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CCRMA - 2011

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Presentation a CCRMA, Stanford University …

Presentation a CCRMA, Stanford University
https://ccrma.stanford.edu/events/alvaro-barbosa-ccrma-colloquium-public-sound-objects-web-real-world


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  • 1. Álvaro BarbosaResearch Center for Science and Technology of the ArtsCITAR (UCP–Porto, Portugal)
  • 2. Álvaro Barbosa http://www.abarbosa.org/2000/2006 – MTG, UPF-Barcelona, Spainhttp://mtg.upf.edu/Since 2006 – CITAR, UCP-Porto, Portugalhttp://artes.ucp.pt/citar/Since June 2010 – CCRMA, Stanford-CA, USAhttp://ccrma.stanford.edu/
  • 3. Networked Music Networked Music (…) All Music Is networked. You can think about an Orchestra as client- server network, where a conductor is serving visual information to the client musicians, or a peer-to-peer networking model in an improvising Jazz Combo, where there is no one directing, and the musicians are all interacting, so, any performance context we can think of in some way there is a network connecting the performers (…). Networked Music with capital N and capital M (the kind we are talking about) is about performance situations where traditional acoustic and visual connections between participants are augmented, mediated or replaced by electronically-controlled connections. (From Jason Freeman s lecture opening at the 1st Networked Music Workshop during ICMC 2005)
  • 4. Displaced SoundscapesDisplaced Soundscapes is a metaphorical description of the way livelygenerated sounds can be perceived over the Internet.!!(Book) Barbosa, A. 2008. Displaced Soundscapes !VDM Verlag (ISBN: 978-3-8364-7154-1)!!-  Extensive Survey of NM Applications !-  Research on Latency and Internet Acoustics!-  Models for Networked Music Systems!-  Implementation Public Sound Objects !
  • 5. Background on Network Collaborative Practices Latency and Networked Music In a vocal conversation it is possible to maintain it even with one-way delays of up to 500 ms. Holub, J., Kastner, M., Tomiska, O. 2007 In order to maintain a synchronized and smooth musical interaction reduces drastically to the order of tens of milliseconds. Schuett, N. 2002 Chafe C., Gurevich M, 2004 Lago, N and Kon, F. 2004 Barbosa, A., Carôt, A. 2005 Chew, E., Sawchuk, A., Tanoue, C., and Zimmermann, R. 2005 Bartlette, C., Headlam, D., Bocko, M., Velikic, G. 2006 Farner, S., Solvang, A., Sæbo, A., Svensson, U. P. 2009 Chafe, C., Cáceres, J-P., Gurevich, M., 2010
  • 6. Background on Network Collaborative Practices Latency and Networked Music For the Human ear to perceive the order of two simultaneous sounds, they should not be displaced in time over 20ms (Hirsh, 1959) A difficulty in discerning the order of sounds events ê hard to maintain a synchronous musical interaction. The ability to perform music synchronously is strongly dependent on: •  music style (rhythmic, melodic,…) •  musicians background and experience •  visual or physical feedback •  Sound pitch, loudness and particularly timbre (Bregman 1990)
  • 7. Background on Network Collaborative Practices Latency and Networked Music What Happens?
  • 8. Background on Network Collaborative Practices Latency and Networked Music Basic Principles (1) Ensemble Performance Threshold (EPT) (2) Echo Feed-Back (Self Delay) (3) Inverse Proportion to Tempo (4) Slow Attack Times (5) Reverb and Complementary Modalities
  • 9. Background on Network Collaborative Practices (1) Ensemble Performance Threshold (EPT) (CCRMA 2004, USC 2005) Comfort Zone for Expert Musicians EPT Interval for Expert Musicians Comfort Zone for EPT Interval for Untrained Users Untrained Users Almost Extremely Impossible to Difficult to Compensate Unnaturally Difficult to Compensate Low Latency CompensateDELAY (ms) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 75 100 150
  • 10. Background on Network Collaborative Practices (2) Echo Feed-Back (USC 2005)
  • 11. Background on Network Collaborative Practices (2) Echo Feed-Back (UCP-Porto 2005)
  • 12. Background on Network Collaborative Practices (3) Inverse Proportion to Tempo (UCP-Porto 2005)
  • 13. Background on Network Collaborative Practices (3) Inverse Proportion to Tempo (CCRMA/Banff 2006) St. Lawrence String Quartet (over 50ms Delay)
  • 14. Background on Network Collaborative Practices (4) Slow Attack Times Bregman (1990) Auditory Scene Analysis
