Process selection2

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Process selection2

  1. 1. Process Selection and Facility Layout
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Process selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deciding on the way production of goods or services will be organized </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Major implications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Layout of facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design of work systems </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Process Selection and System Design Forecasting Product and Service Design Technological Change Capacity Planning Process Selection Facilities and Equipment Layout Work Design
  4. 4. Process Selection <ul><li>Variety </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How much </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What degree </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Volume </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expected output </li></ul></ul>Job Shop Batch Repetitive Continuous Project Process Types
  5. 5. Process Types <ul><li>Projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unique </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Job shop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small scale </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Batch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate volume in lots </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Repetitive/assembly line </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High volumes of standardized goods or services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Continuous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very high volumes, Highly standardize </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Product – Process Matrix Volume Flexibility / Mix Not Feasible Not Feasible Oil refinery Generating Electricity Not feasible Continuous (flow) Automotive assembly Automatic carwash Repetitive Commercial bakery Classroom Lecture Batch Not feasible Appliance repair Emergency room Job Shop Process Type Project Bridges Highways
  7. 7. Project <ul><li>Non-Routine, Often “One Of A Kind” Operation </li></ul><ul><li>Limited Time Frame To Complete </li></ul><ul><li>Steps Involved in Project Process </li></ul><ul><li>Project initiation stage; </li></ul><ul><li>Project planning or design stage; </li></ul><ul><li>Project execution or production stage; </li></ul><ul><li>Project monitoring and controlling systems; </li></ul><ul><li>Project completion stage. </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing : </li></ul><ul><li>Buildings, Dams, Bridges, Ships </li></ul><ul><li>Service : </li></ul><ul><li>Crisis Management (Hurricane Recovery) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Job Shops Low Volume – High Variety of Goods & Services Processes may change from job to job. Highly flexible workforce and equipment. Manufacturing Examples: Tool & Die Shop, Custom Car Painting Service Examples: Beauty Solon, Hospital, Veterinarians Office (Many animals, many issues)
  9. 9. Batch Processes Medium Volume having job shop flexibility using repetitive techniques. Easy to set-up processes. Process runs batches using repetitive techniques. Flexible Automation Manufacturing Examples: Small Bakery, PIP style printing Service Examples: TV Show Production, Airline baggage handling
  10. 10. Repetitive / Assembly Line High Volume – Low Variety of Goods & Services Processes are very constant with little change. Lower skilled workers needed – Fixed Automation Manufacturing Examples: Auto Assembly, High Volume Electronics Service Examples – Cafeteria Lines, Ticket Takers
  11. 11. Continuous Processes Very High Volume – Very Low Variety Continuous Processes Frequently totally automated Fixed (hard) automation Manufacturing Examples: Making Steel, Fiberglass, Petrochemicals, Generating Electricity. Service Examples: Internet, Air Quality Monitoring, Delivering Electricity
  12. 12. Automation <ul><li>“ Machinery or equipment with sensing devices </li></ul><ul><li>that enable it to operate.&quot; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ATM’s To Robots </li></ul></ul>Commonly used term with many meanings. Fixed Automation / Hard Automation Programmable Automation
  13. 13. Fixed vs. Programmable Automation Fixed Automation – designed to do a specific task. Specialized equipment – high volume at low cost, inflexible. Programmable Automation – may be reprogrammed to do many different tasks. General purpose equipment – lower volume/ higher variety, very flexible.
  14. 14. Automation <ul><ul><li>Reduce Human variation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve Quality – consistency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Productivity?? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others </li></ul></ul>Advantages of Automation?
  15. 15. Automation <ul><ul><li>Costs! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of flexibility - Limitations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People can think, feel, make decisions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support personnel needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must use to be cost effective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other </li></ul></ul>Disadvantages of Automation?

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