BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM AGRICULTURAL WASTE BY UWAMOSE MARTIN
BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM AGRICULTURAL WASTE
MARTINS NELSON OSAIGBOKAN UWAMOSE
DEPARTMENT OF ANIMAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY
FACULTY OF SCIENCE,
DELTA STATE UNIVERSITY, ABRAKA
JANUARY , 2013
Waste has always been the shadow side of an economy. Waste is that which is
rejected, useless and barren. It can also be called garbage, rubbish, refuse waste or
whichever language you call it they are the same. Additionally, waste includes all
items that people no longer have any use for wish they either intend to get rid of
or already discarded. Thus all our daily activities can give to a large variety of
different wastes arising from different sources. The more waste we generate, the
more we have to dispose to them, but they can be recycled into raw materials to
produce biogas. Biogas is a renewable energy source, like solar and wind energy.
Waste recycling offers one means of reducing the impact of waste disposal in the
atmosphere. Biogas is produced from easily available raw materials such as
recycled waste and is environmentally friendly.
Agricultural waste, which includes both natural (organic) and non-natural
wastes, is a general term used to describe waste produced on a farm through
various farming activities. Agricultural and food industry residues refuse
and wastes constitute a significant proportion of worldwide agricultural
productivity. It has variously been estimated that these wastes can account
for over 30% of world wide agricultural productivity. When discharged to
the environment, agricultural wastes can be both beneficial and detrimental
to living matter. Examples of such agricultural wastes include pineapple
peels, plantain peels, mango peels, and cassava peels, and so on.
Agricultural waste derived from animal agriculture and farming activities
are to used for production of biogas.
Biogas typically refers to a gas produced by the biological breakdown
of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Biogas originates from
biogenic material and is a type of biofuels. One type of biogas is
produced by anaerobic digestion or fermentation of biodegradable
materials such as biomass, manure or sewage, municipal waste, green
waste and energy crops. This type of biogas comprises primarily of
methane and carbon dioxide. Biogas technology is based on the
phenomenon that when organic matter containing cellulose is
fermented in the absence of air (aerobically), combustible gases but
majorly (methane) is formed.
Beehive for gas collection
Fig 1. Biogas Digester
Source: Google Images
Fig 2. Infrared Thermometer
Source: Google Images
Fig. 1 Fig. 2
Allow the agricultural waste to undergo partial decomposition
in a compost arrangement with addition of bio enzymes and
water. The partially decomposed waste should then be
introduced into the digester (Fig. 1). Seal the digester
completely and then connect to the gas delivery setup, the gas
is going to be collected over water in a trough with a beehive
and measuring cylinder. Leave the setup for a specific time
period (precisely 1-6 days) at an ambient condition until a
decline in gas production is observed. During the period of the
production, the temperature displaced by gas should be
measured daily using the infrared thermometer (Fig 2). The
contents of the digester should be continuously stirred to
ensure that the molecules of gas are set in perpetual random
Biogas is used for heating.
Biogas energy is used to generate power.
Biogas is used as vehicle fuel.
Biogas is used in industry such as sugar refineries,
distilleries, dairies, and paper mill generate
processing and waste water that can be digested on
site. It can also be used for heating ovens.
Biogas production is often suggested in situations
where agricultural wastes are used as a major source
of household energy. The potential advantages
include: The replacement of an inefficient (but
traditional) fuel with a more efficient and flexible one,
the recoupment of the fertilizer value of the waste,
which is lost if the waste are burned and the benefits
to public health (especially in reducing eye diseases)
less Smokey, gas is used. Biogas is an attractive fuel
for use in engines since it has no difficult pollutant
that can damage them (like producer gas does).