Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
1
A STUDY ON THE PATTERN OF OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS AT
...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
2
TABLE OF CONTENT
TABLE OF CONTENT .....................
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
3
Sample Size and Sample Size determination..............
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
4
Detailed discussion of the results on the three diff...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
5
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1.1: Distribution of fatalities...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
6
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 3.1: Summary of research proc...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
7
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
UBOS Uganda Bureau of Statisti...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
8
ABSTRACT
Uganda has experienced a high economic grow...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
9
and public through awareness campaigns, safety educa...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
10
DEFINITIONS
Site: Site in relation to any buildings...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
11
Non-Fatal Occupational injury: on-Fatal Occupationa...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
12
Personal protection gears: Personal protection gear...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
13
Stake holders: Stake holders are persons or compani...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
14
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Introduction
This study fo...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
15
Investigations carried out by Department of Occupat...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
16
According to International Labour Organization (ILO...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
17
Table 1.1: Distribution of fatalities in the invest...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
18
interpret available engineering, architectural draw...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
19
2004
 Kaka industries (U) Ltd on 14th
/February/20...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
20
2006
 Sogea Satom on 2nd
/August/2006; one worker ...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
21
It is because of the increasing numbers of collapsi...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
22
General Objective of the Study
To study the pattern...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
23
 The findings will contribute to the development o...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
24
CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
Introduction
In this ...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
25
Conceptual framework
Explanation of conceptual fram...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
26
techniques, adequate supervision and others. Once o...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
27
Physical Hazards
These include:
 Noise and vibrati...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
28
Biological Hazards
During site clearance operations...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
29
the fact that the health of workers may be affected...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
30
safety, lack of safety equipments, unsafe methods o...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
31
deficiencies which come in the way of application f...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
32
professions some engineers out of greed take on too...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
33
 Inadequate resources for effective enforcement of...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
34
 Weather and disaster
From the above literature, t...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
35
 Defective or wrong equipment, here accidents may ...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
36
 Inappropriate construction techniques which are u...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
37
understanding. Discuss risks – identify risks and h...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
38
 A supervisor on construction site should know wha...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
39
all employees of the building construction sites. T...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
40
CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY AND DATA COLLECTION
Intro...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
41
The target subjects were the workers on the buildin...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
42
Research Design
This is an applied research with a ...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
43
prevalence of the study problem was not available, ...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
44
Data Collection methods
The data collection methods...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
45
Materials/Apparatus: Internet services, training ma...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
46
The methodology frame work (summary of research pro...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
47
Ethical consideration and approval
Informed consent...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
48
Limitations of the study/problems faced during the ...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
49
Less time to interact with the workers
In most occa...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
50
CHAPTER FOUR
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
Introdu...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
51
Sex
Gender is very important when it comes to the c...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
52
Age
Age is very important when it comes at executin...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
53
Job title
Job title helps in putting the building c...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
54
Education Background
Uganda is still faced with hig...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
55
are of higher diploma level, 20 respondents (6.7%) ...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
56
of experience, and 5 respondents (1.7%) have 15 – 2...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
57
10,000/= - 20,000/= per day, 43 respondents (14.3%)...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
58
The exact health problem
Analysis
After analysing r...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
59
Division in Kampala where respondents stay
Analysis...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
60
Part 2: Accident and Site Conditions
Kampala Distri...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
61
are located within Rubaga division, 78 sites (26.0%...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
62
Type of accident that has ever occurred
Analysis
Af...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
63
52 Fall from ladder accidents occurred, 4 Scaffoldi...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
64
said accidents occurred between 4:00pm – 5:00pm, an...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
65
weather condition, 19 accidents (6.3%) occurred dur...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
66
Whether contractor has any insurance policy towards...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
67
Welfare facilities and Safety gears that exist on s...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
68
Drinking water points exist on building constructio...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
69
Table 4. 2: Numerical values of degree of acceptanc...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
70
Table 4. 4: Common likely causes of accidents/hazar...
Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU
71
11
Lack of appreciation after
completion of task
HA...
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala   uganda
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala uganda

3,004 views

Published on

A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in Kampala - Uganda.

Published in: Engineering, Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
3,004
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
16
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
58
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

A study on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in kampala uganda

  1. 1. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 1 A STUDY ON THE PATTERN OF OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS AT BUILDING CONSTRUCTION SITES IN KAMPALA DISTRICT A POSTGRADUATE RESEARCH DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE INSTITUTE OF HEALTH POLICY AND MANAGEMENT IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE AWARD OF THE MASTERS OF SCIENCE IN PUBLIC HEALTH (MPH) INTERNATIONAL HEALTH SCIENCES UNIVERSITY BY LUWALAGA JOHN GROOVER, 2009 – MPH – FT – 010 B.Eng. Civil (KYU), H. Dip. Civil (KYU), Dip. Arch. (UPK) SUPERVISOR DR. MBABAZI REGINA SENIOR LECTURER, IHPM, IHSU DECEMBER, 2010
  2. 2. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 2 TABLE OF CONTENT TABLE OF CONTENT .....................................................................................................2 LIST OF FIGURES ..........................................................................................................6 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ..............................................................................................7 ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................................8 DEFINITIONS ..............................................................................................................10 CHAPTER ONE ............................................................................................................14 INTRODUCTION..........................................................................................................14 Introduction ...............................................................................................................14 Background of the Study...............................................................................................14 Summary of Uganda‟s Industrial fatal accidents investigated by OSH Department between 2002 and 2009 ........................................................................................................................18 Problem Statement.......................................................................................................21 General Objective of the Study .......................................................................................22 Specific Objectives......................................................................................................22 Research Questions......................................................................................................22 Significance of the Study...............................................................................................22 Justification of the Study...............................................................................................23 CHAPTER TWO ...........................................................................................................24 LITERATURE REVIEW .................................................................................................24 Introduction ...............................................................................................................24 Overview ..................................................................................................................24 Conceptual framework..................................................................................................25 Occupational accidents that occur on building construction sites..............................................26 Causes of building construction site accidents.....................................................................29 Prevention of accidents on the building construction site .......................................................36 Summary of the literature review.....................................................................................38 CHAPTER THREE ........................................................................................................40 METHODOLOGY AND DATA COLLECTION ...................................................................40 Introduction ...............................................................................................................40 Scope of the Study.......................................................................................................40 Research Design .........................................................................................................42
  3. 3. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 3 Sample Size and Sample Size determination.......................................................................42 Data Collection methods ...............................................................................................44 Observation: By visiting the various sites and moving around, a number of working environmental conditions of exposure of the workers were able to be seen. ................................................44 Oral interviews: This was actually used were some people or participants were unable to understand the language used on questionnaires. .............................................................................44 Photography: Some photographs were taken, portraying the conditions prevailing on sites. These show the physical state of the problems and give a very vivid elaboration in a pictorial form........44 Study Population: The population comprised workers on the government or public building construction sites, private building construction sites and individual developers who were by the time of research were operating and under contracts. .........................................................44 Research Instrument .................................................................................................44 Materials/Apparatus: Internet services, training manuals, hand outs, and computer programs were used......................................................................................................................45 Research Procedure .....................................................................................................45 Ethical consideration and approval...................................................................................47 Data processing ..........................................................................................................47 Data Analysis.............................................................................................................47 Limitations of the study/problems faced during the study.......................................................48 CHAPTER FOUR ..........................................................................................................50 DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS.........................................................................50 Introduction ...............................................................................................................50 Part 1: Worker‟s Personal Data .......................................................................................50 Part 2: Accident and Site Conditions ................................................................................60 Part 3: Factors attributed to building construction accidents....................................................68 DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS...........................................................................................78 Introduction ...............................................................................................................78 Part 1: Respondents‟ personal data...................................................................................78 Part 2: Accidents and Site conditions................................................................................83 Part 3: Factors attributed to construction accidents............................................................88 Top 11 out of 30 factors likely to cause occupational accidents on building construction site in Kampala ...................................................................................................................90
