Factors that influence nutrition intake in humanDocument Transcript
DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGY FACULTY OF SCIENCE AND MATHEMATIC UNIVERSITI PENDIDIKAN SULTAN IDRIS Food Science and Nutrition SBK3023Title: Factors Influence the Nutrient Intake for HumanLecturer: Dr. Hasimah binti AlimonGroup Members:Name Matrix NumberHairieyl Azieyman Bin Azmi D20101037426Heng Tiger D20101037446Muhammad Shamim Bin Zulkefli D20101037460Ng Seng Wei D20091035105Mohamad Arif Bin Nasaruddin D20091035123
FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE NUTRITION INTAKE IN HUMAN There are a lot of factors that can affect the nutrition intake in human. Here are somefactors that we want to highlight.The quality and quantity of food that human take.The quality of food can be determine based on the external factor such as appearance (size,shape, colour, gloss, and consistency), flavor; texture and internal factors such as chemical,physical and microbial of food. Chemicals added to the crops and livestock can influence thequality of food that we usually take. Excessive use of pesticides for vegetable plantation candecrease the quality of vegetable and lead to decrease the nutrition value in human if weconsumed it as food. The examples of pesticides that can be used in agriculture aredichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-used to kill insects-, acetylcholinesterase inhibitor –usedto kill snails-, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) –used to kill unwanted plants- and manymore. The excessive use of these pesticides can contaminate the agricultural based food product.When this contaminate food enter our body system, it can lead the formation of the free radicalparticles. Free radicals are unstable atoms or groups of atoms that contain at least one unpairedelectron. Free radicals can attack healthy cells because another atom or molecule can bond to iteasily since it contains unpaired electron. A chemical reaction will take place and may damagesthat healthy cell. This can lead to cancer and initiate other serious disease. So, it is clear that thelow quality of food that we consumed can decrease our nutrition intake. In the other hand, quantity of food may be referring to the source of food. Malaysia is acountry which has equatorial climate, being hot and humid throughout the year which is good foragriculture activities. But, Malaysia still cannot produce enough rice and other food products tosupply the country since Malaysia is populated with hills and does not have strong temperatureclimate. But, we still manage to settle this problem by importing food from other countries.Besides that, Malaysia is bounded by water, including the South China, Sulu, and Celebes seas,and the Strait of Malacca. So, these enable fishery activities can take place effectively andprovide us with mass food resources. Thus, Malaysians can have a perfect nutrient content if wetake a balance diet. Compare to Somalia, which currently suffer from great drought that limitedtheir food source. That is why most of Somalia’s people do not a perfect nutrient needed by bodyand lead to malnutrition.
Age As we human grow, the nutrition that we take daily will eventually change to suit ourcondition and growing process. This is due to the aging factor that the person is experiencingwhere the needs for the nutrients are changing from time to time. As for infant that was born,they only feed on milk and lactation. This is because they acquired most their nutrients frombreastfeeding. The mother’s milk is the best nutrition for baby because they don’t have any teethyet to chew solid food and mother’s milk contains the nutrients baby needed and it also enrichedwith antibodies that supplied from the mother. While for children and adolescents, they needmore nutrients to supply adequate essential energy because at this phase they are having rapidchange in body size due to the rapid development of muscle and formation of bone. Puberty alsocontribute to the increase on nutrients intake to complete maturation process and grow. While forthe adults, they are having slower growth rate and this to repair any tissues and thus theymaintaining their nutrients intake. As for the old people, they are mostly focusing in a healthydiet and focus on intake of vitamin and other nutrients due to the loss of lean body mass.Environment’s Weather Environment factor is one of factors that affecting people’s nutritional intake is. Weare focusing more on the weather itself. People are more likely to consume more food during thecold rather than hot weather. So, we will tend to eat more during the cold season, for us inMalaysia probably in raining season. This is because of the body need to maintain the body’stemperature to let the body’s to function well. In order the body to achieve that, the body needmore energy from food and more likely carbohydrate-rich food like rice, bread and else to keepthe body’s core at the optimum temperature. However, when it’s come to hot weather, our bodyneeds to be cooled and maintain. Therefore, more liquids must be taken in order to keep ourbody sweat to cool it down.Occupation and Physical Activities Nutrients give the energy that need to perform the daily activities of living. Food maycontain a few or many nutrients and each nutrient has specific uses in the body. The amount ofenergy used by the body is the energy expenditure and this varies widely from individual toindividual. In this case the factors that influence the nutrition taken by human are according to
occupation and physical activities. This is because when we do more work than our bodyrequires more energy to keep our bodies still in healthy condition. Workers like coal miners,steel workers, forestry workers, army recruits, builder’s laborers’ and athletics’ need more foodthat contains more nutrients such as carbohydrates, protein and fats. Those classes of foodimportant to give energy that required to sustain the function of the body such as physical work,maintenance, respiration and circulation. Energy comes from the food eaten and released in thebody to yield the chemical energy needed to sustain metabolism, nerve transmissions andcirculation. In addition, occupations are classified according to how active they are workers.Sedentary work like office workers, clerical tasks, pilots, lawyer and teachers need less of energyrequirement and different types of nutrition they need to take. This is because their job does notrequire a lot of energy to do work. It is important that meals for very active jobs to providesufficient energy, and it is advisable to supply about one third of third of the energy in the formof fat as carbohydrates food tend to be bulky and would therefore be difficult to digest whileworking actively. Extra water and sodium chloride should be taken if work is carried out in a hotatmosphere.EMOTIONAL FACTORS The very young infant will generally cry until fed but by four or five months of age maystop crying when he hears his mother’s footsteps or sees that the formula is being prepared,presumably having learned to anticipate and to wait for the relief of hunger pain. In later life, theperiod of tantalizing anticipation before a meal may actually be considered pleasurable, Therepetitive cycle of nutritional and emotional gratification during infancy becomes furtherassociated with the person giving the food, usually the mother, so that being loved and fed cometo be associated in the mind of infant. Research has proved that the rate of secretion ofhydrochloric acid in the stomach of a 15-month-old girl with gastric fistula was shown toincrease during period of social contact with a loved person and to decrease when approached bya stranger. As a conclusion, these factors are vital for your nutrient intake. Choose a good dietbecause you are what you eat.
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