Electron structure 09/05/11 Consider an atom of Potassium: Potassium has 19 electrons.  These are arranged in shells… The ...
The Periodic Table 09/05/11 Fact 2:  As you move down through the periods an extra electron shell is added: H He Li Be B C...
The Periodic Table 09/05/11 Fact 4:  (Most important) All of the elements in the same group have similar PROPERTIES.  This...
Bonding 09/05/11 Hi.  My name’s Johnny Chlorine.  I’m in Group 7, so I have 7 electrons in my outer shell I’d quite like t...
Bonding 09/05/11 Here comes one of my friends, Harry Hydrogen Hey Johnny.  I’ve only got one electron but it’s really clos...
Bonding 09/05/11 Here comes another friend, Sophie Sodium Hey Johnny.  I’m in Group 1 so I have one electron in my outer s...
Covalent bonding 09/05/11 Consider an atom of hydrogen: Notice that hydrogen has just __ electron in its outer shell.  A f...
Dot and cross diagrams 09/05/11 Water, H 2 O: Oxygen, O 2 : Step 1: Draw the atoms with their outer shell: Step 2: Put the...
Dot and cross diagrams 09/05/11 Nitrogen, N 2 : Carbon dioxide, CO 2 : Ammonia NH 3 : Methane CH 4 : H H N H H H H H C N N...
Ions 09/05/11 An ion is formed when an atom gains or loses electrons and becomes charged: If we “take away” the electron w...
Ionic bonding 09/05/11 Na Na + This is where a metal bonds with a non-metal (usually).  Instead of sharing the electrons o...
Some examples 09/05/11 Magnesium chloride: MgCl 2 + Calcium oxide: CaO Mg Cl Cl Mg 2+ Cl - Cl - O Ca + Ca 2+ O 2-
Giant structures (“lattices”) 09/05/11 + + + + + + + + + 1. Diamond – a giant covalent structure with a very ____ melting ...
Group 1 – The alkali metals 09/05/11 Li Na K Rb Cs Fr
Group 1 – The alkali metals 09/05/11 1)  These metals all have ___ electron in their outer shell Some facts… 2)  Reactivit...
Group 0 – The Noble gases 09/05/11 He Ne Ar Kr Xe Rn
Group 0 – The Noble gases 09/05/11 Some facts… 1)  All of the noble gases have a full outer shell, so they are very ______...
Group 7 – The halogens 09/05/11 F Cl Br I At
Group 7 – The Halogens 09/05/11 Some facts… 1)  Reactivity DECREASES as you go down the group (This is because the electro...
The halogens – some reactions 09/05/11 1)  Halogen + metal: + 2)  Halogen + non-metal: + Na + Cl - Na Cl H Cl Cl H Halogen...
Halogen compounds 09/05/11 Silver halides   (e.g. silver chloride, silver bromide etc) These are used in photographic pape...
Balancing equations 09/05/11 Consider the following reaction: + + This equation doesn’t balance – there are 2 hydrogen ato...
Balancing equations 09/05/11 We need to balance the equation: + + Now the equation is balanced, and we can write it as: Na...
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Gcse c4 chemical patterns bonding & periodic table revision

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Gcse c4 chemical patterns bonding & periodic table revision