  4. 4. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 4 Detailed discussion of the results on the three different groups of occupational building construction accidents...................................................................................................................91 Factors attributed to the management ............................................................................91 Worker related factors ...............................................................................................93 Project related factors................................................................................................94 Possible policies or other suggestions ...............................................................................95 The Town and Country Planning Act – 1951 ...................................................................95 The occupational Safety and Health Act – 2006 ...............................................................95 The Public Health Act – 1935......................................................................................95 The Health and Safety at work Act 1974 ........................................................................95 Work – Place (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992 ..............................................96 Safety Equipments....................................................................................................96 Accident monitoring .................................................................................................97 Attending to an accident.............................................................................................97 CHAPTER SIX..............................................................................................................98 RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION.....................................................................98 Conclusion ................................................................................................................98 Recommendations .....................................................................................................113
  5. 5. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 5 LIST OF TABLES Table 1.1: Distribution of fatalities in the investigated accidents per industry. ...........................17 Table 4. 18: representations of rankings/scores....................................................................68 Table 4. 19: Numerical values of degree of acceptance, undecided-ness and rejection by respondents69 Table 4. 20: Demonstrations of computations involved in analysis of raw data.............................69 Table 4. 21: Common likely causes of accidents/hazards on building construction sites .................70 Table 4. 22: Likely causes of accidents on building construction site.........................................73 Table 5. 1: The ranking of factors contributing to occupational building construction accidents ........88
  6. 6. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 6 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 3.1: Summary of research procedure (source: secondary data).......................46 Figure 4. 1: Gender of respondents working on building construction site (source: primary data).....51 Figure 4. 2: Age group of the respondents (Source: Primary data) ...........................................52 Figure 4. 3: Job titles of the respondents (Source: primary data)..............................................53 Figure 4. 4: Educational background of the respondents on the building construction site (Source: primary data) ................................................................................................................54 Figure 4. 5: Years of experience of the respondents (Source: Primary data)................................55 Figure 4. 6: Income per day of the respondents on the building construction site. (Source: primary data) ...........................................................................................................................56 Figure 4. 7: Health history of the respondents (Source: primary data) .......................................57 Figure 4. 8: Exact health problem of the respondents (source: primary data)...............................58 Figure 4. 9: Where the respondents stay after work (source: primary data).................................59 Figure 4. 10: Division of Kampala where the site is located (source: primary data)......................60 Figure 4. 11: category of ownership of the building construction site (source: primary data) ..........61 Figure 4. 12: Type of accident that has ever occurred on the building construction site. (Source: primary data) ................................................................................................................62 Figure 4. 13: Periods when accidents have ever occurred. (Source: primary data) ........................63 Figure 4. 14: Weather conditions during which accidents have ever occurred (Source: primary data)64 Figure 4. 15: Months in which accidents have ever occurred (source: primary data).....................65 Figure 4. 16: whether the contractor has any insurance policy for the workers (source: primary data) ..................................................................................................................................66 Figure 4. 17: Safety gears on the building construction site (source: primary data) .......................67 Figure 4. 18: Accident factors attributed to management (Source: primary data) ..........................75 Figure 4. 19: Accident factors attributed to the workers (source: primary data)............................75 Figure 4. 20: Accident factors attributed to the project (source: primary data) .............................76
  7. 7. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 7 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS UBOS Uganda Bureau of Statistics NGOs Non Governmental Organizations KCC Kampala City Council GDP Gross Domestic Product GNP Gross National Product ILO International Labour Organization US United States of America UGX Uganda Shillings OSHD Occupational Safety and Health Department NSSF National Social Security Fund IHSU International Health Sciences University UK United Kingdom UIPE Uganda Institute of Professional Engineers URA Uganda Revenue Authority
  8. 8. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 8 ABSTRACT Uganda has experienced a high economic growth of over 8% p.a as a result of liberalisation of the economy. This has positively impacted the construction industry which has grown at an average rate of over 10% between 1995 and 2009. This high growth rate of the construction industry has influenced the Growth National Product and directly provides employment to many Ugandans and foreigners. However, the construction industry has become the most hazardous industry in this country and the world over by presenting more accidents, injuries, ill health and occupational diseases than any other industry. Examples of the widely published common accidents include collapsing of structures, cave-ins of excavations, falls from heights, dropping objects striking workers, machine hazards, and many others. This research revealed that these occupational accidents on construction sites emanate from poor safety culture due to lack of awareness of safety requirements, inadequate site management, supervision land inspection, insufficient soil investigation, use of incompetent personnel, use of faulty designs, use of poor construction materials, non-compliance to safety rules due to weakness in legislation and enforcement organs. The occupation accidents, disease and ill health in the building construction industry can be more effectively mitigated by matching the technological advancement in the industry with re-engineering of occupational health and safety strategies and ideas; and by using proactive approaches that focus on occupational health and safety comprehensive programmes other than merely on giving employer directives that involve the provision of personal protective gears to employees. Emphasis need to be put on dissemination of information on safety to the workers
  9. 9. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 9 and public through awareness campaigns, safety education and training in addition to provision of adequate site management, supervision and inspections.
  10. 10. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 10 DEFINITIONS Site: Site in relation to any buildings includes offices, outbuildings, yards, courts or gardens occupied or intended to be occupied with the buildings. (Town and Country Planning act – 1951) Erect: Erect in reference to a dwelling or room includes alter, add to, or convert into. (Public Health Act – 1935) Public building: Public building means a building used or constructed or adapted to be used either ordinarily or occasionally as a place of public worship or as a theatre, public hall, or as a public place of assembly for persons admitted by ticket or otherwise, or used or adapted to be used for any other public purpose. (Public Health Act – 1935) Bodily Injury: Bodily Injury includes injury to health. (Occupational Safety and Health Act – 2006) Building operation: Building operation means the construction, structural alteration, repair or maintenance of a building (including re-painting, re-decoration and external cleaning of the structure), the demolition of a building but does not include any operation which is a work of engineering construction. (Occupational safety and Health Act – 2006) Competent person: Competent person means a person with suitable training and sufficient knowledge, experience and skill for the performance of specific work. (Occupational Safety and Health Act – 2006) Fatal occupational injury: Fatal occupational injury means occupational injury leading to death. (Occupational Safety and Health Act – 2006) Health: Health in relation to work means not merely the absence of diseases or infirmity, it includes the physical and mental elements affecting health which are indirectly or directly related to safety and hygiene at work. (Occupational Safety and Health Act – 2006)
  11. 11. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 11 Non-Fatal Occupational injury: on-Fatal Occupational injury means occupational injury which does not lead to death. (Occupational Safety and Health Act – 2006) Occupational accident: Occupational accident means an occurrence arising out of or in the course of work which results in fatal occupational injury or non-fatal occupational injury. (Occupational Safety and Health Act – 2006) Occupational disease: Occupational disease means a disease contracted as a result of an exposure to risk factors arising from a work activity. (Occupational Safety and Health Act – 2006) Worker: Worker means a person who performs work regularly or temporarily for an employer and includes a public officer. (Occupational Safety and Health Act – 2006) Working Environment or Work place: Working Environment or Work place means all places of work, sites and areas where work is carried out including not only the permanent, indoor, stationary places of work, such as factories, offices, and shops but also temporary places of work such as Civil Engineering sites, open-air places such as fields, forests, roads, oil refineries and mobile places of work such as cabs of trucks, seats of tractors and excavators, ships, galleys freights decks of aircraft, and without exception; places where workers are found as a consequence of their work (including canteens and living quarters on board ships). (Occupational Safety and Health Act – 2006) Hazard Mitigation: Hazard Mitigation according to the Stafford Act: (44 CFR 206:401), means any action taken to reduce or eliminate the long-term risk to human life and property from natural hazard. Mitigation: Mitigation is the ongoing effort to lessen the impact of natural disasters on people and property.
  12. 12. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 12 Personal protection gears: Personal protection gear is designed to be the last resort in action if an accident occurs. Supposing that all other safety measures have been carried out if there is still an unpredictable failure the personal protection gear will save the lives of the workers if it is properly used and maintained. The protection gear should be checked for usability each time before use; and used correctly as instructed by the company‟s safety management, training and education courses or governmental department guidelines. (Labour Department Occupational safety and Health council, 2004b) Site safety plan: Site safety plan is defined as a building and construction site specific document that demonstrates an organization‟s means of compliance with the occupational safety and Health Act, 2006; and includes but not limited to the following:  Assignment of responsibilities for onsite implementation;  Hazard identification methods;  Accident investigation and report methods;  Site emergency procedures;  Site communication strategy;  Strategy for the coordination of on site trade activities;  Site audit procedures (http://www.nzqa.govt.nz/framework/search/index.do viewed on 20/08/2010) Building: Building means any building, erection or any other structure erected on or made on, in or under any lands and includes the land on or under which the building is situated. (Town and Country planning Act – 1951)
  13. 13. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 13 Stake holders: Stake holders are persons or companies that are involved in a particular organisation, project or system especially because they have rested interest in it. In construction, the main stake holders include the client, contractor, contractor‟s employees, Designers/Architect, suppliers and manufacturers of materials and goods used on site, local authority operatives among others. Nevertheless, safety is a concern for all in the industry from the top management to the operative on site. Construction: Construction means any work done in connection with the construction, alteration, conversion, fitting out, commissioning or demolition of any building or structure, or any similar activity. The main sectors of construction are:  Housing makes up nearly 60% of the industry and includes the construction of domestic houses, flats and associated out buildings.  Commercial deals with the construction of office buildings, shops and shopping centre, public buildings, factories and medium to high raise apartment buildings.  Civil includes the construction of roads, railways, bridges, tunnels, wharfs, reservoirs, dams and similar infrastructure works  Engineering includes the construction of power stations, chemical processing and storage facilities, major industrial processing plants and ship buildings. Safety: Safety means the state of being safe and protected from danger or harm or even the state of not being dangerous. Accident: Accident means unplanned and unexpected occurrence which upsets the planned sequence of events and actions, resulting in the loss of production, injury to persons and damage to plants and equipments.
  14. 14. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 14 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Introduction This study focused on the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in Kampala District. The information in this dissertation is arranged in chapters. Chapter one introduces the research topic, brings out the objectives of the research; and the statement of the problem. Chapter two reviews the contributions of different scholars to the research subject. Chapter three is concerned with methodology where by research strategy, data analysis techniques; and criteria for the interpretation of results are elaborated in this chapter. Chapter four is concerned with data presentation and analysis of empirical data, interpretation of empirical data; and presentation of results and findings. Chapter five brings out the implications and significance of the study. It elaborates implications for methodology and data availability, implications of findings for the theory/policy/practices; and possible policy or other suggestions and recommendations. Chapter six, outline the recommendations and conclusions of the study. Background of the Study Since 1990, when Ugandan economy was liberalised, there has been greater development in all sectors. The construction industry for the last thirteen years (1990 – 2003) had a growth rate of an average of 5.7 percent per annum. From 1995/96, it has continued to grow at an average rate of 8.8 percent per annum well almost at par with 2007/08 GDP annual growth rate for Uganda of 8.9 percent, coming next to agriculture in the economy.
