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  1. 1. Aluminium <ul><li>A large Aluminium billet from which wrought products will be produced. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Aluminium Smelter (Norway)
  3. 3. Cast Structure of Al Ingot
  4. 4. Boat Hulls <ul><li>Aluminium boat hulls offer corrosion resistance and light weight. </li></ul>
  5. 5. XJ6 Aluminium Body
  6. 6. XJ6 Aluminium Chassis
  7. 7. Aluminium Bumper Beams
  8. 8. Aluminium Engine Blocks (Lupo)
  9. 9. Audi A2 engine block
  10. 10. Aluminium Bottles
  11. 11. Aluminium Forging
  12. 12. Forged Aluminium Wheels
  13. 13. Al heat transfer components
  14. 14. Aluminium Roofing
  15. 15. Other non-ferrous metals <ul><li>Copper </li></ul><ul><li>Tin </li></ul><ul><li>Lead </li></ul><ul><li>Zinc </li></ul><ul><li>Titanium </li></ul><ul><li>Lithium </li></ul><ul><li>Nickel </li></ul><ul><li>Chromium </li></ul>
  16. 16. Copper <ul><li>Moderate strength in the pure state </li></ul><ul><li>Malleable and ductile </li></ul><ul><li>Very good electrical and thermal conductor </li></ul><ul><li>Good corrosion resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Alloys with Zinc to give brass </li></ul><ul><li>Alloys with Tin and others to make bronze </li></ul>
  17. 17. Copper Roofing
  18. 18. Copper as a Biocide
  19. 19. Copper as a Heat Exchanger
  20. 20. Tin <ul><li>Soft and corrosion resistant. </li></ul><ul><li>Used to alloy with lead to make solder </li></ul><ul><li>Used to alloy with copper to produce bronzes, e.g. Bell metal </li></ul>
  21. 21. Bell Metal
  22. 22. Lead <ul><li>High Density </li></ul><ul><li>Corrosion Resistant </li></ul><ul><li>Malleable, but not ductile </li></ul><ul><li>Very soft and weak </li></ul>
  23. 23. Lead Applications
  24. 24. Lead as a Roofing Material
  25. 25. Zinc <ul><li>No structural engineering uses in pure state </li></ul><ul><li>Used as sacrificial anodes to protect steel. </li></ul><ul><li>Used as an alloy with copper to produce </li></ul><ul><li>brass </li></ul><ul><li>Used to corrosion coat steel by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Galvanising or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plating </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Brass Components
  27. 27. Magnesium <ul><li>Light weight – S.G. of 1.7 </li></ul><ul><li>Burns easily when being machined </li></ul><ul><li>Used with Aluminium to make lightweight alloys. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Magnesium
  29. 29. Magnesium Wheel
  30. 30. Lithium <ul><li>Very light, S.G. of 0.5! </li></ul><ul><li>Used to make alloys with Aluminium for aerospace applications. </li></ul><ul><li>Used in batteries for mobile phones etc. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Titanium <ul><li>Low density (S.G. of 4.5, as compared to steel at approx 8) </li></ul><ul><li>Similar strengths to steels </li></ul><ul><li>Highly corrosion resistant </li></ul><ul><li>Melts at 1670°C </li></ul><ul><li>Use restricted to <400 °C </li></ul>
  32. 32. Titanium <ul><li>Used in </li></ul><ul><li>Aerospace parts </li></ul><ul><li>Racing cars, motorcycles and bicycles </li></ul><ul><li>Pipework and heat exchangers in chemical plants and oil installations. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Titanium heat-exchangers
  34. 34. Nickel <ul><li>Corrosion resistant – forms strong oxide layer. </li></ul><ul><li>Brittle in the pure state </li></ul><ul><li>Used in stainless steels </li></ul><ul><li>Alloyed with copper to produce cupronickels for coinage and Monel for corrosion-resistant valve parts. </li></ul><ul><li>Used in Nimonic and superalloys for aerospace engine parts. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Nickel-based superalloys
  36. 36. Single-crystal blades
  37. 37. Chromium <ul><li>Corrosion resistant – forms strong oxide layer. </li></ul><ul><li>Brittle in the pure state </li></ul><ul><li>Used in stainless steels </li></ul><ul><li>Used with Ni & Mo to produce strong steel alloys for bicycle and motorcycle frame tubes. </li></ul>
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