This presentationlooks at thedeterminationofsieveanalysis test of sand in a laboratory. Am Luwalaga John Grooverpresenting.
TestequipmentsThe sieve is themainpieceofequipment used in thissieveanalysis test. As yousee, it has holes or apertureswhichallows sand particlessmallerthanthe holes to gothrough and thoselargerthanthe holes to be retainedonthesieve.The scoop is used to pick sand particles from onepoint to theother.
The drying oven is used to extract water from sand sample at a temperatureof 105oc. The weighingscale or balance is used to gettheexactweightsofthe sand particles.
The lid covers sievessuchthat sand particlesare not lost during thesievingprocess. The receivercollects all the sand particlesthatgothroughthesieve.The metal tray is where sand particlesareplacedwhiletransferingthem from onepoint to another.
Hard brush is used to cleansievesthat have holes or apertureslarger than 1mm. Soft brush is used to clean sieves that have holes or apertures smaller than 1mm.
Spade is used to pick larger quantities of sand samples. Sieve shaker helps in the sieving process where by a set of sieves is secured tight on the sieve shaker and with supple of electricity the shaking of sieves can be done with ease.
The sand sample about 12 kilograms (kgs) is placedon a larger metal tray and a representative sample ofabout 1.5 kilograms is obtained.
The representative sample can be obtained by thequarteringmethod. Where by the sand sample ofabout 12 kilograms on a metal tray is heaped and dividedinto 4 approximatelyequalportionswhich forms 2 diagonals. One diagonal is retained and anotherdiscarded. The process is repeateduntilthe sand sample is reduced from say 12 kilograms to 1.5 kilograms.
Whenthe representative sand sample obtained is not perfectly dry, then it should be placed in thedrying oven at a temperatureof 105oc for about 16 hours.The dry sand sample is thenleft to cool to roomtemperature and thentheexact 1.2 kilograms (1200 grams) is weighedusingtheweighingscale.
The table showsthesievesizes to be used whilecarryingoutthesieveanalysis test. The sievesizeswillalso be indicatedonthelabelsofthesieves. So whenlook at thevarioussieveyouwill be able to readtheaperture and thatwill be thesievesize.
Before the sieves are arranged, they are first cleaned such that all sand particles existing in-between the holes/apertures are removed.
The sievesarearranged in a descending order from top to bottom.That is to say, sieve 10.0mm should be thetop most sievefollowed by sievesofsmaller holes/aperturesuptothe last sieve at thebottomwhich is sieve63μm.Th lid is placed on top most sieve (10.0mm) and the receiver is placed below the last sieve with smaller aperture (63μm)The sieve arrangement shouldensurethatbigger sand particlesareretainedonthesieves and smaller sandparticles og throughthesieves.
The dry 1200 grams sand representative sample is placedonthetop most sievesaysieve 10.0mm for our case. Thencoveredwiththe lid.If a sieve shaker is to be used, thesetofofsieves is tightlysecuredonthesieve shaker. The machine is let to shake thesievescontainingthe sand sample for about 15 minutes. Thenafterthe shaking process is done, the sand particlesretainedoneachsievearecollected and weighed.
If sieving is done by theuseof hands. The representative sand sample is placedon a single sievestartingwithonehavingthebigger holes/aperturessaysieve 10.0mm. The shaking ofthesievewith sand particles is done in a circular motion. The sand particlesretainedonthesievearecollected and weighed. The sand particlesthatpassedthroughthesievearetransfered to thenextsievesaysieve 6.3mm. The process is repeated for all thecorrespondingsieves.
All sandparticlesretainedoneachsievearecollected and keptseparately.Theirindividualweightsaredetermined and recorded in a recordsheet.
The weightsretainedoneachsievearerecordedagainsttheirrespectivesievesizes as seen in thetable.
Afterrecording all theweightsretainedoneachsieve, calculationsarethenmade to determine % weightretained (a, b, c, ….); cummulative % weightesretained (x, y, z, …..); and cummulative % weight passing eachsievesize (i, ii, iii, …..).
Usingtheaboveexamples, thetablecan be filled as seen.
Using thevalues in thetable, the grading curve is plottedontheparticlesizedistributionchart. Cummulative % passing is plottedonthe y-axisagainsttheparticlesize (sievesize).
This is the shape of the grading curve.
Inconclusion, dependingontheparticlesizesexisting in the sand sample, different grading curveshapescan be obtained. Shape A indicatesthatthe sand particlesareunformlygraded, shape B indicatethatthe sand particlesarewellgraded: shape C indicatesthatthe sand particlesare gap graded.
When you look at the shape of our grading curve and compare it with the different shapes, you will find that the shape of the grading curve we got is similare to shape of grading curve B, hence our sand sample is well graded sand. It means that sand particle ranges from 4.75mm to 63μm. This type of sand is suitable to be used in civil engineering works like manufacture of concrete.
Sieve analysis test of Sand
Luwalaga John Groover
In this video we are going to look at:-
1. What is sand?
2. What is meant by sieve analysis test?
3. Test method
4. Test equipments
1. What is sand?
Sand are inert particle
materials that pass through
the sieve of 4.75mm and
retained on sieve size 63μm
Sand is widely used in the
construction industry mostly
in the manufacture of
2. Definiation of Sieve analysis test of
This is a test performed on sand to determine
the percentage of different particle sizes
contained within the sand sample.
3. Test method
• The test method used is dry sieve analysis.
5. Test procedures
The procedures followed while carrying out the
sieve analysis test include:
5.1 Preparing the sand sample
5.2 Arranging the sieves
5.3 Carrying out sieving
5.4 Weighing sand retained on each sieve
C = gap gradedA = uniformly graded B = well graded
Diagramatic representation of sand particle arrangment.
uniformly graded sand
well graded sand gap graded sand
8.1 What test have we looked at?
a) Sieve analysis test of coarse aggregate
b) Sieve analysis test of sand
c) Sieve analysis test of cement
d) Sieve anlaysis test of maize
8. Questions cont.
8.2 The following equipments are used in the
carrying out of sieve analysis test except?
e) Tea spoon
8. Questions cont.
8.3 The following procedures are followed while
carrying out sieve analysis of sand except?
a) Prepare the sand sample
b) Arrange the sieves
c) Place the sieves in the oven
d) Carry out sieving
e) Count the sand particles retained on each
8. Questions cont.
8.4 The following image represents which type
a) Gap graded sand
b) Uniformly graded sand
c) Well graded sand