  15. 15. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 15 Investigations carried out by Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) under Ministry of Gender, Labour and Social Development indicated that the construction Industry is made up of small contractors, a number of medium sized contractors and a few big contractors often foreign who also get into joint ventures or sub-contract a number of medium and small sized contractors on the big projects they undertake. Seventy percent (70%) of all construction is informal with many individual developers directly undertaking complex construction projects employing mostly unskilled labour to including children who in many cases are often ignorant, negligent, and careless. This results into numerous hazards hence causing fatal and non-fatal accidents. In Uganda, construction project management has in recent shown greater emphasis on time and cost at the expense of safety of the people involved in the industry. Lack of adherence to safety regulations and requirements has led to increased exposure of the workers and the general public to risky situations including a high rate of accident occurrence on construction sites. Rampant accidents in the construction industry pose direct and indirect physical injury to persons. Which include loss of wages, hardship due to reduced earning, human suffering and sorrow that no amount of compensation or benefit can erase; and psychological/social traumas to affected families. On the side of the project engineer/client, losses due to costs of medical treatment, worker compensation, replacing damaged equipment, wasted working time, replacing injured workers as well as negative publicity. The result of accidents is therefore, lost production capacity of the injured persons, death and reduced work output for the organization. This retards both house hold and national economic growth.
  16. 16. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 16 According to International Labour Organization (ILO) estimates (2008), 6,000 workers die each day worldwide as a result of work related accidents or illness. Moreover, each year there are an estimated 270,000,000 non-fatal work-related accidents as well as 160,000,000 new cases of work-related diseases. The total cost of such accidents and ill health have been estimated by ILO to be 4% of global GDP (more than 1.25 trillion US dollars) or more than 20 times the global amount of official development assistance. Construction, mining, manufacturing and agriculture rank amongst the most hazardous occupations globally. Construction industry has one of the largest potentials for increasing a country‟s Gross National Product (GNP). Construction industry is increasingly becoming the most hazardous industry in Uganda despite the fact that it has a vast potential for direct employment provision, not only in the real building construction activities but also in the construction materials industry that include bricks, blocks, aggregates, cement, steel, aluminium, timber, paint, pipes and fittings, hardware, and several allied industries, construction equipment and transportation. However, the construction industry in Uganda has presented the highest fatality rates in the recent past years amongst all the industries as shown in table 1.1 below;
  17. 17. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 17 Table 1.1: Distribution of fatalities in the investigated accidents per industry. Industry No. of cases Fatality 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Total Construction 04 06 07 02 11 07 02 39 Manufacturing 01 03 01 05 06 07 09 32 Agriculture 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 Others 00 02 01 07 04 20 11 45 Total 05 11 09 14 21 34 22 116 (Source: OSH Dept. Ministry of Gender, Labour and Social Development) Between 1997 and 2003, a total of 39 fatalities out of 116 which constitutes about 33.6% were associated to construction. In the year 2003, a total of 236 accidents resulting in 22 deaths were recorded in Kampala district and 34 and 21 deaths from 354 and 209 accidents were reported in the previous years of 2002 and 2001 respectively as a result of occupational accidents. According to New Vision newspaper of Friday 28/08/2009, Works and Transport Minister, was reported to have said that between 1997 and 2009. A total of 13 accidents occurred at building construction sites, killing 97 and injuring 151 people. This information puts at fore front construction industry as the most hazardous industry in Uganda. Lives and large sums of invested money are lost in Uganda and the world over, as a result of collapsing structures, falls from heights, fire outbreaks, caving in excavations, during construction or maintenance activities or after occupation of the premises. According to New Vision of Tuesday 22/09/2009, “the causes of construction related accidents country wide have included inadequate design, use of unqualified personnel, sub- standard materials, poor construction methods and workmanship. Failure of the builder to
  18. 18. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 18 interpret available engineering, architectural drawings and technical specifications has also contributed to the problem.” Summary of Uganda’s Industrial fatal accidents investigated by OSH Department between 2002 and 2009 2002  Dr. Biryawhaho‟s construction site, plot 113 Buganda Road  Amamu House, George Street,  Cementer‟s site at URA headquarters,  China Nanjing site on 5th Street Industrial Area  Site for Krishna Construction Co. Mukwano/U.T.C site, Namirembe Road  Mr. Karim Hirji‟s renovation site at Palm Beach Resort, Entebbe  Nakivubo Rehabilitation project 2003  Pit latrine being excavated in Kasubi on 25th – Febraury-2003. Victim was an excavator, who got buried by collapsing soil.  Hajji Katongole‟s complex, Kawempe on 31st /August/2003, 4 victims were hit by a collapsing slab  Tembo steel (U) Ltd, on 1st /February/2003  Infectious Disease Institute on 9th /June/2003  Guardian Services, Entebbe on 11th /November/2003  Avis, Kawempe on 18th /December/2003
  19. 19. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 19 2004  Kaka industries (U) Ltd on 14th /February/2004; no one was injured but a lot of property was destroyed by fire.  Kansanga, Kobil Petrol Station on 16th /February/2004; four workers were buried in excavated pit at petrol station construction site.  Gateway bus service site, Nakivubo Road on 6th /May/2004; one victim suffocated under collapsed soil mass and four other workers sustained various body injuries.  Kajansi stone quarry on 8th /August/2004; man and his three children were buried by sliding soil mass inside a quarry pit.  Nabulagala School, on 24th /August/2004; two people died on collapse of storied school building under renovation  Bwebajja Hotel construction on 1st /September/2004; collapse of a three storey structure still under construction, causing entrapment of 38 workers, 11 of whom died.  Collapse of Seguku building on 21st /October/2004; two workers killed and four workers injured on collapse of two storied commercial building under construction. 2005  Rwenzori Beverage Uganda Ltd on 21st /June/2005; injuring work‟s hand by crusher machine while cleaning  Damji Plantation Ltd on 8th /July/2005; worker trapped and injured in crusher machine while feeding sugarcane into machine  Ambitious, Lumumba Avenue on 17th /August/2005; collapsing soil mass buried workers, one died and two injured  Cementers, Serena Hotel on 29th /August/2005; one worker fell down to the ground, where he met his death
  20. 20. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 20 2006  Sogea Satom on 2nd /August/2006; one worker was killed by water gush under a trench  Tuff Foam Industry, on 3rd /August/2006; accident involving fire occurrence at factory premises  Nabinoonya Beach, Entebbe on 2nd /September/2006; fatal accident involving drowning 2007  Tembo Steels Lugazi on 25th /January/2007; fatal accident involving one worker  Construction neighbouring old Kampala Police Station  Accident on plot 48/50, Ben Kiwanuka Street on 31st /December/2007 2008  Accident at Nalya St. Peters Secondary School on 30th /January/2008  Follow-up of accident at Britannia Allied Industries Ltd; victim was Nakiyemba Carol  Follow-up of accident at premises of Mr. Odida Francis; comprehensive college Secondary school, Kitetika Gayaza  Accident at ROKO NSSF construction site; plot 15A 15B and 17 Lumumba Avenue, on 14th /October/2008 2009  Partial collapse of an excavation at the junction between Market Street, Snay Bin Amir Street and Duster Street, Nakasero on 25th /February/2009  One face of the excavation gave way taking with it part of the neighbouring structure, Mirembe Shopping Arcade between plot 7 and plot 5a, Nasser Road on 13th /March/2009; one person died and six injured
  21. 21. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 21 It is because of the increasing numbers of collapsing construction sites and fatality rates (death rates) in Uganda that has prompted the researcher to carry out a study into Occupational accidents at building construction sites taking Kampala district as a case study. Problem Statement Uganda has one of the fastest growing economies in the world with GDP of 8.9% (2007/08) and construction industry is among the leading contributors in Uganda. Because of the boom, many non professionals register companies and carryout construction works; and most of these companies, employ non qualified and non registered employees. This has greatly contributed to the increasing accidents in the construction industry. Between 2002 and 2009 above, many building construction accidents took place killing many people and injuring thousands of workers. Much as they look very high as they are, these are still too low compared to reality, because, data is got from only reported accidents within or around Kampala district. Very many construction site accidents occur daily and many are not reported to the authorities due to illegal construction taking place in this country leading to fatalities, disabilities, injuries, psychological torture, and loss of lots of invested funds and time. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to carry out a study into occupational accidents on building construction sites and to recommend mitigation measures. To find out if the provisions in the Occupational Safety and Health Act 2006, are being complied with or implemented on construction sites in Kampala Uganda. This study was to find out whether the contractors/employers are concerned with workers‟ health and safety; and whether the workers on the construction site are aware of their rights to a healthy and safe work place.
  22. 22. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 22 General Objective of the Study To study the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in Kampala district. Specific Objectives  Establish the common occupational accidents that occur on the building construction sites during the period of research and past years.  Find out the causes of accidents on building construction sites in Kampala District.  Suggest what should be done to minimise accidents on the building construction sites in Kampala district. Research Questions  What are the common occupational accidents that occur on the building construction sites?  What are the causes of accidents on building construction sites in Kampala district?  What can be done to minimise accidents on building construction sites in Kampala district? Significance of the Study  The researcher is expected to establish the causes of accidents in the construction industry in Uganda.
