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From Networked Music to Behavior Driven Interaction

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Presentation at Hochschule fuer Musik in Karlsruhe, Germany (16-March-2012). …

Presentation at Hochschule fuer Musik in Karlsruhe, Germany (16-March-2012).
http://www.hfm-karlsruhe.de/


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  • 1. From  Networked  Music  to  Behavior-­‐Driven  Interac9on   Álvaro  Barbosa  -­‐  www.abarbosa.org     Research  Center  for  Science  and  Technology  of  the  Arts  (CITAR)   School  of  Arts,  Catholic  University  Porto  –  www.artes.ucp.pt  
  • 2. Álvaro  Barbosa   h=p://www.abarbosa.org/  Since  1998  –  EA,  UCP-­‐Porto,  Portugal  hIp://artes.ucp.pt/  Since  2004  –  CITAR,  UCP-­‐Porto,  Portugal    hIp://artes.ucp.pt/citar/  2000/2006  –  MTG,  UPF-­‐Barcelona,  Spain  hIp://mtg.upf.edu/  2010  –  CCRMA,  Stanford-­‐CA,  USA  hIp://ccrma.stanford.edu/  Since  2011  –  USJ,  Macau  –  China  hIp://www.usj.edu.mo/   Slide  #  2  /  Author:  Álvaro  Barbosa  (www.abarbosa.org)  
  • 3. Álvaro  Barbosa   Very  early  Web  Developer  in  the  industry  (Caleida  &  aeiou.pt,  1995-­‐1998)   Slide  #  3  /  Author:  Álvaro  Barbosa  (www.abarbosa.org)  
  • 4. Research  /  Book  •  Displaced Soundscapes is a metaphorical description of the way lively generated sounds can be perceived over the Internet."•  (Book) Barbosa, A. 2008. “Displaced Soundscapes”"•  VDM Verlag (ISBN: 978-3-8364-7154-1)"-  Extensive Survey of NM Applications "-  Research on Latency and Internet Acoustics"-  Models for Networked Music Systems"-  Implementation “Public Sound Objects” " Slide  #  4  /  Author:  Álvaro  Barbosa  (www.abarbosa.org)  
  • 5. Background  on  Network  Music  Performance   Performing Music at a Distance Synchronizing Berlin and Hong Kong (1/April/2011 – 8.753 Km) Hong Kong New Music Ensemble & Ensemble Adapter http://hknme.org/hongkongartsblog/?p=1525 Slide  #  5  /  Author:  Álvaro  Barbosa  (www.abarbosa.org)  
  • 6. Background  on  Network  Music  Performance   Performing Music at a Distance Slide  #  6  /  Author:  Álvaro  Barbosa  (www.abarbosa.org)  
  • 7. Background  on  Network  Music  Performance  •  Stanford-Mcgill 2002 (4.076 Km) Slide  #  7  /  Author:  Álvaro  Barbosa  (www.abarbosa.org)  
  • 8. Background  on  Network  Music  Performance  •  Stanford-Mcgill 2002 – Discovery Channel Slide  #  8  /  Author:  Álvaro  Barbosa  (www.abarbosa.org)  
  • 9. Background  on  Network  Music  Performance  •  Stanford-Mcgill 2002 (the real thing) Slide  #  9  /  Author:  Álvaro  Barbosa  (www.abarbosa.org)  
  • 10. Background  on  Network  Music  Performance   Multiple Location – Same Performance ARTECH 2008: Rambouillet (FR) / Casa da Música (PT) / SARC (IR) http://artes.ucp.pt/artech2008/ Slide  #  10  /  Author:  Álvaro  Barbosa  (www.abarbosa.org)  
  • 11. Background  on  Network  Music  Performance   Latency and Networked Music In a vocal conversation it is possible to maintain it even with one-way delays of up to 500 ms. Holub, J., Kastner, M., Tomiska, O. 2007 In order to maintain a synchronized and smooth musical interaction reduces drastically to the order of tens of milliseconds. Schuett, N. 2002 Chafe C., Gurevich M, 2004 Lago, N and Kon, F. 2004 Barbosa, A., Carôt, A. 2005 Chew, E., Sawchuk, A., Tanoue, C., and Zimmermann, R. 2005 Bartlette, C., Headlam, D., Bocko, M., Velikic, G. 2006 Farner, S., Solvang, A., Sæbo, A., Svensson, U. P. 2009 Chafe, C., Cáceres, J-P., Gurevich, M., 2010 Slide  #  11  /  Author:  Álvaro  Barbosa  (www.abarbosa.org)  
