the diagrams below determine which aperture setting will let more light in and which will let less light in? This will have a larger f-stop because it is a This will have a smaller f-stop smaller circle because it is a larger circle 2. Which f-stop will let in the least amount of light? a. f/16 b. f/2.8 c. f/5.6 d. f/8 3. What is the relationship between the opening of the aperture and the f-stop setting? As the aperture opens wider to allow more light in the f-stop setting gets smaller and vice versa.To review the concepts click here To move on click here
  • 41. F-stops are the reverse of what you might think. The larger the f-stop numberthe smaller the circumference of the aperture and the smaller the f-stopnumber the larger the circumference of the aperture. silverstrandphoto.files.wordpress.com/2010So, an f-stop of 16 means that less light gets into the camera than an f-stop of4.5.
  • 42. R Section 5:Differentiate between blurred and freeze motion
  • 43. Recall from Section 3:
  • 44. So, when the shutter speed is increased, the exposure of the imagesensor to the light is decreased because the shutter is moving faster.This allows your camera to “freeze” the motion. Fast shutter speed 1However, when the shutter speed is decreased, the exposure of theimage sensor to the light is increased because the shutter is movingslower. This allows your camera to “blur” the motion. Slow shutter speed 1
  • 45. Your Turn! 1. Given the photo below what was likely the shutter speed setting and how could you adjust the shutter speed to create a blurred photo next time? 1a. The shutter speed was 60 and you would have to increase the shutter speed to 1000 to blur the motionb. The shutter speed was 1000 and you would have to decrease the shutter speed below 60 to blur the motionc. The shutter speed was 250 and you would have to increase the shutter speed to 500 to blur the motiond. The shutter speed was 60 and you would have to decrease the shutter speed to blur the motion
  • 46. 2. Why does increasing the shutter speed freeze motion?3. Given the photograph below, describe what shutter speed was needed to blur the flags? 1 a. A shutter speed greater than 250 b. A shutter speed greater than 500 c. A shutter speed less than 250 d. A shutter speed less than 60BONUS: Why is the lady in the middle of the photo not blurry? Click here for answers
  • 47. Answers: 1. Given the photo below what was likely the shutter speed setting and how could you adjust the shutter speed to create a blurred photo next time? 1a. The shutter speed was 60 and you would have to increase the shutter speed to 1000 to blur the motionb. The shutter speed was 1000 and you would have to decrease the shutter speed below 60 to blur the motionc. The shutter speed was 250 and you would have to increase the shutter speed to 500 to blur the motiond. The shutter speed was 60 and you would have to decrease the shutter speed to blur the motionClick here for explanation
  • 48. 2. Why does increasing the shutter speed freeze motion? By increasing the shutter speed you are reducing the amount of time that the image sensor is exposed to the image being captured, so you are less likely to get motion within a shorter period of time.3. Given the photograph below, describe what shutter speed was needed to blur the flags? 1 a. A shutter speed greater than 250 b. A shutter speed greater than 500 c. A shutter speed less than 250 d. A shutter speed less than 60 BONUS: Why is the lady in the middle of the photo not blurry?The lady is still so it doesn’t matter if the shutter speed is slowerClick here for explanation
  • 49. To freeze and action like in the photograph of the boy playing basketball, the camera needs to have a shutter speed above 125. To blur an image the camera need to have a shutter speed below 60So the correct answers is: The shutter speed was 1000 and you would have todecrease the shutter speed below 60 to blur the motion Return to answers
  • 50. To blur an action like in the photograph of the lady praying in the middle of theflags, the camera needs to have a shutter speed below 60. Since the lady isn’tmoving she still appears frozen even though the shutter setting is low. Return to answers
  • 51. Section 6: Differentiatebetween shallowand deep depth of field
  • 52. Recall from Section 4:The aperture is a circular opening behind your lens that determines the size ofthe hole that allows light into the camera and f-stops are the reverse of whatyou might think. The larger the f-stop number the smaller the circumference ofthe aperture and the smaller the f-stop number the larger the circumference ofthe aperture. silverstrandphoto.files.wordpress.com/2010
  • 53. When the aperture size increases (the f-stop number decreases) more light is letin and the image is less sharp. The subject is the only part of the image that isclear and sharp. This give you a shallow depth of field since a majority of thephoto is less sharp. Shallow depth of field 1Likewise, when the aperture size decreases (the f-stop number increases) lesslight is let into the camera and the whole image is sharper and in focus. Thisgives you a deep depth of field since a majority of the photo is more sharp. Deep depth of field 1
  • 54. Your Turn!1. Given what you know about aperture settings which of the following would be a better setting for a landscape photograph where you want everything to be sharp? a. f/2.8 b. f/8 c. f/16 d. f/5.62. Given the photographs below which one uses a lower f-stop setting and which one is deep depth of field? Explain your answer. 1 1