  23. 23. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 23  The findings will contribute to the development of appropriate guidelines for safe construction practices for people engaged in the construction industry in order to minimise accidents.  The research will recommend improvements to the Safety and Health regulations currently in place.  The findings are expected to contribute knowledge to the future leadership, and as a source of reference for further research. Justification of the Study The increasing numbers of accidents at the building construction sites which leads to direct and indirect physical injuries to persons. These include loss of wages, hardship due to reduced earnings, human suffering and sorrow that no amount of compensation or benefit which can erase away psychological/social traumas to affected families. Also losses due to costs of medical treatment, worker compensation, replacing damaged equipment, wasted working time, replacing injured workers as well as negative publicity. All these have led to retardation of both household and Ugandan national economic growth that the researcher decided to undertake this research.
  24. 24. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 24 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction In this context, analysis of existing literature from different writers/researchers who have appreciated the topic of “Occupational health and safety” at work places were acknowledged. A number of researches have been done by different people in various parts of the world in line of safety and public health in work places in general. However, in this case only literature relating to building construction sites was reviewed. Overview The complexity of the construction industry makes occupational ill health difficult to assess not only in the developing countries but the world over. Construction comes high in the comparative list of accident rates in many work places. The high number of accidents in construction work is not caused entirely by the fact that the work often has to be done at great heights or in deep pits or shafts. The vast majority of injuries are due to simple causes, similar to those encountered in other industries like falling, stepping on objects, being struck or trapped by objects, faulty handling of objects and incorrect use of hand tools. The difference between the injuries occurring in construction work and those in other industries are mostly ones of degree rather than type of injury.
  25. 25. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 25 Conceptual framework Explanation of conceptual framework Occupational accidents on building construction sites involve falls from heights, slips, trips and fall from the same level, tool accidents, struck by material accidents, crane accidents, scaffolding accidents and many others. Once not prevented from occurring can cause accidents the building construction sites. Hence the building construction site cannot be free from the accidents. But once they are prevented, no accidents will occur and the building construction site will be safe. The causes of accidents on the building construction sites are lack of supervision and control on worker‟s adherence to wear safety wear, lack of appreciation after completion of task, lack of safety equipments, lack of proper training; unsafe site conditions and many others. Once prevention measures are not in place, occupational accidents on building construction site will occur. Hence, accidents will occur on the building construction site and it will not be free from accidents. But if they are taken care of, there will be no occupational accidents occurring and the building construction site will be free from accidents Prevention is better than cure, prevention of accidents and causes of accidents can be done through adequate designs, quality control of materials, proper construction work Occupational accidents on building site Causes of accidents on building sites Control of Accidents Accident free site
  26. 26. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 26 techniques, adequate supervision and others. Once occupational accidents and their causes are prevented from occurring on the building construction site, the site will be free from accidents. But if they are not controlled accidents will occur and building construction site will not be free from accidents. For a building construction site to be free from accidents there should be proper measures on the site to prevent causation of occupational accidents from occurring. Occupational accidents that occur on building construction sites Phil Hughes and Ed Forrett (2008) pointed out the most common accidents that occur on workers on building construction sites. These included slips, trips and falls on the same level, fall from height, being struck by moving, falling or flying objects, and striking against fixed or stationary objects. The major forms of site accidents in the building construction industry are: structural failures, machinery (involving construction plants) accidents, fall from heights, falling objects (improperly staked materials or tools and equipments), excavation cave-in, equipment mishaps, fires and electrocutions. P.P Dharwadker (1990), had this to say; ‘In U.K, statistics revealed that more than 60% of fatal accidents in the construction industry occur due to persons falling from heights or due to them being struck by falling objects from heights.’ He further stressed that; ‘the accidents occurring because of structures failure and after construction, collapse of centring and shuttering, failure of building scaffoldings, caving-in excavations and damage of fire are indicators of utter lack of awareness of occupational safety in the industry.’ According to the African Newsletters on OHS (2001 and 2004), occupational health hazards can be categorised as physical, chemical, biological and social hazards.
  27. 27. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 27 Physical Hazards These include:  Noise and vibration hazards which cause harmful effects to workers, including hearing defects/loss (deafness), annoyance/irritability, psychological.  Welding hazard which include the presence of ultraviolet lights, gas leaks and metal fumes released during the welding processes. These hazards are associated with fire and explosions which result into burns from heated metal work pieces; electric shocks from damaged cables and faulty circuits; photo-ophthalmia from electric arc flash; fume fever from melting metals; and gassing accidents from toxic metal oxide fumes.  Musculoskeletal impairments resulting from cumulative trauma, chest pain, knee lesions and low back pain which are due to lifting, lowering and carrying heavy loads and aspects of work posture such as bending, twisting and reaching out of materials. These can lead to permanent disability.  Excessive dust resulting from cutting, plainning and sanding operations in carpentry, demolition operations, excavation operations and others. Chemical Hazards Some building materials such as cement, lime, paints, adhesives oils, solvents and many others contain chemicals which are corrosive to the skin, cause skin irritation and allergies in the event of direct contact and when inhaled they may lead to respiratory ailments such as bronchitis asthma and rhinitis. Other health hazards due to exposure to chemicals may be dermatitis and cancer.
  28. 28. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 28 Biological Hazards During site clearance operations, workers are exposed to risks of insect and snake bites leading to illnesses and fatalities. Sometimes inhalation of pollen and fungal spores can cause respiratory allergies. Furthermore, working in wet conditions increases the likelihood of fungal infections of toes, fingers and nails unless the workers are provided with protective gears. International Labour Organisation on Occupational Health and Safety in the construction industry Using some statistical data from USA, France, Spain and Argentina, it will be easy to see the significant contribution of construction industry to employment creation (5.4% in the USA, 7.6% in France, 9.2% in Spain and 10.4% in Argentina). The construction industry has traditionally been considered a hazardous occupation, due to the incidence of occupational accidents and above all, of fatal injuries. Another common feature is the high proportion of the work-related accidents of a particular country that occurs in the construction sector (8% in the USA, 19% in France, 22% in Spain and 14% in Argentine), which makes construction safety a compelling issue. The statistical information also reveals that the likelihood of a construction worker suffering a fatal injury at work is several times higher than that of an average worker. Therefore, construction workers have a strong argument for demanding the national policies and programmes on occupational safety and health but a high emphasis should be on the construction industry. Historically, occupational safety and health programmes in construction have been focussed on the area of safety, that is, on the prevention of accidents. This is not surprising because of the immediate visibility of the effects of accidents (injuries and material damages) as compared to diseases whose consequences appear only after a period of time. The problem lies in
  29. 29. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 29 the fact that the health of workers may be affected many years after being exposed to a certain agent or contaminant at the workplace. Thus, reliable statistical data on occupational disease, especially in the case of a work force as mobile and sporadic as construction, are difficult to obtain. (Alberto Lopez-Valcarcel, 2001) Causes of building construction site accidents Tutesigensi, A. and Reynolds. J.R (2008) investigated the causes of accidents on construction sites; and their case study was the case of a large construction contractor in Great Britain. The aim of the study was to identify the causes of accidents on company A‟s construction sites; and to suggest how accidents on company A‟s construction sites can be minimised. This was achieved using the following objectives:  Acquire information about incidences of injury, disease or dangerous occurrences.  Analyse the information acquired in order to identify the primary and secondary causes of the incidences.  Analyse data derived from the acquired information in order to quantify the relative importance of the primary and secondary causes.  Suggest strategies that can lead to reduction in incidences of injury, disease or dangerous occurrences. The researchers found out that the top three primary causes of accidents on contractor A‟s sites are causality error, work methods and poor quality error while the top three secondary causes are work methods, causality errors and site conditions. T. Michael Toole (2002) conducted a survey on construction site safety roles. He identified the root causes of construction accidents as lack of proper training, deficient enforcement of
  30. 30. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 30 safety, lack of safety equipments, unsafe methods or sequencing, unsafe site conditions, not using provided safety equipment, poor attitude towards safety, and isolated freak accident. Michael Armstrong (1979) said that; „building site diseases and accidents result from a multiplicity of factors, but these have to be traced to their root causes, which are usually faults in management system arising from poor leadership from the top; inadequate supervision; insufficient attention to the inclusion of health and safety precautions into the system; an unsystematic approach to the identification, analysis and elimination of hazards; and poor education and training facilities.’ John Cameron Aspley (1955) said that; ‘....................accidents do not happen, they are caused. They are caused because someone did something he should not have done or somebody failed to do something he should have done. Carelessness, indifference and negligence are responsible for one out of three accidents.’ He further argued that; „the work assignment should match the mental and physical abilities of the worker and he/she should be selectively placed at the job he/she can do best.’ Most of the accidents in building activities occur because of negligence, ignorance, incompetence or complacency on the part of the workers, management or civic authorities. (Gupta, 2000) P. P. Dharwadker (1996), said that; ‘safety in high raised construction at the construction stage and occupation and maintenance stages continue to be somewhat neglected in the construction industry the world over......................most accidents in the construction industry are due to negligence, ignorance, complacency or incompetence on the part of the workers, management or civil authorities...............no sooner has the accident occurred than it is forgotten till another accident take place.................Several reports bringing out the basic aspects and
