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Anatomy and Physiology Organizationofbody
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Anatomy and Physiology Organizationofbody


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  • 1. Lecture Outline Organization of the Body Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • 2. 1.1 The Human BodyThe structure of a part suits the function of a parto  Anatomy – structure of a parto  Physiology – function of a part
  • 3. Organization of Body Partso  Levels of Organization •  Chemical •  Cellular •  Tissue •  Organs •  Organ Systems •  Organism
  • 4. 1.2 Anatomical TermsUsed to describe:o  Location of body partso  Regions of the bodyo  Imaginary planes by which the body can be sectioned
  • 5. Anatomical TermsAnatomical position –common reference pointfor all anatomical terms
  • 6. Anatomical TermsDirectional Termso  Anterior (ventral)/Posterior (dorsal)o  Superior/Inferioro  Medial/Lateralo  Proximal/Distalo  Superficial/Deepo  Central/Peripheralo  Ipsilateral/Contralateral
  • 7. Anatomical TermsRegions of the Bodyo  Axial portion – head, neck, and trunko  Appendicular portion – upper and lower limbs
  • 8. Anatomical TermsPlanes and Sections of the Bodyo  Sagittal (median) plane – divides body into right and left portionso  Frontal (coronal) plane – divides body into anterior and posterior portionso  Transverse (horizontal) plane – divides body into superior and inferior portions
  • 9. 1.3 Body Cavities and Membraneso  Posterior (dorsal) •  Cranial cavity – contains the brain •  Vertebral canal – contains the spinal cord •  Meninges – membranous layers lining dorsal body cavity
  • 10. Body Cavities and Membraneso  Anterior (ventral) •  Thoracic cavity   Medial portion (mediastinum) – contains the heart, thymus gland, trachea, esophagus, and other structures   Right and left portions – contain the lungs
  • 11. Body Cavities and Membraneso  Anterior (ventral) •  Abdominopelvic cavity   Superior portion (abdominal cavity) – contains the stomach, liver, spleen, gallbladder, and most of the small and large intestines   Inferior portion (pelvic cavity) – contains the rectum, urinary bladder, internal reproductive organs, and the rest of the large intestine
  • 12. Body Cavities and Membraneso  Parietal serous membrane – line walls of anterior body cavities •  Thoracic cavity   Parietal Pleura – lines thoracic cavity   Parietal pericardium – creates pericardial cavity •  Abdominopelvic cavity   Parietal peritoneum – lines the wall of the abdominal cavity
  • 13. Body Cavities and Membraneso  Visceral serous membrane – covers organs of the anterior body cavity •  Thoracic cavity   Visceral pleura – covers lung tissue   Visceral pericardium – covers heart •  Abdominopelvic cavity   Visceral peritoneum – covers many organs in abdominopelvic cavity
  • 14. Body Cavities and Membraneso  Abdominopelvic regions •  Nine regions •  Four quadrants
  • 15. 1.4 Organ SystemsSupport, Movement, and Protectiono  Integumentary Systemo  Skeletal Systemo  Muscular System
  • 16. Organ SystemsIntegration and Coordinationo  Nervous Systemo  Endocrine System
  • 17. Organ SystemsMaintenance of the Bodyo  Cardiovascular Systemo  Respiratory Systemo  Digestive Systemo  Urinary System
  • 18. Organ SystemsReproduction and Developmento  Male Reproductive Systemo  Female Reproductive System
  • 19. 1.5 HomeostasisHomeostasis is the relative constancy of the body s internal environmento  External conditions may change dramaticallyo  Internal conditions stay within a narrow rangeo  Dynamic equilibrium – internal conditions are not absolutely constanto  Illness results if internal conditions change to any great degree
  • 20. Homeostasiso  Components of homeostatic mechanisms •  Sensor – detects a change in the internal environment •  Control center – activates the effector •  Effector – produces a response to the change
  • 21. HomeostasisNegative Feedbacko  Primary homeostatic mechanismo  Effector reverses the change in the internal environment
  • 22. HomeostasisPositive Feedbacko  Effector continues to stimulate the sensor so that a greater change in the internal environment occurso  Helps in completing a process that has a cutoff point •  Blood clotting •  Childbirtho  Can be harmful
  • 23. HomeostasisHomeostasis and Body Systemso  All body systems contribute towards maintaining homeostasiso  Disease occurs when homeostasis fails •  Local disease – restricted to a specific part of the body •  Systemic disease – affects several organ systems or the entire body •  Acute diseases – occur suddenly and last a short time •  Chronic diseases – develop slowly and are long term