  1. 1. Electron structure 09/05/11 Consider an atom of Potassium: Potassium has 19 electrons. These are arranged in shells… The inner shell has __ electrons The next shell has __ electrons The next shell has __ electrons The next shell has the remaining __ electron Electron structure = 2,8,8,1 K 19 39 Nucleus
  2. 2. The Periodic Table 09/05/11 Fact 2: As you move down through the periods an extra electron shell is added: H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca Fe Ni Cu Zn Br Kr Ag I Xe Pt Au Hg E.g. Lithium has 3 electron in the configuration 2,1 Potassium has 19 electrons in the configuration __,__,__ Sodium has 11 electrons in the configuration 2,8,1
  3. 3. The Periodic Table 09/05/11 Fact 4: (Most important) All of the elements in the same group have similar PROPERTIES. This is how I thought of the periodic table in the first place. This is called PERIODICITY. H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca Fe Ni Cu Zn Br Kr Ag I Xe Pt Au Hg <ul><li>E.g. consider the group 1 metals. They all: </li></ul><ul><li>Are soft </li></ul><ul><li>Can be easily cut with a knife </li></ul><ul><li>React with water </li></ul>
  4. 4. Bonding 09/05/11 Hi. My name’s Johnny Chlorine. I’m in Group 7, so I have 7 electrons in my outer shell I’d quite like to have a full outer shell. To do this I need to GAIN an electron. Who can help me? Cl Cl
  5. 5. Bonding 09/05/11 Here comes one of my friends, Harry Hydrogen Hey Johnny. I’ve only got one electron but it’s really close to my nucleus so I don’t want to lost it. Fancy sharing? Now we’re both really stable. We’ve formed a covalent bond. Cl H Cl H
  6. 6. Bonding 09/05/11 Here comes another friend, Sophie Sodium Hey Johnny. I’m in Group 1 so I have one electron in my outer shell. Unlike Harry, this electron is far away from the nucleus so I’m quite happy to get rid of it. Do you want it? Now we’ve both got full outer shells and we’ve both gained a charge. We’ve formed an IONIC bond. Okay Cl Na Cl Na + -
  7. 7. Covalent bonding 09/05/11 Consider an atom of hydrogen: Notice that hydrogen has just __ electron in its outer shell. A full (inner) shell would have __ electrons, so two hydrogen atoms get together and “_____” their electrons: Now they both have a ____ outer shell and are more _____. The formula for this molecule is H 2 . When two or more atoms bond by sharing electrons we call it ____________ BONDING. This type of bonding normally occurs between _______ atoms. It causes the atoms in a molecule to be held together very strongly but there are ____ forces between individual molecules. This is why covalently-bonded molecules have low melting and boiling points (i.e. they are usually ____ or ______). Words – gas, covalent, non-metal, 1, 2, liquid, share, full, weak, stable
  8. 8. Dot and cross diagrams 09/05/11 Water, H 2 O: Oxygen, O 2 : Step 1: Draw the atoms with their outer shell: Step 2: Put the atoms together and check they all have a full outer shell: O H H O O H H O O O
  9. 9. Dot and cross diagrams 09/05/11 Nitrogen, N 2 : Carbon dioxide, CO 2 : Ammonia NH 3 : Methane CH 4 : H H N H H H H H C N N O O C
  10. 10. Ions 09/05/11 An ion is formed when an atom gains or loses electrons and becomes charged: If we “take away” the electron we’re left with just a positive charge: This is called an ion (in this case, a positive hydrogen ion) + - + The electron is negatively charged The proton is positively charged +
  11. 11. Ionic bonding 09/05/11 Na Na + This is where a metal bonds with a non-metal (usually). Instead of sharing the electrons one of the atoms “_____” one or more electrons to the other. For example, consider sodium and chlorine: Sodium has 1 electron on its outer shell and chlorine has 7, so if sodium gives its electron to chlorine they both have a ___ outer shell and are ______. A _______ charged sodium ion A _________ charged chloride ion As opposed to covalent bonds, ionic bonds form strong forces of attraction between different ions due to their opposite ______, causing GIANT IONIC STRUCTURES to form (e.g sodium chloride) with ______ melting and boiling points: Cl Cl -
  12. 12. Some examples 09/05/11 Magnesium chloride: MgCl 2 + Calcium oxide: CaO Mg Cl Cl Mg 2+ Cl - Cl - O Ca + Ca 2+ O 2-
  13. 13. Giant structures (“lattices”) 09/05/11 + + + + + + + + + 1. Diamond – a giant covalent structure with a very ____ melting point due to ______ bonds between carbon atoms 2. Graphite – carbon atoms arranged in a layered structure, with free _______ in between each layer enabling carbon to conduct _________ 3. Sodium chloride – a giant ionic lattice with _____ melting and boiling points due to ______ forces of attraction. Can conduct electricity when _______. 4. Metals – the __________ in metals are free to move around, holding the _____ together and enabling it to conduct _________
  14. 14. Group 1 – The alkali metals 09/05/11 Li Na K Rb Cs Fr
  15. 15. Group 1 – The alkali metals 09/05/11 1) These metals all have ___ electron in their outer shell Some facts… 2) Reactivity increases as you go _______ the group. This is because the electrons are further away from the _______ every time a _____ is added, so they are given up more easily. 3) They all react with water to form an alkali (hence their name) and __________, e.g: Words – down, one, shell, hydrogen, nucleus Potassium + water potassium hydroxide + hydrogen 2K (s) + 2H 2 O (l) 2KOH (aq) + H 2 (g)
  16. 16. Group 0 – The Noble gases 09/05/11 He Ne Ar Kr Xe Rn
  17. 17. Group 0 – The Noble gases 09/05/11 Some facts… 1) All of the noble gases have a full outer shell, so they are very _____________ 2) They all have low melting and boiling points 3) They exist as single atoms rather then diatomic molecules <ul><li>Helium is lighter then air and is used in balloons and airships (as well as for talking in a silly voice) </li></ul><ul><li>Argon is used in light bulbs (because it is so unreactive) and argon , krypton and neon are used in fancy lights </li></ul>
  18. 18. Group 7 – The halogens 09/05/11 F Cl Br I At
  19. 19. Group 7 – The Halogens 09/05/11 Some facts… 1) Reactivity DECREASES as you go down the group (This is because the electrons are further away from the nucleus and so any extra electrons aren’t attracted as much). 2) They exist as diatomic molecules (so that they both have a full outer shell): 3) Because of this fluorine and chlorine are liquid at room temperature and bromine is a gas Decreasing reactivity Cl Cl
  20. 20. The halogens – some reactions 09/05/11 1) Halogen + metal: + 2) Halogen + non-metal: + Na + Cl - Na Cl H Cl Cl H Halogen + metal ionic salt Halogen + non-metal covalent molecule
  21. 21. Halogen compounds 09/05/11 Silver halides (e.g. silver chloride, silver bromide etc) These are used in photographic paper. They are reduced by light and x-ray radiation to leave a silver photographic image. Hydrogen halides (e.g. hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride) When these dissolve in water they make acids and will turn universal indicator red.
  22. 22. Balancing equations 09/05/11 Consider the following reaction: + + This equation doesn’t balance – there are 2 hydrogen atoms on the left hand side (the “reactants” and 3 on the right hand side (the “products”) Na O H H H H Na O H Sodium + water sodium hydroxide + hydrogen
  23. 23. Balancing equations 09/05/11 We need to balance the equation: + + Now the equation is balanced, and we can write it as: Na O H H H H Na O H Sodium + water sodium hydroxide + hydrogen Na O H H Na O H 2Na (s) + 2H 2 O (l) 2NaOH (aq) + H 2(g)

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