  31. 31. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 31 deficiencies which come in the way of application for safety measures have been produced by the inquiry of officers and the commission appointed for the purpose, but the follow-up action has remained inadequate.’ He further stressed that; ‘practical applications of national code, which lays down minimum provisions for building design to ensure the safety of the public with regard to structural sufficiency, safety hazards and occupational health aspects, are followed more by default rather than by rule and that basic deficiencies in legislation, loopholes in inspection mechanisms and collusion at micro-level enables everybody concerned to go Scot free irrespective of their apparent failure or even direct involvement.’ According to H. Lubega, B. M. Kigundu and D. Tindiwensi in their scholarly report (Monitor 27-07-2006), said that; ‘accidents on building sites are mainly caused by inadequate supervision, use of incompetent personnel, use of inappropriate construction techniques, use of poor quality materials, lack of quality control, insufficient soil investigation, negligence of site safety, weak foundations, site layout and lack of appreciation for use of professionals.’ They further argued that; ‘other factors which lead to construction site accidents are negligence, carelessness, and lack of commitment, ignorance, hunger, fatigue, inexperience, poor communication/language barrier and inadequate visibility/inadequate lighting for night shifts.’ According to Eng. Dr. Francis Bazirake (2009), ‘among the accident causes are poor design, inferior materials, poor workmanship and non observance of safety regulations; all of which are avoidable’ Checking of the design by the local authorities is minimal as they lack capacity in numbers, qualifications and experience. Site supervision is limited to checking whether the developer has a building permit and is rarely done by a qualified engineer. Due to laxity in the
  32. 32. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 32 professions some engineers out of greed take on too much work which they cannot reasonably execute. There is also disregard of specialisations so that any civil engineer thinks he/she can do anything in his/her field of general education. There is also a problem of architects acting as lead consultants whereby engineers are marginalised as they do not negotiate their fees with the client and end up not dedicated to good practice. This approach is open to errors, which can accumulate, such as lack of structural calculations and design, use of substandard materials, poor workmanship and lack of qualified supervision on the construction site so that the resultant work may be catastrophic. Ransom (1987) argues that; ‘causes of failures/accidents in the construction industry are either due to faulty design, poor execution, and use of poor construction materials or through unexpected user requirements. There is a need to narrow the gap between the designers and the constructors, and examine the design for build-ability.’ In the building inspection and construction in Kampala, Wakiso, Mpigi and other districts of Uganda, reports by the Ministry of works and transport indicate that use of unapproved plans, poor quality materials, and inadequate inspection by local authorities, architects, engineers and safety officers are some of the contributory factors to the occurrence of accidents on building sites. According to William Mukasa, the rapid growth in the industry has brought about increased threat to occupational safety and health and such as there have been a number of injuries and fatal accidents in the recent past due to the following reasons:  Lack of clear policy by government on how the construction industry should operate  Out dated legislation, regulations have narrow scope and penalties are minimal  Limited number of safety and health inspectors
  33. 33. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 33  Inadequate resources for effective enforcement of legislation  Inadequate and incompetent supervision at the construction sites  Low attitude towards safety and health by clients  Lack of national standards for construction  Lack of awareness and understanding of safety and health regulations and generally labour laws.  Lack of skilled workers or competent persons  Lack of Occupational Health and Safety information, training materials, courses and programmes which the Ugandan construction industry could utilise.  Lack of thorough reporting of incidents and accidents  Weak professional institutions to monitor ethical conduct of their members  Weak contractors‟ association to benefit its memberships through training and other health and safety services.  Inactive insurance industry  Use of inappropriate construction techniques and poor designs which do not take into account safety and health  Workers‟ negligence, ignorance and carelessness (attitude and behaviour)  Mechanical failure of construction equipments, plants and machinery (often very old)  Unlevelled bidding ground due to design specifications not having considerations for safety and health  Workers in poor health conditions and working under stress  Use of poor quality materials coupled with lack of quality control to ensure compliance with standards or specifications
  34. 34. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 34  Weather and disaster From the above literature, the causes and factors that lead to accidents on building sites can be summarised as follows: Accident causing factors Human factors These are categorised into psychological, physiological factors and unsafe acts factors. Psychological Factors: these are related to the mental condition of the workers and they include: stress, worry, mental tension, emotional attitude, impulsiveness, nervousness, overconfidence, carelessness, fear, negligence and ignorance. Physiological factors: these are related to the physical condition of the workers and they include poor health, poor eye sight, old age, young age, intoxication, hunger, fatigue and physical handicapped-ness. Unsafe acts factors: these are risky acts which can be potential hazards leading to accidents for example taking shortcuts, wanting to finish quickly, removing or not using protective gears, not following approved preventive methods. Technical factors These include system breakdown, faults in equipments or machines, use of wrong equipment. Work environment factors These include bad weather, repetitiveness and monotony of work, dirty working places. Other causes of accidents  Inadequate site management and supervision, this leads to hazards not easily identified and mitigated, the result may be repeated accidents.
  35. 35. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 35  Defective or wrong equipment, here accidents may occur due to system breakdown, faulty equipment being used, wrong equipments being used or use of equipment by an inexperienced/incompetent person.  Failure to comply with the recommended safety provisions in design leads to potential hazards.  Non-compliance to building standards and regulations, here unapproved or no plans are used on many sites and even where approved plans exist they are not referred to on sites besides lack of building specifications on site or failure to comply with them result in accidents.  Inadequate inspection by the local authorities, structural engineers, architects and safety inspectors. This is rarely done possibly due to poor facilitation, lack of commitment, insufficient inspection staff, lack of knowledge about the location of the construction sites, perception that the services of engineers and architects are expensive or poor sensitisation of the need for supervision by engineers and architects.  Poor site layout may complicate or restrict movements on site and if materials are poorly stacked they may fall on workers/visitors or obstruct them from moving vehicles leading to collisions.  Use of poor quality materials that do not conform to standards/specifications and lack of quality control lead to construction of weak structures prone to accidents.  Insufficient or lack of soil investigation before both designing and construction, which might lead to poor design and weak/inappropriate foundations which consequently result into the collapse of structures.
  36. 36. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 36  Inappropriate construction techniques which are used on some sites especially in concrete batching, mixing, transporting, placing and compaction may be due to incompetence, ignorance, carelessness or inexperience of personnel.  Lack of or insufficient support and protection to excavations. Cave-ins of excavations such as those of the Nakasero shopping arcade and Lumumba Avenue NSSF pension tower were as a result of lack of insufficient support to sides of excavations respectively. In addition, if excavations are not protected by fencing and warning signs, workers or visitors can fall into them.  Use of incompetent, unqualified or unprofessional personnel. The contractors‟ and clients‟ preference for cheap yet incompetent, unqualified and unprofessional personnel. This has greatly exposed workers and the public to fatal and costly accidents. In addition, some professionals execute work unprofessionally due to pressure from clients/contractors who want high savings, lack of commitment or carelessness. Prevention of accidents on the building construction site Tutesigensi, A and Reynolds J. R (2008) came up with a proposal on reducing accidents as follows: Training which involves initial training – to train technical skills, health and safety awareness and professional values. Advanced training – to master technical skills, deepen health and safety knowledge and develop leadership skills. Periodic training should be done to value human life, understand human behaviour and to communicate effectively. Briefing which involves unpack tools/equipment – to ensure they are right, sufficient and safe; prepare for work – rehearse processes, answer any question questions and check
  37. 37. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 37 understanding. Discuss risks – identify risks and highlight how the risk exposure can be minimised. Debriefing which involves packing up tools/equipment – check, clean and recharge them. Reflect on what happened – identify risk events that occurred and identify the impact of the events. Reflect on what did not happen – identify risk events that were avoided, why the risks events were avoided and what needs to be done next time. From the case study undertaken, the authors concluded that it is important that health and safety is taken seriously at all levels in the construction industry as it affects all of us either directly or indirectly. They also noted that action that focuses on effective training, briefing and debriefing of workforce can increase awareness of health and safety issues among the workforce and lead to reduction in accidents on construction sites. T. Michael Toole (2002) conducted a survey on construction site safety roles. He noted that there was no uniform agreement on the site safety responsibilities of design engineers, general contractors, and sub contractors. His study suggested that specific site safety responsibilities be assigned on future projects based on each group‟s ability to control the factors needed to prevent the root causes of construction accidents. His research came up with factors needed to prevent root causes of construction accidents as:  Proper training should ensure that graduates have expertise in task; have expertise in training requirements; able to interview, test or observe employee,; have access to prior training records.  Safety officers should be able to monitor work on frequent basis; know safety requirements for task; able to enforce safety.
  38. 38. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 38  A supervisor on construction site should know what safety equipment is required for task; able to provide and enforce use of equipment; know inspection and maintenance history of equipment being used.  Supervisors should know standard methods and sequencing for task; able to observe actual methods and sequencing; able to control methods and or sequencing.  Supervisors should know proper site conditions; able to observe actual site conditions; able to control site conditions.  The supervisor on the building construction site should be able to observe employee constantly; able to influence behaviour through evaluations.  The management of the building construction site should be able to interact with worker frequently; able to influence attitude through evaluations. Summary of the literature review The author has learnt that to have a free accident environment on building construction sites, training of all stakeholders of construction industry should be done. The previous researchers on the study area do not emphasise the need to start training the young generation on issues concerning health and safety since it is very hard to train an adult such a delicate topic. Previous researchers have come up with so many ways of minimising accidents on building construction sites but this has not stopped accidents from occurring on building construction sites. The gap would be that they have failed to transfer this knowledge to the concerned stakeholders. The author has learned that management should always be in position to involve employees on building construction site to participate in health and safety issues on building construction sites. Evaluations should always be done and safety meetings should be attended by
  39. 39. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 39 all employees of the building construction sites. The previous researchers have failed to notice that majority of workers on building construction sites are illiterate and do not encourage employers to pass on safety and health messages on to the workers in the language they understand best.