  • 55. 3. The pictures of the pigeons in the park below has a lot going on. As a viewer I don’t know whether to focus on the path leading to the trees in the background or the pigeons in the foreground of the picture. What would be an appropriate f-stop if I wanted the pigeons to be the subject of my photograph? a. F/22 b. F/16 c. F/4.5 d. F/5.6 1 Click here for answers
  • 56. Answers: 1. Given what you know about aperture settings which of the following would be a better setting for a landscape photograph where you want everything to be sharp? a. f/2.8 b. f/8 c. f/16 d. f/5.6 2. Given the photographs below which one uses a lower f-stop setting and which one is deep depth of field? Explain your answer. 1 1Lower f-stop/Shallow depth of field Higher f-stop/Deep depth of field Click for explanation
  • 57. 3. The pictures of the pigeons in the park below has a lot going on. As a viewer I don’t know whether to focus on the path leading to the trees in the background or the pigeons in the foreground of the picture. What would be an appropriate f-stop if I wanted the pigeons to be the subject of my photograph? a. F/22 b. F/16 c. F/8 d. F/5.6 Remember if you want to make the background less clear you want a lower f-stop, thus a larger aperture opening. By making the background less clear the foreground will become the focus 1
  • 58. When the aperture size increases (the f-stop number decreases) more light is letin and the image is less sharp. The subject is the only part of the image that isclear and sharp. This give you a shallow depth of field since a majority of thephoto is less sharp. Shallow depth of field 1Likewise, when the aperture size decreases (the f-stop number increases) lesslight is let into the camera and the whole image is sharper and focus. This givesyou a deep depth of field since a majority of the photo is more sharp. Deep depth of field 1 Return to answers
  • 59. Section 7: Describe the relationship between shutter speed andaperture settings when analyzing the composition of a photograph
  • 60. Both shutter speed and aperture settings affect the light that enters thecamera. Shutter speed affects the length of light exposure and aperturesetting affects the amount of light that enters at one time. Thus there isa relationship between the two. When you decrease shutter speed youmust increase your f-stop and vice versa. http://johnbarsbyphotography.pbworks.com/f/Aperture+and+Shutter+Speed+Relationship.jpg
  • 61. It works like a see-saw. When one side goes up the other side must go down theequal amount. Starting at the equilibrium of f/5.6 and 200 you can increase the f-stopby 2 levels to f/8 but that makes the shutter reading decrease by 2 to 100. Up 2 stops Down 2 speeds If you do not adjust for your change in f-stop or shutter speed then you can over or under expose you photo. So, this is an important step to remember!
  • 62. Your Turn!1. If you decrease your shutter speed 4 settings, by how many and in what direction would you adjust the f-stops for your aperture? a. Decrease by 4 stops b. Decrease by 2 stops c. Increase by 2 stops d. Increase by 4 stops2. If you decrease the f-stop by 3 stops, by how many settings and in what direction would you adjust the shutter speed? a. Decrease by 3 settings b. Increase by 3 settings c. Increase by 1 setting d. Decrease by 1 setting
  • 63. 3. You take a photo at 500 (1/500th of a sec) with an f-stop of f/5.6. If you take the same photograph at 60 (1/60th of a sec) to create a blurred motion effect, what would your f-stop need to be so the photograph isn’t overexposed? a. f/5.6 b. f/2 c. f/16 d. f/4 Aperture Settings Shutter Speeds http://www.butkus.org photographylesson.org4. You are at a kid’s birthday party and you take a picture of a child hitting a piñata but the bat and the child comes out blurry in the picture. To correct this problem you need to freeze the motion by ______________ the shutter speed. However, to make sure the photo isn’t under exposed now, you need to ____________ the f-stop. Click here for answers
  • 64. Answers:1. If you decrease your shutter speed 4 settings, by how many and in what direction would you adjust the f-stops for your aperture? a. Decrease by 4 stops b. Decrease by 2 stops c. Increase by 2 stops d. Increase by 4 stops 2. If you decrease the f-stop by 3 stops, by how many settings and in what direction would you adjust the shutter speed? a. Decrease by 3 settings b. Increase by 3 settings c. Increase by 1 setting d. Decrease by 1 settingClick for explanation
  • 65. 3. You take a photo at 500 (1/500th of a sec) with an f-stop of f/5.6. If you take the same photograph at 60 (1/60th of a sec) to create a blurred motion effect, what would your f-stop need to be so the photograph isn’t overexposed? a. f/5.6 b. f/2 c. f/16 d. f/4 Aperture Settings Shutter Speeds Up 3 Down 3 http://www.butkus.org photographylesson.org4. You are at a kid’s birthday party and you take a picture of a child hitting a piñata but the bat and the child comes out blurry in the picture. To correct this problem you need to freeze the motion increasing by ______________ the shutter speed. However, to make sure decrease the photo isn’t under exposed now, you need to ____________ the f-stop.