  • 15. Background on Network Collaborative Practices (5) Reverb and Complementary Modalities Studies on the effect of Reverberation (Farner 2009) The Influence of Delay and Various Acoustic Environments Studies on the effect of Visual Feed-Back Pilot experiments at CCRMA since 2006 Studies on the effect of Haptic Feedback ???
  • 16. Latency at the global level Jitter and delay asymmetry introduce further disruption in Network Communication. Furthermore, Latency is not a technological condition that can be overcome in the near future. Consider mobile or satellite technology or a communication setup that spans worldwide. Distance = 14.141 Km Data Transfer = Light Speed Latency= 94,3 ms
  • 17. Applications for Collaborative Music Based on Tom Rodden s CSCW Classification Space (1992) Computer-Supported Cooperative Work for music Applications | Álvaro Barbosa, 2006
  • 18. Shared Sonic Environments The Shared Nature of the Internet •  Going beyond the paradigm in which we connect two or more remote spaces for a performative session by creating a shared space in a computer network, inside which users can achieve a certain degree of immersion and flexibility in their behaviour •  Users can freely join or leave this space, choosing to participate or just to listen to an on-going acoustic piece •  It is not oriented towards a time limited event scenario
  • 19. Shared Sonic Environments Shared Sonic Interface on the Web A musical instrument that can be played using only a web browser, enabling multiple performers to play the instrument in a collaborative way. Jorge Herrera CCRMA, 2009 The HORGIE: Collaborative Online Synthesizer
  • 20. Public Sound Objects From the Web to the Real World
  • 21. Public Sound Objects: 2004 Original PSOs – 2004/2006, MTG (BCN)
  • 22. Public Sound Objects: 2004 Original PSOs – 2004/2006, MTG (BCN)
  • 23. Public Sound Objects PSOs CLIENTS WEB BROWSER Streaming Audio Client INTERNET PSOs SOUND Controller Interface SERVER OBJECTS DATA-BASE ICECAST Streaming Server STREAMING AUDIO SERVER WEB BROWSER Apache + Custom Developed Servlet Streaming Audio Client Controller Interface HTTP-SERVER Pure-Data INTERACTION SERVER (...) Pure-Data + GEM LOCAL VISUAL Pure-Data WEB BROWSER REPRESENTATION Streaming Audio Client ENGINE Controller Interface Performance Commands (Discrete Connection triggered by client events) Global Audio Performance Public Installation Site (Continuous Streaming Connection)
  • 24. Public Sound Objects: 2000 Small Fish (Fujihata e Furukawa 1999) Computer-Supported Cooperative Work for music Applications | Álvaro Barbosa, 2006
  • 25. Public Sound Objects: 2005 Computer-Supported Cooperative Work for music Applications | Álvaro Barbosa, 2006
  • 26. Public Sound Objects: 2005 Computer-Supported Cooperative Work for music Applications | Álvaro Barbosa, 2006
  • 27. Public Sound Objects
  • 28. Public Sound Objects: 2007 PSOs Interface It is based on Pitch, Dynamics, Tempo and Timbre. It tolerates Latency because: • The resulting soundscape is musical. Yet, it does not require a strict synchronization between sound events •  Behavior driven interactive Interface (loose coupling interaction) •  Adaptive speed and dynamics (to network conditions) •  Individual Delayed Feed-Back (same piece to everyone) •  Coherent with visual cues (spatialization of sound helps)
  • 29. Public Sound Objects: Panorama Cues t1 t2 t3 R L t1 t2 t3 Time t1 t2 t3 t1 t2 t3 R R L L t2 t3 t2 t3 t1 Time t1 Time
  • 30. Public Sound Objects: 2007 Local Network of PSOs – CITAR (Porto) commissioned by Casa da Musica http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Casa_da_musica
  • 31. Public Sound Objects: 2007
  • 32. Public Sound Objects: 2007
  • 33. Public Sound Objects: 2007
  • 34. Public Sound Objects: 2007
  • 35. Public Sound Objects: 2007 Client Server
  • 36. Public Sound Objects: 2007
  • 37. Public Sound Objects: 2007
  • 38. Public Sound Objects: 2007
  • 39. Public Sound Objects: 2007
  • 40. Public Sound Objects: 2007
  • 41. Public Sound Objects: 2007
  • 42. Public Sound Objects: 2008
  • 43. Public Sound Objects: 2009 Permanent Installation Casa da Música (Renaissance Hall)
  • 44. Thank You!!!!abarbosa@ccrma.stanford.edu or abarbosa@porto.ucp.pthttp://www.abarbosa.org/pso/

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