  40. 40. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 40 CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY AND DATA COLLECTION Introduction This chapter details the methodology that was used during the study. It presents the study design, target population, sample size, sample techniques, data sources, data collection instruments, data analysis and interpretation, and limitations of the study. The first step of the study was the identification of the research problem covering the significance, objective and scope of the study followed by exploratory review of the available literature. The information was gathered through books, journals and publications, reports, internet search engines, interviews which took place through conversation and interaction with building construction workers. Exploratory research involving descriptive case - studies was used for the research study because it is envisaged to be the best approach for obtaining suitable responses to questions concerning the status of the subjects under study. Data was collected in order to answer the established research questions. Scope of the Study The study was carried out in Uganda and the case study was in Kampala district. The data was collected from the five divisions namely Nakawa, Makindye, Rubaga, Kawempe and Kampala Central.
  41. 41. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 41 The target subjects were the workers on the building construction sites and distributed 500 questionnaires to people working on construction sites located within Kampala district. The researcher ensured that the questionnaires were approximately equally distributed among the 5 divisions making Kampala district. The research targeted to cover buildings that were still under construction. Questionnaires for the building construction site workers were later developed and then distributed to respondents by hand; this was done between mid-July to end of August 2010. Within that period, filled questionnaires were collected from the respondents and the researcher had face to face interviews with the respondents as well. The data was then compiled, analysed, discussed and conclusions made together with recommendations to improve the safety of workers in the construction industry.
  42. 42. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 42 Research Design This is an applied research with a focus on the occupational accidents on building construction sites and their mitigation measures in Kampala district, Uganda. A list of selected building construction sites was identified and a random sample method used to select the building construction site on which to carry out the study. The category of subjects/ownership formed the centre of focus and included:  Government/public institutions – The study looked at government building projects within the different ministries, corporate bodies or departments.  Private institutions – Here the focus was on private and corporate bodies.  Individual developers – This mainly looked at the construction of residential and commercial building sites owned by individuals but have formal contracts with contractors. Sample Size and Sample Size determination The sample space from which information was got ranged from site engineers, foremen, Technicians, masons, and labours. The current number of building construction sites was not available in the relevant authorities within Kampala district like Kampala city council; and respective division headquarters. However, the sample size was determined using Kish Leslie‟s formula for sample size determination. There were no available data of the current numbers of building construction projects going on in Kampala district. So such basic values like prevalence and standard deviations which are important in determining the sample size was not available. The expected
  43. 43. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 43 prevalence of the study problem was not available, therefore the prevalence of the problem was assumed to be at 50% Kish Leslie‟s formula for sample size determination is         2 2 1 d p pzn (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pd006, viewed August – 2010) Where n = minimum sample size required z = alpha risk expressed in z-scores at confidence level of 95% which is 1.96 p = expected prevalence of the problem which was assumed to be 50% d = desired precision in this study; a precision of 5% was assumed         2 2 5 50100 5096.1n = 384.16 ≈ 384 respondents Therefore, a total of 500 questionnaires were distributed to the various ongoing building construction sites to be filled by the respondents but 300 questionnaires only were recovered by the end of the exercise.
  44. 44. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 44 Data Collection methods The data collection methods included the following though was not limited to them alone: Questionnaire: The main interest behind these questions was to assess if indeed the expectations are met or not as per the health and safety of workers on sites. About 500 questionnaires were distributed to the participants who were anticipated to respond back upon each question. Observation: By visiting the various sites and moving around, a number of working environmental conditions of exposure of the workers were able to be seen. Oral interviews: This was actually used were some people or participants were unable to understand the language used on questionnaires. Photography: Some photographs were taken, portraying the conditions prevailing on sites. These show the physical state of the problems and give a very vivid elaboration in a pictorial form. Study Population: The population comprised workers on the government or public building construction sites, private building construction sites and individual developers who were by the time of research were operating and under contracts. Research Instrument The instrument used in the data collection comprised:  An interview guideline, which was used to interview the different parties involved in the identified projects.  Used structured questionnaires to obtain statistical data on specific technical information.  Observation of selected building construction sites that were under construction.
  45. 45. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 45 Materials/Apparatus: Internet services, training manuals, hand outs, and computer programs were used. Research Procedure The procedure used in the research involved the following:  Questionnaires were designed to collect information (data) of interest as per the topic.  Pre-testing or piloting scheme were done to ensure quality and validity of the questionnaires distributed.  The questionnaire was then adjusted to suite the targeted category of respondents on the building construction site.  Distribution of the questionnaires was done by the researcher and the research assistants  A follow-up of the questionnaires was done to collect and/or extract the raw data for processing to enhance a basis of identification, conclusions and recommendations.  The raw data from the respondents or participants was then retrieved/collected and tallied statistically.  Sorting of answered sheets was done in which those questionnaires not satisfactorily attended were discarded, for their results were deemed insufficient and hence futile to consider.  Processing of the raw data was done using selected statistical methods, which included bar graphs/charts, link charts, pie charts and write-ups.
  46. 46. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 46 The methodology frame work (summary of research procedures) is shown below in figure 3.1 Figure 3.1: Summary of research procedure Identification and Evaluation of key issues and Research problem Final Report, Conclusions and Recommendations Data Analysis Data Collection Informal Discussions Observations InterviewsDesign and Post Questionnaires Literature Review
  47. 47. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 47 Ethical consideration and approval Informed consent was requested from the respondents orally only after having informed them what the study was all about and the objectives of the study. The researcher told them that the study was solely for academic purpose and participation was voluntarily. To ensure the confidentiality and anonymity of the respondents, when data was being collected, the respondents were not required to write their names. Approval and mandate to carry out the study was obtained from the Institute of Health Policy and Management of the International Health Sciences University and from other relevant authorities. Data processing For the data obtained from the field, the researcher ensured that validity, reliability, accuracy and correctness of the findings were achieved. It was tackled by using multiple sources of evidence while collecting the data and to prove that all the different methods lead to the same result or that they all support the same proposition. Reliability was fostered through allowing the respondents give comments to the results, reports and these comments were reviewed by observational methods on their responses. Data Analysis Analysis involves working with data, organizing them, breaking them into manageable sizes, synthesising them, searching for patterns, discovering what is important and what is to be learned; and finally deciding what to communicate to the others.
  48. 48. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 48 Limitations of the study/problems faced during the study Denial to access sites Some sites had strict rules of not allowing anybody who does not work on the building construction site to access the site for information. The researcher then obliged to seek for other sites who appreciated the need for researches by students. Language barrier amongst the workers This was rampant especially amidst the labourers who were illiterate. This made it difficult for them to answer the questionnaires and therefore the researcher had to re-interpret. Demand for pay Meanwhile others were willing to give information, a set of individual site workers asked to be paid to participate in answering the questionnaires. The respondents were made to know that the research was academically oriented and not economically lucrative to the researcher. Lack of cooperation from some site supervisors Some supervisors would toss around when it is time to collect the questionnaires left behind. This was a major time wasting factor because few sites would be covered in a long spell of time. Some supervisors claimed they had no time to help in whatsoever way, not even releasing a worker to reply to some questions from the researcher. Due to this, about 200 questionnaires out of the 500 distributed questionnaires were lost or considered abandoned (that is to say, 40% of the total designed and distributed questionnaires). This reduced the range of opinion taken.
  49. 49. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 49 Less time to interact with the workers In most occasions, the time of visiting the sites were working hours and so, it proved cumbersome to have quite sufficient time with the participants to get the required information from them. In some cases, they never trusted their supervisors to give them the time to speak to the researcher. In this case, a mutual understanding had to be reached before any interaction was initiated. Financial constraints Increase in fuel prices increased the transport fares and other subsequent prices of items the researcher wanted to use. The researcher had to deplete his account aiming at finishing this research. Loss of questionnaires Due to perhaps carelessness, some of the respondents misplaced their answered sheets and this resulted into loss of data as well as financial loss on the researcher‟s side because of the costs incurred in printing and photocopying more copies. Therefore more questionnaires had to be redistributed by the researcher for this case.
  50. 50. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 50 CHAPTER FOUR DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS Introduction In this chapter presentation, analysis of data, interpretation of empirical data, presentation of results and findings of data collected from the field (primary data) have been elaborated. The aim of the research was to study the pattern of occupational accidents at building construction sites in Kampala district. The study focussed on the five divisions making Kampala district namely Nakawa, Makindye, Kawempe, Rubaga and Central. About 500 questionnaires were distributed but only 300 were recovered. The findings are presented in line with the objectives of the research study and are intended to give answers to the research questions which were formulated in relation to the study. The lucidity of the findings has been demonstrated with statistical information backed by the obtained data from the field. Part 1: Worker’s Personal Data The first part of the questionnaire was general information about the worker on the building construction site. This included sex, age, job title, education, years of experience, income per day, health history, and area where the respondent lives.