  • 12. Background  on  Network  Music  Performance   Latency and Networked Music For the Human ear to perceive the order of two simultaneous sounds, they should not be displaced in time over 20ms (Hirsh, 1959) A difficulty in discerning the order of sounds events ê hard to maintain a synchronous musical interaction. Slide  #  12  /  Author:  Álvaro  Barbosa  (www.abarbosa.org)  
  • 13. Background  on  Network  Music  Performance   •  Jitter and delay asymmetry introduce further disruption in Network Communication. •  Furthermore, Latency is not a technological condition that can be overcome in the near future. Consider mobile or satellite technology or a communication setup that spans worldwide. Moscow – Santiago (fiber-optic link): Bidirectional Latency= 94,3 ms Unidirectional Latency= 47,15 ms Slide  #  13  /  Author:  Álvaro  Barbosa  (www.abarbosa.org)  
  • 14. Background  on  Network  Music  Performance   Latency and Networked Music The ability to perform music synchronously is strongly dependent on: •  The music expressive qualities (Dynamics and Articulation) •  The music style (rhythm, melody, harmony) •  The music perceptual qualities (pitch, texture, timbre) •  The music structure/form •  The musician’s experience and practicing strategies •  Complementary feed-back modalities (visual, tactile) •  The listening conditions Slide  #  14  /  Author:  Álvaro  Barbosa  (www.abarbosa.org)  
  • 15. Background  on  Network  Music  Performance  Barbosa,  A.  2003.  “Displaced  Soundscapes:  A  Survey  of  Network  Systems  for  Music  and  Sonic  Art  Crea9on”    Leonardo  Music  Journal  13,  pp.  53-­‐59  -­‐  MIT  Press,  Cambridge;  doi:10.1162/096112104322750791).   Slide  #  15  /  Author:  Álvaro  Barbosa  (www.abarbosa.org)  
  • 16. Background  on  Network  Music  Performance   Latency and Networked Music Basic Principles - Remote Performance(1) Ensemble Performance Threshold (EPT)(2) Echo Feed-Back (Self Delay)(3) Inverse Proportion to Tempo(4) Reverb and Complementary Modalities(5) Slow Attack Times(6) Antiphony Slide  #  16  /  Author:  Álvaro  Barbosa  (www.abarbosa.org)  
  • 17. Background  on  Network  Music  Performance   (1) Ensemble Performance Threshold (EPT) (CCRMA 2004, USC 2005) Comfort Zone for Expert Musicians EPT Interval for Expert Musicians Comfort Zone for EPT Interval for Untrained Users Untrained Users Almost Extremely Impossible to Difficult to Compensate Unnaturally Difficult to Compensate Low Latency CompensateDELAY (ms) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 75 100 150 Slide  #  17  /  Author:  Álvaro  Barbosa  (www.abarbosa.org)  
  • 18. Background  on  Network  Music  Performance   (2) Echo Feed-Back (USC 2005) Chew,  E.,  Sawchuk,  A.,  Tanoue,  C.,  and  Zimmermann,  R.  2005     Slide  #  18  /  Author:  Álvaro  Barbosa  (www.abarbosa.org)  
  • 19. Background  on  Network  Music  Performance   (2) Echo Feed-Back (UCP-Porto 2005) Slide  #  19  /  Author:  Álvaro  Barbosa  (www.abarbosa.org)  
  • 20. Background  on  Network  Music  Performance   (3) Inverse Proportion to Tempo (UCP-Porto 2005) Slide  #  20  /  Author:  Álvaro  Barbosa  (www.abarbosa.org)  
