Roman Republic and Empire

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The Roman Republic and Empire Presentation by Jon Furreness

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Roman Republic and Empire

  1. 1. Rome “The Eternal City” Caput Mudi Capital of the World Ch 6 1
  2. 2. Famous Roman Sights Buildings / Architecture The Romans were the Great Builders of the Ancient World
  3. 3. Look these Sights up Online Explain & find at least one fact about the famous structure • • • • • • • • The Cloaca Maxima The Pantheon Flavian Amphitheatre – Colosseum Circus Maximus Aqueducts The Appian Way – Via Appia Roman Baths The Forum 3
  4. 4. Cloaca Maxima 4
  5. 5. Pantheon “Temple to the Gods”
  6. 6. The Roman Colosseum Flavian Amphitheatre
  7. 7. The Colosseum Interior
  8. 8. Wild Animals could appear from the trap doors
  9. 9. Circus Maximus - then
  10. 10. “Ben Hur” 11
  11. 11. Circus Maximus - now
  12. 12. Roman Aqueducts
  13. 13. Rome’s Early Road System
  14. 14. Roman Roads: The Appian Way
  15. 15. Roman Baths
  16. 16. The Roman Forum
  17. 17. 20
  18. 18. 21
  19. 19. Roman Society & The End of the Republic PART 1 --- # 32 - Government of the Republic - Roman Society - Civil Wars - Julius Caesar Roman Republic : 509 – 27 BCE 22
  20. 20. Gaius Julius Caesar • Gaius – Name • Julius – Clan Name groups of families with a: Common Mythological Ancestor • Caesar – Family Name The Individual wasn’t important - Family / Clan / State : That was Important 23
  21. 21. Patricians vs. Plebeians -Plebeians have no say in the government - Eventually get to elect their own officials called tribunes in 494 B.C. - For 84 years, (421-337 B.C.) plebeians fought to have a role in each part of the government 24
  22. 22. The Twelve Tables, 450 BCE  Providing political and social rights for the plebeians. – hung in the Forum
  23. 23. Social Structures -A man was the head of the household and his wife and children did not question his authority - Paterfamilias: Family Father -Over centuries, women received more rights. These included: -Owning property -Running businesses -All children were taught to learn to read and write -Wealthy had private tutors for their children 26
  24. 24. Economics -Conquests brought much wealth to Rome -Wealthy families bought huge estates called latifundia. -Romans forced the people they conquered to work as slaves on the latifundia -Slave labor hurt the small farmers because it cost them more to produce food, and the price was driven down by the immense quantities coming into Rome -Farmers fell into debt, sold their land, and moved to the city looking for work -gap between rich and poor widens=riots and chaos 27
  25. 25. The Gracchus Brothers -Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus elected tribunes •They also worked to get the state to buy grain to feed the poor •The brothers worked to get the state to distribute the land to the poor farmers •Senate felt they were a threat to its power, and hired thugs to kill them 28
  26. 26. Military Reformer  Gaius Marius • recruited an army from the poor and homeless • professional standing army • He is eventually defeated-exciled – Caesar learns
  27. 27. Republic to Empire -Civil wars break out to decide who should hold power. The senate wanted to keep the status quo; political leaders wanted to weaken the senate and enact reforms -Slave uprisings throughout the republic “Spartacus” -Armies became loyal to their commanders because they gave them benefits such as captured land / Paid them Personally - Caesar 30
  28. 28. The First Triumvirate  Julius Caesar  Marcus Licinius Crassus  Gaius Magnus Pompey