  51. 51. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 51 Sex Gender is very important when it comes to the construction industry. It is believed that women are more careful when it comes to safe guarding their lives and that of the others. Analysis Upon analysing the results obtained, a revelation of the percentage of men and women working on the building construction sites within Kampala is as shown in the pie chart, figure 4.1. Figure 4. 1: Gender of respondents working on building construction site (source: primary data) Interpretation of the results From figure 4.1, it can be seen clearly that of all the number of people working on the construction site, 211 respondents (70%) are men and 16 respondents (7%) are women. 73 respondents (24%) did not answer this question. This shows the gender imbalance that exists within the construction industry. Men believe and have persuaded the women to believe that working on a building construction site is the work of men only which is not true. But the truth is that women are more careful when it comes to safe guarding themselves and others against accidents.
  52. 52. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 52 Age Age is very important when it comes at executing work on the construction sites, as the younger or older someone is the more likely to cause accidents. Analysis After analysing the results obtained, a revelation of the age of the respondents are revealed in the bar chart, figure 4.2 Figure 4. 2: Age group of the respondents (Source: Primary data) Interpretation of the results From figure 4.2, it can be seen that the ages of respondents working on the building construction site are: 4 respondents (1.3%) are below 18 years; 111 respondents (37.0%) are between age 18 years to 30 years, 89 respondents (29.7%) are between 30 years to 40 years; 12 respondents (4%) are between age 40 years to 50 years; 84 respondents (28.0%) did not declare their age.
  53. 53. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 53 Job title Job title helps in putting the building construction site in order as labourers will know who is who on a site. When it comes to the safety on the construction site, someone must give orders to the workers to be followed. Analysis After analysing results obtained, a revelation of the job titles of the respondents on the building construction site are given in the bar chart, figure 4.3. Figure 4. 3: Job titles of the respondents (Source: primary data) Interpretation of the results From figure 4.3, it can be seen that the job titles of the respondents on the building construction site are: 14 respondents (4.7%) are site engineers, 41 respondents (13.7%) are foremen, 40 respondents (13.3%) are technicians, 21 respondents (7.0%) are masons and 101 respondents (33.7%) are labourers. 83 respondents (27.7%) did not respond to this question.
  54. 54. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 54 Education Background Uganda is still faced with high illiteracy levels, and this is reflected on the building construction sites where by illiterate workers will find a problem in reading safety guidelines and interpreting them. Analysis After analysis results obtained, a revelation of the education level of the respondents on the building construction site are given in the bar chart, figure 4.4. Figure 4. 4: Educational background of the respondents on the building construction site (Source: primary data) Interpretation of the results From figure 4.4, it can be seen that the education background of the respondents on the building construction site are: 6 respondents (2%) are of illiterate level, 56 respondents (18.7%) are of primary level, 73 respondents (24.3%) are of secondary level, 64 respondents (21.3%) are of certificate level, 29 respondents (9.7%) are of ordinary diploma level, 39 respondents (13.0%)
  55. 55. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 55 are of higher diploma level, 20 respondents (6.7%) are of degree level, and 6 respondents (2%) are of master level. 7 respondents (2.3%) did not respond to this question. Years of Experience In one way or the other, the numbers of years a labourer have spent on the building construction site are attached to the safety on the building construction site. The more the experience of the workers, the less error are expected to made, hence the safer the work. Analysis After analysing results obtained, a revelation of the years of experiences of the respondents on the building construction sites are given in the bar chart, figure 4.5. Figure 4. 5: Years of experience of the respondents (Source: Primary data) Interpretation of the results From figure 4.5, it can be seen that the years of experiences of the respondents on the building construction site are: 55 respondents (18.3%) have 0 – 5 years of experience, 31 respondents (10.3%) have 5 – 10 years of experience, 16 respondents (5.3%) have 10 – 15 years
  56. 56. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 56 of experience, and 5 respondents (1.7%) have 15 – 20 years of experience. 193 respondents (64.3%) did not respond to this question. Income per day An income of a worker can be a motivating factor or a de-motivating factor which may lead to the good or poor performance of the worker. Analysis After analysing results obtained, a revelation of the income per day of the respondents on the building construction site are given in the bar chart, figure 4.6 Figure 4. 6: Income per day of the respondents on the building construction site. (Source: primary data) Interpretation of the results From figure 4.6, it can be seen that the income per day of the respondents on the building construction site are: 3 respondents (1.0%) earn less than 5,000/= per day, 111 respondents (37.0%) earn between 5,000/= - 10,000/= per day, 42 respondents (14.0%) earn between
  57. 57. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 57 10,000/= - 20,000/= per day, 43 respondents (14.3%) earn more than 20,000/= per day. 101 respondents (33.7%) did not answer this question. Health history When a worker is having a health problem, is more likely to cause accident than one who does not have. Analysis After analysing results obtained, a revelation of the health history of the respondents on the building construction site are given in the pie chart, figure 4.7. Figure 4. 7: Health history of the respondents (Source: primary data) Interpretation of the results From figure 4.7, it can be seen that the health history of the respondents on the building construction site are: 169 respondents (56%) had no health problems, and 21 respondents (7%) had a health problem. 110 respondents (37%) did not answer this question.
  58. 58. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 58 The exact health problem Analysis After analysing results obtained, a revelation of the exact health problem of the respondents on the building construction site are given in the bar chart, figure 4.8. Figure 4. 8: Exact health problem of the respondents (source: primary data) Interpretation of the results From figure 4.8, it can be seen that the exact health problems of the respondents on the building construction site are: 4 respondents (19%) suffered from diabetes, 1 respondent (4.8%) suffer from High blood pressure, 4 respondents (19%) suffer from heart problem, and 12 respondents (57.1%) suffer from other diseases.
  59. 59. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 59 Division in Kampala where respondents stay Analysis After analysing results obtained, a revelation of where respondents stay after work is given in figure 4.9 Figure 4. 9: Where the respondents stay after work (source: primary data) Interpretation of the results From figure 4.9, it can be seen that the place of resident of the respondents are: 70 respondents (23.3%) reside in Makindye, 50 respondents (16.7%) reside in Rubaga, 9 respondents (3%) reside in Central, 50 respondents (16.7%) reside in Nakawa, 45 respondents (15%) reside in Kawempe, and 76 respondents (25.3%) reside outside Kampala.
  60. 60. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 60 Part 2: Accident and Site Conditions Kampala District where the building construction site is located The questionnaires were randomly distributed within the 5 divisions of Kampala District. Ten (10) building construction sites were randomly selected in each division making a total of 50 building construction sites selected for the study purpose in Kampala district. With the 300 received questionnaires out of 500 distributed questionnaires, it means that on average, approximately 30 building construction site workers participated in this study. Analysis After analysing results obtained, a revelation of the location of the building construction sites within Kampala are give in the bar chart, figure 4.10. Figure 4. 10: Division of Kampala where the site is located (source: primary data) Interpretation of the results From figure 4.10, it can be seen that the location of building construction sites within Kampala divisions are: 52 sites (17.3%) are located within Makindye division, 40 sites (13.3%)
  61. 61. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 61 are located within Rubaga division, 78 sites (26.0%) are located within Central division, 30 sites (10%) are located within Nakawa division and 41 sites (13.7%) are located within Kawempe division. 59 respondents (19.7%) did not declare the location of their building construction sites. Indication of category of ownership of the building site Analysis After analysing results obtained, a revelation of the category of ownership of the building construction site are given in the bar chart, figure 4.11. Figure 4. 11: category of ownership of the building construction site (source: primary data) Interpretation of the results From figure 4.11, it can be seen that the category of ownership of the building construction site are: 32 sites (10.7%) are owned by Government/Public institutions, 116 sites (38.7%) are owned by Private institutions, 44 sites (14.7%) are owned by individuals, and 14 sites (4.7%) are owned by Companies. 94 respondents (31.3%) did not answer this question.
  62. 62. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 62 Type of accident that has ever occurred Analysis After analysis results obtained, a revelation of the type of accident that has ever occurred on the building construction site are given in the bar chart, figure 4.12. Figure 4. 12: Type of accident that has ever occurred on the building construction site. (Source: primary data) Interpretation of the results From figure 4.12, it can be seen that the type of accident that has ever occurred on the building construction site are: 7 Contact with electricity accidents occurred, 4 Crane accidents occurred, 110 Tool accidents occurred (tools like spades, hoes, hammers, spanners trowels, floats, etc), 11 Failure of lift device accidents occurred, 3 Structure failure accidents occurred (such as fall of walls, slabs, columns, ceiling, structures under construction, etc), 33 Fall from height accidents occurred, 28 Exposure to hazardous materials accidents occurred, 134 Struck by materials accidents occurred,
  63. 63. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 63 52 Fall from ladder accidents occurred, 4 Scaffolding accidents occurred, 13 Natural causes accidents occurred, 47 Falling object from height accidents occurred, and 5 Machinery Vehicle accidents occurred. Hours in which accidents occurred Analysis After analysing results obtained, a revelation of the period when accidents occurred on the building construction site are given in the bar chart, figure 4.13. Figure 4. 13: Periods when accidents have ever occurred. (Source: primary data) Interpretation of the results From figure 4.13, it can be seen that the periods during which accidents occurred on the building construction sites are: 3 respondents (1.3%) said accidents occurred between 8:00am – 10:00am, 70 respondents (23.3%) said accidents occurred between 10:00am – 1:00pm, 7 respondents (2.3%) said accidents occurred between 2:00pm – 4:00am, 80 respondents (26.7%)
  64. 64. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 64 said accidents occurred between 4:00pm – 5:00pm, and 90 respondents (30%) said accidents occurred between 5:00pm – 7:00pm. 50 respondents (16.7%) did not respond to this question. Weather conditions when accidents occurred Analysis After analysing the results obtained, a revelation of the weather conditions during which the accidents occurred on the construction site are given in the bar chart, figure 4.14 Figure 4. 14: Weather conditions during which accidents have ever occurred (Source: primary data) Interpretation of the results From figure 4.14, it can be seen that the weather conditions during which accidents have ever occurred on the building construction site are: 8 accidents (2.7%) occurred during hot weather condition, 9 accidents (3.0%) occurred during cold weather condition, 6 accidents (2.0%) occurred during moderate weather condition, 9 accidents (3.0%) occurred during humid
  65. 65. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 65 weather condition, 19 accidents (6.3%) occurred during windy weather condition, and 57 accidents (19.0%) occurred during rainy weather condition. 192 respondents (64.0%) did not answer this question. Month in which accident occurred Analysis After analysing results obtained, a revelation of the months in which accidents have ever occurred on the building construction site are given in the bar chart, figure 4.15 Figure 4. 15: Months in which accidents have ever occurred (source: primary data) Interpretation of the results From figure 4.15, it can be seen that the months in which accidents have ever occurred are: 13 accidents (4.3%) occurred during January – February period, 47 accidents (15.7%) occurred during April – June period, 6 accidents (2.0%) occurred during July – September period, and 63 accidents (21.0%) occurred during October – December period. 171 respondents (57.0%) did not answer this question.