  • 21. Background  on  Network  Music  Performance   (3) Inverse Proportion to Tempo (CCRMA/Banff 2006) St. Lawrence String Quartet (over 50ms Delay) Slide  #  21  /  Author:  Álvaro  Barbosa  (www.abarbosa.org)  
  • 22. Background  on  Network  Music  Performance   (4) Reverb and Complementary Modalities Studies on the effect of Reverberation (Farner 2009) The Influence of Delay and Various Acoustic Environments Studies on the effect of Visual Feed-Back Pilot experiments at CCRMA since 2006 Studies on the effect of Haptic Feedback ??? Slide  #  22  /  Author:  Álvaro  Barbosa  (www.abarbosa.org)  
  • 23. Background  on  Network  Music  Performance   (5) Slow Attack Times Bregman (1990) Auditory Scene Analysis This  experiment  clearly  reveals  that  it   is  harder  to  perceive  the  order  of   overlapping  sound  events  when  their   rise  ]me  (aIack)  is  slower.     In  other  words,  overlapping  sounds   with  slower  rise  ]mes  are  beIer   perceived  as  synchronous  even  when   their  onsets  are  not  physically   simultaneous.   Slide  #  23  /  Author:  Álvaro  Barbosa  (www.abarbosa.org)  
  • 24. Background  on  Network  Music  Performance   •  Pilot  Study  Hypothesis   •  If  slow  a?ack  @mes  allow  a  be?er  percep@on  of  sound  simultaneity  this  might   also  lead  to  a  be?er  ability  to  perform  synchronous  musical  interac@on   •  Experimental  Setup   Slide  #  24  /  Author:  Álvaro  Barbosa  (www.abarbosa.org)  
  • 25. Background  on  Network  Music  Performance   •  Rhythmic  Performance   •  80  BPM  (to  avoid  possible  overlaying  of  subsequent  notes)   •  Slow  Tempo  =>  Higher  EPT   •  Range  from  25  ms  to  110  ms  (with  steps  of  10  ms)   •  28  trials  for  Slow  and  Fast  aIack  strokes   Slide  #  25  /  Author:  Álvaro  Barbosa  (www.abarbosa.org)  
  • 26. Background  on  Network  Music  Performance   Results   How  each  musician  performs  in  rela@on  to  the  other?     The  analysis  was  performed  using  the  soeware  tool  MATCH:  Music  Alignment  Tool  Chest,   developed  by  Simon  Dixon  (this  soeware  analyses  the  alignment  of  audio  files  using  the   OLTW  algorithm)   Slide  #  26  /  Author:  Álvaro  Barbosa  (www.abarbosa.org)  
  • 27. Background  on  Network  Music  Performance   (6)  ANTIPHONY   Technique  of  alternate  or  responsive  singing  by  a  choir  in  two  separate  sec@ons.   Each  sec]on  sings  alternate  musical  phrases   Or  POLYCHORAL  ANTIPHONY  (AKA  Vene]an  polychoral  style)   When  two  or  more  groups  of  singers  sing  in  alterna]on.   Origin  in  the  late  Renaissance  and  early  Baroque   Can  this  Technique  improve     network  latency  tolerance?   Slide  #  27  /  Author:  Álvaro  Barbosa  (www.abarbosa.org)  
  • 28. Background  on  Network  Music  Performance   Latency and Networked Music Basic Principles - Shared Sonic Environments(1) Digital Control Interface (software or tangible)(2) Local Synthesis & Transmission of Control Data(3) Peer-To-Peer Communication(4) Latency Adaptive Dynamics(5) Behavior Driven Interaction (Loose Coupling) Slide  #  28  /  Author:  Álvaro  Barbosa  (www.abarbosa.org)  
  • 29. Background  on  Network  Music  Performance   Latency and Networked Music Examples Shared Sonic Environments PUBLIC  SOUND  OBJECTS   THE  HORGIE:  COLLABORATIVE   by  Álvaro  Barbosa   ONLINE  SYNTHESIZER     by  Jorge  Herrera   Slide  #  29  /  Author:  Álvaro  Barbosa  (www.abarbosa.org)  
