Anatomy and Physiology Organizationofbody


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Anatomy and Physiology Organizationofbody

  1. 1. Lecture Outline Organization of the Body Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  2. 2. 1.1 The Human BodyThe structure of a part suits the function of a parto  Anatomy – structure of a parto  Physiology – function of a part
  3. 3. Organization of Body Partso  Levels of Organization •  Chemical •  Cellular •  Tissue •  Organs •  Organ Systems •  Organism
  4. 4. 1.2 Anatomical TermsUsed to describe:o  Location of body partso  Regions of the bodyo  Imaginary planes by which the body can be sectioned
  5. 5. Anatomical TermsAnatomical position –common reference pointfor all anatomical terms
  6. 6. Anatomical TermsDirectional Termso  Anterior (ventral)/Posterior (dorsal)o  Superior/Inferioro  Medial/Lateralo  Proximal/Distalo  Superficial/Deepo  Central/Peripheralo  Ipsilateral/Contralateral
  7. 7. Anatomical TermsRegions of the Bodyo  Axial portion – head, neck, and trunko  Appendicular portion – upper and lower limbs
  8. 8. Anatomical TermsPlanes and Sections of the Bodyo  Sagittal (median) plane – divides body into right and left portionso  Frontal (coronal) plane – divides body into anterior and posterior portionso  Transverse (horizontal) plane – divides body into superior and inferior portions
  9. 9. 1.3 Body Cavities and Membraneso  Posterior (dorsal) •  Cranial cavity – contains the brain •  Vertebral canal – contains the spinal cord •  Meninges – membranous layers lining dorsal body cavity
  10. 10. Body Cavities and Membraneso  Anterior (ventral) •  Thoracic cavity   Medial portion (mediastinum) – contains the heart, thymus gland, trachea, esophagus, and other structures   Right and left portions – contain the lungs
  11. 11. Body Cavities and Membraneso  Anterior (ventral) •  Abdominopelvic cavity   Superior portion (abdominal cavity) – contains the stomach, liver, spleen, gallbladder, and most of the small and large intestines   Inferior portion (pelvic cavity) – contains the rectum, urinary bladder, internal reproductive organs, and the rest of the large intestine
  12. 12. Body Cavities and Membraneso  Parietal serous membrane – line walls of anterior body cavities •  Thoracic cavity   Parietal Pleura – lines thoracic cavity   Parietal pericardium – creates pericardial cavity •  Abdominopelvic cavity   Parietal peritoneum – lines the wall of the abdominal cavity
  13. 13. Body Cavities and Membraneso  Visceral serous membrane – covers organs of the anterior body cavity •  Thoracic cavity   Visceral pleura – covers lung tissue   Visceral pericardium – covers heart •  Abdominopelvic cavity   Visceral peritoneum – covers many organs in abdominopelvic cavity
  14. 14. Body Cavities and Membraneso  Abdominopelvic regions •  Nine regions •  Four quadrants
  15. 15. 1.4 Organ SystemsSupport, Movement, and Protectiono  Integumentary Systemo  Skeletal Systemo  Muscular System
  16. 16. Organ SystemsIntegration and Coordinationo  Nervous Systemo  Endocrine System
  17. 17. Organ SystemsMaintenance of the Bodyo  Cardiovascular Systemo  Respiratory Systemo  Digestive Systemo  Urinary System
  18. 18. Organ SystemsReproduction and Developmento  Male Reproductive Systemo  Female Reproductive System
  19. 19. 1.5 HomeostasisHomeostasis is the relative constancy of the body s internal environmento  External conditions may change dramaticallyo  Internal conditions stay within a narrow rangeo  Dynamic equilibrium – internal conditions are not absolutely constanto  Illness results if internal conditions change to any great degree
  20. 20. Homeostasiso  Components of homeostatic mechanisms •  Sensor – detects a change in the internal environment •  Control center – activates the effector •  Effector – produces a response to the change
  21. 21. HomeostasisNegative Feedbacko  Primary homeostatic mechanismo  Effector reverses the change in the internal environment
  22. 22. HomeostasisPositive Feedbacko  Effector continues to stimulate the sensor so that a greater change in the internal environment occurso  Helps in completing a process that has a cutoff point •  Blood clotting •  Childbirtho  Can be harmful
  23. 23. HomeostasisHomeostasis and Body Systemso  All body systems contribute towards maintaining homeostasiso  Disease occurs when homeostasis fails •  Local disease – restricted to a specific part of the body •  Systemic disease – affects several organ systems or the entire body •  Acute diseases – occur suddenly and last a short time •  Chronic diseases – develop slowly and are long term