  66. 66. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 66 Whether contractor has any insurance policy towards the workers Analysis After analysing results obtained, a revelation of whether the contractor has any insurance policy towards the workers on the building construction site are given in the pie chart, figure 4.16. Figure 4. 16: whether the contractor has any insurance policy for the workers (source: primary data) Interpretation of the results From figure 4.14, it can be seen whether the contractor has any insurance policy towards the workers or not as indicated. 79 respondents (26%) said that the contractor has an insurance policy on them, 108 respondents (36%) said that the contract does not have any insurance policy on them, and 98 respondents (33%) said that they do not know whether the contractor has an insurance policy on them or not. 15 respondents (5%) did not answer to this question.
  67. 67. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 67 Welfare facilities and Safety gears that exist on site Analysis After analysing results obtained, a revelation of the safety gears used by workers on the building construction site are given in the bar chart, figure 4.17 Figure 4. 17: Welfare facilities and Safety gears on the building construction site (source: primary data) Interpretation of the results From figure 4.17, it can be seen that the safety gears used by the respondents on the building construction sites are: 46 Fire extinguishers exist on building construction site, 1 Ambulance exist on building construction site, 29 First Aid rooms exist on building construction site, 30 First Aid personnel exist on building construction site, 58
  68. 68. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 68 Drinking water points exist on building construction site, 133 Gum boots exist on building construction site, 61 Safety shoes exist on the building construction site, 29 Ear defenders exist on building construction site, 128 Overalls exist on the building construction site, 108 Overcoats exist on the building construction site, 103 Helmets exist on the building construction site, 23 Meal/rest rooms exist on the building construction site, 38 Safety regulations exist on the building construction site, and 51 Security Personnel exist on building construction site. Part 3: Factors attributed to building construction accidents Indicate your degree of agreement or disagreement with each statement in reference to construction site you are working on. The table consists of the rankings of the opinions as per each respondent‟s view on the category of hazards. The rankings/scores have been represented as: Table 4. 1: representations of rankings/scores Representations Rankings/Scores HA Highly Agree MA Moderately Agree N Neutral MD Moderately Disagree HD Highly Disagree These rankings too, have been assigned probabilistic numerical values as indicated below to ascertain the degree of acceptance, undecided-ness and rejection of a suggestion by the respondents.
  69. 69. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 69 Table 4. 2: Numerical values of degree of acceptance, undecided-ness and rejection by respondents Opinion HA MA N MD HD Score value 1.00 0.75 0.50 0.25 0.00 In the analysis of results, a combination of the sorted results from the field and the rankings in table 4.19 is used to compute the percentage of respondents to any hazard and also the rate of occurrences of the hazards determined. Below is a table showing how the table of results have been generated using the formula of rating, R R = ∑n(sa) Where, n = frequency or the number of respondents in each category of the expected responses. Sa = score values for each category of the degree of acceptance, undecided-ness and rejection. The sample space is 300 participants for all categories of hazards in the table of results. Table 4. 3: Demonstrations of computations involved in analysis of raw data S. no. Example Opinion Frequency Percentage (%) Score (S) Rating (R) 1 Appropriat e Personal safety procedure not specified HA 15 15/300*100% = 5 1.00 R = (15*1) +(27*0.75) +(0*0.50) + (70*0.25) + (106*0) = 52.75 MA 27 27/300*100% = 9 0.75 N 0 0/300*100% = 0 0.50 MD 70 70/300*100% = 23.3 0.25 HD 106 106/300*100% = 35.3 0.00 To appreciate the score values used as a method of obtaining worker‟s opinion, only the rated results obtained on the same basis is used to analyze and identify the most common accident or hazards on sites affecting the workers.
  70. 70. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 70 Table 4. 4: Common likely causes of accidents/hazards on building construction sites S. no. Likely causes of accidents Opinion Frequency Percentage (%) Score (S) Rating (R) 1 Appropriate Personal safety procedure not specified HA 15 5 1.00 52.75 MA 27 9 0.75 N 0 0 0.50 MD 70 23.3 0.25 HD 106 35.3 0.00 2 Correct tools are not used for the specific tasks HA 10 3.3 1.00 47 MA 25 8.3 0.75 N 11 3.7 0.50 MD 51 17 0.25 HD 127 42.3 0.00 3 Lack of supervision and control on worker’s adherence to wear safety items HA 40 13.3 1.00 98.25 MA 55 18.3 0.75 N 13 4.3 0.50 MD 42 14 0.25 HD 69 23 0.00 4 Safety regulations are not followed HA 25 8.3 1.00 71.25 MA 17 5.7 0.75 N 31 10.3 0.50 MD 72 24 0.25 HD 38 12.7 0.00 5 No safety Engineer at site HA 25 8.3 1.00 55.5 MA 7 2.3 0.75 N 33 11 0.50 MD 35 11.7 0.25 HD 58 19.3 0.00 6 Safety items are not available on site HA 3 1 1.00 52.25 MA 32 10.7 0.75 N 30 10 0.50 MD 41 13.7 0.25 HD 67 22.3 0.00 7 The management is pushing work regardless of labourer’s ability HA 82 27.3 1.00 137.5 MA 59 19.7 0.75 N 2 0.7 0.50 MD 41 13.7 0.25 HD 37 12.3 0.00 8 No or lack of weekly safety meeting HA 5 1.7 1.00 61.25 MA 35 11.7 0.75 N 31 10.3 0.50 MD 58 19.3 0.25 HD 35 11.7 0.00 9 No training program for the worker to implement the job HA 60 20 1.00 77.5 MA 2 0.7 0.75 N 3 1 0.50 MD 58 19.3 0.25 HD 84 28 0.00 10 No written/known procedure for the assigned job is available HA 47 15.7 1.00 75 MA 16 5.3 0.75 N 1 0.3 0.50 MD 62 20.7 0.25 HD 93 31 0.00
  71. 71. Luwalaga John Groover, 2009-MPH-FT-010, Research Dissertation, IHSU 71 11 Lack of appreciation after completion of task HA 76 25.3 1.00 123.25 MA 45 15 0.75 N 3 1 0.50 MD 48 16 0.25 HD 53 17.7 0.00 12 Some workers are suffering from health problems HA 0 0 1.00 39 MA 4 1.3 0.75 N 43 14.3 0.50 MD 58 19.3 0.25 HD 60 20 0.00 13 Workers are forced to work even if there are not in an acceptable physical condition HA 0 0 1.00 47.5 MA 16 5.3 0.75 N 44 14.7 0.50 MD 54 18 0.25 HD 65 21.7 0.00 14 Physical fatigue can cause accident HA 81 27 1.00 138.5 MA 65 21.7 0.75 N 8 2.7 0.50 MD 19 6.3 0.25 HD 29 9.7 0.00 15 Some workers are suffering from the mental fatigue on the job HA 15 5 1.00 66 MA 9 3 0.75 N 65 21.7 0.50 MD 47 15.7 0.25 HD 31 10.3 0.00 16 Work is performed while rushing HA 16 5.3 1.00 74.25 MA 20 6.7 0.75 N 55 18.3 0.50 MD 63 21 0.25 HD 31 10.3 0.00 17 Accidents occur due to misjudgement from the worker HA 0 0 1.00 43.75 MA 5 1.7 0.75 N 50 16.7 0.50 MD 60 20 0.25 HD 45 15 0.00 18 Workers have no satisfaction with the nature of the job HA 1 0.3 1.00 44.25 MA 3 1 0.75 N 50 16.7 0.50 MD 64 21.3 0.25 HD 45 15 0.00 19 Workers do not have enough sleeping hours HA 35 11.7 1.00 89.75 MA 52 17.3 0.75 N 14 4.7 0.50 MD 35 11.7 0.25 HD 32 10.7 0.00 20 Workers do not wear personal protection items HA 5 1.7 1.00 39.25 MA 31 10.3 0.75 N 6 2 0.50 MD 32 10.7 0.25 HD 45 15 0.00 21 Workers take overtime HA 65 21.7 1.00 88.25 MA 26 8.7 0.75 N 3 1 0.50

×