  • 30. Public  Sound  Objects   Public Sound Objects 2004/2006, MTG (BCN) Slide  #  30  /  Author:  Álvaro  Barbosa  (www.abarbosa.org)  
  • 31. Public  Sound  Objects  Local Network of PSOs – CITAR (Porto)commissioned by “Casa da Musica”http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Casa_da_musica Slide  #  31  /  Author:  Álvaro  Barbosa  (www.abarbosa.org)  
  • 32. Public  Sound  Objects   Slide  #  32  /  Author:  Álvaro  Barbosa  (www.abarbosa.org)  
  • 33. Public  Sound  Objects   Slide  #  33  /  Author:  Álvaro  Barbosa  (www.abarbosa.org)  
  • 34. Public  Sound  Objects   Slide  #  34  /  Author:  Álvaro  Barbosa  (www.abarbosa.org)  
  • 35. Public  Sound  Objects   Permanent Installation Casa da Música (Renaissance Hall) Slide  #  35  /  Author:  Álvaro  Barbosa  (www.abarbosa.org)  
  • 36. Behavior-­‐Driven  Interac9on   Small Fish (Fujihata e Furukawa 1999) Slide  #  36  /  Author:  Álvaro  Barbosa  (www.abarbosa.org)  
  • 37. Behavior-­‐Driven  Interac9on  Radial String Chimes(1st prototype Developed at CCRMA – Stanford University)Interactive musical device triggered by motion applied to a spinning vinyl record.Users can spin the record, making hanging coffee straws to bounce and plucktwelve radial guitar strings, applied to a round wood board. Slide  #  37  /  Author:  Álvaro  Barbosa  (www.abarbosa.org)  
  • 38. Behavior-­‐Driven  Interac9on   Slide  #  38  /  Author:  Álvaro  Barbosa  (www.abarbosa.org)  
  • 39. Behavior-­‐Driven  Interac9on   Used  in  Live  Performances:     Live  Set  at  Galerija  Kapelica  in  Ljubljana,   Slovenia  During  The  EARZOM  Fes]val   2010     Slide  #  39  /  Author:  Álvaro  Barbosa  (www.abarbosa.org)  
  • 40. Behavior-­‐Driven  Interac9on   Jorney  to  the  Last  Fron9er  -­‐  with  Victor  Gama  –  B&W  2012   Slide  #  40  /  Author:  Álvaro  Barbosa  (www.abarbosa.org)  
  • 41. Behavior-­‐Driven  Interac9on   Live  Set:  2  Ipads  and  1  Iphone  runing  CS-­‐Grain,  Reactable  and   Cur]s;  1  Radio  String  Chimes;  2  Wind  Blowers;  1  E-­‐Bow   Slide  #  41  /  Author:  Álvaro  Barbosa  (www.abarbosa.org)  
  • 42. Behavior-­‐Driven  Interac9on   Victor  Gama:  www.victorgama.org   Performed  on  His  own  Instruments  –  Dino,  Acrux  and  Thoa   Slide  #  42  /  Author:  Álvaro  Barbosa  (www.abarbosa.org)  
  • 43. Behavior-­‐Driven  Interac9on   Audio  Materials:  Recorded  at  the  Antarc]ca  Expedi]onin   January  2012  by  Álvaro  Barbosa  and  Victor  Gama   Slide  #  43  /  Author:  Álvaro  Barbosa  (www.abarbosa.org)  
  • 44. Behavior-­‐Driven  Interac9on   Field  Recordings  at  the  Antarc9ca  Peninsula   Slide  #  44  /  Author:  Álvaro  Barbosa  (www.abarbosa.org)  
  • 45. Behavior-­‐Driven  Interac9on   Video  and  Photography  for  Mul9media  Perfoamances   Slide  #  45  /  Author:  Álvaro  Barbosa  (www.abarbosa.org)  
  • 46. Behavior-­‐Driven  Interac9on   Slide  #  46  /  Author:  Álvaro  Barbosa  (www.abarbosa.org)  
  • 47. Behavior-­‐Driven  Interac9on   Photography  Books:  Drieing  Ice;  Antarc]cans   Slide  #  47  /  Author:  Álvaro  Barbosa  (www.abarbosa.org)  
  • 48. School  of  Arts  –  Porto,  Portugal   Thank  You!!!!       alvaro.barbosa@usj.edu.mo     abarbosa@porto.ucp.pt    |    hIp://www.abarbosa.org     Slide  #  48  /  Author:  Álvaro  Barbosa  (www.abarbosa.org)