  • 66. It works like a see-saw. When one side goes up the other side must go down the equal amount. Up 3 speeds Up 4 stops Down 4 speeds Down 3 stops If you do not adjust for your change in f-stop or shutter speed then you can over or under expose you photo. So, this is an important step to remember! Return to Answers
  • 67. Conclusion:Putting it all together to analyze photographs
  • 68. Let’s revisit those photographs of the clocks and baby at the beginning of the lesson. How did we get from one to the other? Increase Blurred shutter speed motion Frozen Motion IncreaseShallow f-stop Deep depthdepth of of fieldfield 1 1
  • 69. Now let’s analyze a series of photographs and how shutter speed and aperture settings affect the image produced.Here you havedeep depth offield because the Finally, thebackground is in subjects are infocus and you http://petphotography.files.wordpress.com/2007/04/exopsure_compare.jpg focus by increasinghave blurred the shutter speedmotion since the further. Which ispeople are compensated forlaughing and by a reduced f-stopmoving. So you Halfway, the aperture setting has been and less sharphave a low decreased because the background is background.shutter speed blurry. The shutter speed has increasedwith a high f- because there is less blurred motion.stop.
  • 70. Yea! We were correct! The f-stopsdecreased from 22 down to 2.8 as theshutter speeds increased from 4 to 250. http://petphotography.files.wordpress.com/2007/04/exopsure_compare.jpg
  • 71. Hopefully, you now feel confident in yourunderstanding of shutter speeds, aperture settings and how they relate to each other to compose a professional looking photograph. Are you ready for your final Quiz?
  • 72. Final QuizYou will be given 2 photographs to critique in terms ofshutter and aperture setting. You should identify thesteps used to create a new photograph that has shallowor deep depth of field and freeze or blurred motion basedon the existing photograph.
  • 73. How did aperture setting and shutter speed help transform the photo on the left to the photograph on the right?
  • 74. In order to create the blurred motion of the water the shutter speed was lowered below30 (1/30th of a sec). It in fact was lowered to 2 (1/2 sec) from 180 (1/180th of a sec).In order to compensate for the decreased shutter speed the f-stop was increased fromf/4 to f/22. This is evident in the exposure level of the photo and the crisp background.
  • 75. The pictures below are of pigeons in a park. The photo on the left was taken at anaperture setting of f/16 and a shutter speed of 8 (1/8th of a sec). Describe thephotograph on the left in terms of motion and depth of field. Now, describe how onecould change the shutter speed and aperture setting to create the image on the right. 1 1
  • 76. The motion of the pigeons is blurrydue to the low shutter speed, but youcan clearly see the stationary objectat any depth due to the high f-stopgiving the photo a deep depth offield. 1 Here the shutter speed was increased to capture flapping wings of the pigeon. However, that means the aperture setting needed to be adjusted, so the f-stop was decreased, making the background less 1 sharp and clear.
  • 77. Now that you have mastered the useof shutter speed and aperturesettings to explain how photos with ashallow depth of field, deep depth offield, frozen motion and blurredmotion are produced on the manualsetting of your SLR digital camera, goout and practice with your camera.
  • 78. I hope you enjoyedthis lesson and have learned a lot!
  • 79. References1 - London, Barbara, et al. (2011). Photography. Prentice Hall: Boston.

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