http://www.ewaste.ch/welcome/ Computer Equipment (computers, printers etc) & Consumer Electronics (TVs) 67,000 Canada Electronic and Electrical Appliances including Refrigerators 118,000 Denmark Refrigerator, Air Conditioners, Televisions, Washing Machines, Computers 60,000 Thailand Computers, Home electrical appliances (TVs, Washing Machines, Airconditioners, Refrigerators) 14,036 Taiwan Video Products, Audio Products, Computers and Telecommunications Equipment 2,124,400 USA Office & Telecommunications Equipment, Consumer Entertainment Electronics,Large and Small Domestic Appliances, Refrigerators, Fractions 915,000 United Kingdom Office & Telecommunications Equipment, Consumer Entertainment Electronics,Large and Small Domestic Appliances, Refrigerators, Fractions 1,100,000 Germany Office & Telecommunications Equipment, Consumer Entertainment Electronics,Large and Small Domestic Appliances, Refrigerators, Fractions 66,042(*) Switzerland Categories of Appliances counted in e-waste Ewaste (tonnes / year) Country
Bad stuff I Medical equipment, fire detectors, sensing element in smoke detectors Radio-active substances - Americium Toner cartridges for laser printers / copiers - Toner Dust Others: Cable insulation - PVC (polyvinyl chloride) Cooling unit, Insulation foam - Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) Fire retardants for plastics (thermoplastic components, cable insulation) TBBA is presently the most widely used flame retardant in printed wiring boards and casings. - TBBA (tetrabromo-bisphenol-A) - PBB (polybrominated biphenyls) - PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ethers) Condensers, Transformers - PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) TCE :trichloroethylene. Its vapor is used as a source of chlorine in Si processing, most notably during thermal oxidation of Si to complex metallic contaminants potentially present on the Si surface. Halogenated compounds: Occurrence in e-waste Substance
Bad stuff II Li-batteries - Lithium Rechargeable NiCd-batteries or NiMH-batteries, electron gun in CRT - Nickel Fluorescent lamps that provide backlighting in LCDs, in some alkaline batteries and mercury wetted switches - Mercury CRT screens, batteries, printed wiring boards - Lead Rechargeable NiCd-batteries, fluorescent layer (CRT screens), printer inks and toners, photocopying-machines (printer drums) - Cadmium Power supply boxes which contain silicon controlled rectifiers and x-ray lenses - Beryllium Getters in CRT - Barium Small quantities in the form of gallium arsenide within light emitting diodes - Arsenic Heavy metals and other metals:
First tier recycling collects items, refurbishing and reselling/donating whenever possible.
Second tier processor begins tearing the product apart. Metals, electronic components, CRTs, and plastics are separated and shipped in bulk to specialized refiners.
Third tiers are refineries specializing in base material recapture.
Leaded Glass: Cathode ray tubes are heavily leaded and are considered hazardous waste. However, there is an economically viable recycling method which grinds the leaded glass to a powder which is resold to cathode ray tube manufacturers creating a true circular life cycle.
LCD and plasma technology make these obsolete, though.
Precious Metals: Electronic boards are sent to precious metal smelters. Here precious metal and copper are recaptured and all other non desirable material is burned off.
To reduce costs, precious metals are being removed from the product wherever possible—thus less incentive to recycle.
Metals and Plastics: What is left (approximately 80% of the scrap volume) are intermixed, miscellaneous metals and plastics.
The labor cost for dismantling/separating far exceeds the value of the separated recyclable materials.
For this reason significant amounts of non reusable computer equipment are shipped to the Far East for further processing.
Under the law, EPA was empowered to order polluters to clean up contamination resulting from their business activities or other ventures.
The Superfund also created a trust, funded by industry fees, for EPA to clean up "orphan sites"--sites where polluters refused to clean up, where the company was no longer in existence, or where a polluter could not afford to pay for the clean-up.
Superfund funding has dropped by 25% from 2001-2004 compared to 1992-2000.
Because of this shortfall, 30% of cleanups at orphan sites are now paid for entirely by taxpayers.
The government opposes reinstatement of the industry fees that would restore the trust fund.
Superfund consumes 25% of the E.P.A.'s budget.
Even with $20 billion spent over the last 15 years, more than 75% of sites still haven't been cleaned up.
In the 60s-70s, semiconductor companies used TCE to clean silicon wafers
Thousands of gallons of TCE disposed in underground tanks.
The tanks corroded and leaked, though damage wasn’t discovered for years.
One of the first and largest detected leaks, from the Fairchild Camera and Instrument Corp., contaminated a public drinking well with 1,700 to 8,800 parts per billion TCE (the state standard for TCE is 200 parts per billion.)
California Department of Health Services reported three times as many birth defects and twice as many miscarriages in the neighborhood effected.
Silicon Valley currently has 29 Superfund sites (mostly TCE).
This is more than any other area in the country.
High-tech manufacturing created 24 of the 29 sites
18 are tied to the computer chip industry.
At one time, the largest mercury mine in the U.S. was located in the New Alma den hills in the back of San Jose. Mercury, which is used to separate silver from base ore, seeps from this 100-year year old open sore and poisons the Guadalupe River and San Francisco Bay.
The Hispanic hamlet of Alison lies partly on a landfill created by the dumping of asbestos-lined pipes in the 1950’s by the Certainteed Corporation.
Super-fund Sites In Si Valley Http://Www.Svtc.Org/ 5 Miles Apple Intel Hp Applied Materials Lockheed Stanford
The Environmental Protection Agency reports that electric lighting accounts for 25% of US electricity use.
The lighter the color the higher the reflectivity can be applied (white=80%).
Dark walls absorb more light and reflect less (black=5%).
Consequently, far more lighting is required for rooms with dark walls than those with light walls.
The color of a room will affect your perception of temperature.
People estimate the temperature of a room with cool colors, such as blues and greens, to be 6-10 degrees Fahrenheit cooler than the actual temperature.
Warm colors, such as reds and oranges, will result in a 6-10 degrees Fahrenheit warmer estimate.
Alternative Energy • p-n junction: • Operation: --incident photon produces hole-elec. pair. --typically 0.5V potential. --current increases w/light intensity. • Solar powered weather station: polycrystalline Si Los Alamos High School weather station (photo courtesy P.M. Anderson)