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Organizational change


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  • 1. Organizational change Lecture 12
  • 2. Organizational change
    • Substantive modification in some part of the organization;
    • It may include any aspect in the organization:
    • Work schedules;
    • Bases for departmentalization;
    • Span of management;
    • Organizational design;
    • Staff.
  • 3. Forces for change
    • External forces;
    • Internal forces. Internal forces include strategy, structure, staff, goals,technical equipment.
  • 4. Types of change
    • There are two main types of a change:
    • Planned change . It is designed and implemented in an orderly and timely fashion in anticipation of future events;
    • Reactive change . It is a respond to circumstances as they develop.
    • Technological changes ;
    • Behavioral changes ;
    • Innovations.
  • 5. Managing change process
    • Managing change means forecasts the change, implementing it in the organization and involving people in it.
    • According to Kurt Lewin, there are three stages in change process:
    • Unfreezing;
    • Implementing;
    • Reinforcing.
  • 6. Stages in change process
    • Unfreezing means that people who will be affected by change should understand why change is necessary;
    • Implementation is next stage.
    • Refreezing involves reinforcing and supporting the change.
  • 7. Steps in change process
    • Recognition the need for change;
    • Establishment of goals for change;
    • Diagnosis of relevant variables;
    • Selection of appropriate change techniques;
    • Planning for implementation of the change;
    • Actual implementation;
    • Evaluation
  • 8. Managing resistance to change
    • People resist to change for several reasons:
    • -uncertainty;
    • Threatened self-interests;
    • Different perceptions;
    • Feelings of loss.
  • 9. Techniques to overcome resistance
    • Participation . Employees who participate in the planning and implementation of change better understand the reasons for change;
    • Education and communication ;
    • Facilitation;
    • Negotiations. This technique is suitable for groups having power in the oranizations ;
    • Support. It is connected with training of staff to acquire new skills ;
    • Manipulation and involvement.
  • 10. Organization development
    • It is an effort that is planned, organization wide, and managed from top, intended to increase organization’s effectiveness through planned actions.
  • 11. Prerequisites for organization development
    • Employees have desire to grow and develop;
    • They have strong need to be accepted by others;
    • The way OD is designed will influence the way individuals and group behave in the organization.
  • 12. OD techniques
    • Diagnostic activities . It includes analysis of current condition or welfare of the organization;
    • Team building ; they enhance the effectiveness and satisfaction of individuals;
    • Survey feedback . Each employee responds to a questionnaire intended to measure perceptions and attitudes.
  • 13. OD techniques
    • Education ;
    • Intergroup activities . They are designed to promote cooperation;
    • Third- party peace making . It is used in cases of substantial conflict in the organization;
    • Technostructural activities . They include the design of organization, the technology.
  • 14. OD techniques
    • Process consultation . In this case OD consultant is observing the groups to understand their communication pattern, decision making and leadership processes and gives feedback.
    • Life and career planning . Employees formulate their personal goals and evaluate strategies for integrating goals with goals in the organization;
    • Coaching and counseling ; it helps people to develop better sense of how others see them.