  29. 29. Crossing the Rubicon, 49 BC The Die is Cast!
  30. 30. Beware the Ides of March! 44 BCE - Brutus
  31. 31. The Second Triumvirate  Octavian  Marc Antony  Marcus Lepidus Battle of Philippi Battle of Actium
  32. 32. Antony & Cleopatra 35
  33. 33. The Pax Romana “Roman Peace” 27 BCE – 180 AD PART 2 - Period of Unprecedented Stability & Prosperity - Initiated by Octavian (Caesar Augustus) - The Principate - Princips “First among Equals” - “I found Rome Brick & I turned it Marble” 37
  34. 34. 38
  35. 35. Octavian -Augustus: Rome’s First Emperor
  36. 36. The First Roman Dynasty
  37. 37. Pax Romana: 27 BCE – 180 CE
  38. 38. The Greatest Extent of the Roman Empire – 14 CE
  39. 39. To commemorate the birth of Augustus (63 BCE) two thousand years earlier(1937), Mussolini commissioned a model of Rome as it appeared at the time of Constantine (AD 306-337) 43
  40. 40. The Rise of Christianity PART 3 •Jesus / St. Paul 44
  41. 41. Birth of Jesus 45
  42. 42. Nero Fiddled while Rome Burned - then he blamed the Christians 46
  43. 43. The Rise of Christianity
  44. 44. St. Paul: Apostle to the Gentiles
  45. 45. Imperial Roman Road System
  46. 46. The Spread of Christianity
  47. 47. “In This Sign, Conquer” 51
  48. 48. Constantine: Edict of Milan 313 AD Legalized Christianity in the Empire 312 - 337
  49. 49. Constantinople: “New Rome” ( 330 AD)
  50. 50. Diocletian Splits the Empire in Two: 294 AD
  51. 51. Constantinople: “New Rome” ( 330 AD)
  52. 52. The Later Roman Empire PART 4 The Fall of Rome & The Legacy of Rome 56
  53. 53. Reasons for the Fall of Rome 1. War with the Germanic Tribes & Huns - Germans were pushed by the Huns - the still glowing splendor of Rome Maximus “Rome is the Light, the rest of the World is Darkness” 2. Internal Strife in Rome - civil war / unstable & poor leadership(corruption) 3. Loss of Moral Standards & Virtues - Commodus 57
  54. 54. The Empire in Crisis: 3c
  55. 55. Barbarian Invasions Battle of Adrianople – Visigoths – 378 AD
  56. 56. Alaric the Visigoth Sacks and Burns Rome in 410 AD 60
  57. 57. Attila the Hun: “The Scourge of God”
  58. 58. Battle of Chalons – 451 AD • Combined Roman and Visogoth armies defeat Attila the Hun • Attila Presses on toward Rome itself • Only knowledge of the Plague in Rome prevented him from destroying the city 62
  59. 59. Western Rome Falls to the “Barbarians” in 476 AD • Odoacer (Ostrogoth) overthrew the Emperor Romulus Augustulas • The Western Empire was over • The Eastern Empire will live on for another 1,000 years (Byzantine) Constantinople 63
  60. 60. The Legacy of Rome Life of Brian – 1:30 Republic Government Roman Law – Rule of Law Latin Language – Romance Languages Roman Catholic Church – Preserving & Spreading Christianity  City Planning & Road Building  Romanesque Architectural Style  Roman Engineering & Building • Aqueducts / Sewage systems • Dams / Cement / Bridges / Arch    
  61. 61. Gladiator plays off Old & New Rome Republican Virtues (Maximus) Rome in the Empire (Commodus) 65
  62. 62. Typical Roman virtues shown by Maximus 1.Farmer / Soldier --- like Cincinnatus 2.Simplistic Living – “Spartan Lifestyle” 3.Religious Devotion 4.Obedience These are prized virtues during the Republic Period 66
  63. 63. Gladiator Setting – 180 AD – Final Year of the Pax Romana Main Characters______________ Maximus Marcus Aurelius Commodus _General_________Emperor_________Emperor___ “Cincinnatus” Died of the Fought in the Virtues Plague arena(sand) Gladiatorial Competitions go back to the Etruscans - 264 BCE was the first recorded - Commodus Fought in the Colosseum over 700 times(never lost) 67

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