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  1. 1. Nanomaterial Standards for NASA Applications Leonard Yowell NASA Johnson Space Center ES4/Materials and Processes Branch January 27th, 2005 E-Mail: Phone: 281-483-2811
  2. 2. NASA’s Strategic Vision Deep Space Exploration Mars Manned Mars Robotic Crew Exploration Lunar Manned Vehicle ISS Lunar Robotic Complete 2005 2010 2015 2020 2035
  3. 3. Goals for Future NASA Space Systems
  4. 4. NASA-Led NNI Grand Challenge Microcraft Deep Space Probes Orbiters Nanomaterials Planetary Entry / Surface Probes Nanosensors and Structural Micro/Nano/Pico-craft Power / Energy Storage Instrumentation Thermal Management Biological Shielding Chemical Multifunctionality Radiological System / Vehicle Health In-situ Analysis NNI Workshop Nano-Micro-Macro Integration Identify Key Challenges Electronics Develop a Roadmap Sensors / Instrumentation Astronaut Health Management Actuators Personal Biomedical Monitoring New algorithms Personal Countermeasures Communications Basic Biomedical Research Major Medical Operations Nanorobotics Life Support NNI Grand Challenge Workshop Actuation and Control Microcraft and Robotics Molecular Actuation August 24-26, 2004 Micromachines Palo Alto, California
  5. 5. Nanomaterials: Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes Unique Properties Possible Applications • Exceptional strength • High-strength, light-weight fibers and • Interesting electrical properties composites (metallic, semi-conducting, semi-metal) • Nano-electronics, sensors, and field • High thermal conductivity emission displays • Large aspect ratios • Radiation shielding and monitoring • Large surface areas • Fuel cells, energy storage, capacitors • Biotechnology • Advanced life support materials • Electromagnetic shielding and electrostatic discharge materials Size Comparison – • Multifunctional materials C60 , Nanotubes, and Atoms Single Wall • Thermal management materials Carbon Nanotube DC60=10.18Å C60 Current Limitations DFe=2.52Å DCo=2.50Å C60 • High cost for bulk production DNi=2.50Å DC=1.54Å • Inability to produce high quality, pure, type specific SWCNTs • Variations in material from batch to batch • Growth mechanisms not thoroughly understood • Characterization tools, techniques and protocols not well developed
  6. 6. Nanomaterials: Fundamentals to Applications Characterization Purity, Dispersion, Consistency, Type Processing Growth/Production SWCNT Load Transfer Purification Laser and HiPco Single Fiber Diffusivity Functionalization Production and Dispersion Diagnostics Alignment Collaboration Academia, Industry, Government
  7. 7. Technology Readiness Levels (TRL)
  8. 8. Growth, Modeling, Diagnostics and Production Objective: Ensure a reliable source of single wall carbon nanotubes with tailored properties (length, diameter, purity, chirality) Modeling, Diagnostics, and Parametric Studies
  9. 9. Characterization: Purity, Dispersion & Consistency Standard Nanotube New Purity Reference Standard 0.1 Characterization Protocol R2 A(S22,R2) A(T,R2) = 0.141 A(S22,R2) 0.0 Absorbance (a) 0.4 Haddon, 2003 0.2 A(T,R2) NASA/NIST 2nd Characterization REFERENCE (R2) Workshop 0.0 8000 10000 -1 12000 Wavenumber (cm ) January 2005 xc1 382.47879 w1 228.23241 ±16. ±14. A1 13.93993 ±1.99063 Gaithersburg, MD 0.3 xc2 454.29423 w2 102.48077 A2 36.93765 ±1.24083 ±0.2 ±0.9 DTG, % /o C TPO xc3 527.24674 ±0.1 w3 34.67277 ±0.31586 o 5%, 527 C A3 5.04174 ±0.08191 xc4 633.01953 ±2.0 o 0.2 37%, 454 C w4 138.11402 ±4.2 A4 16.7643 ±0.92689 xc5 763.38627 ±1.5 w5 88.42463 ±1.96689 o A5 4.57328 ±0.28528 17%, 633 C 0.1 o 14%, 382 C o 5%, 763 C 0.0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 o T, C Arepalli, et al., Carbon, 2004
  10. 10. Single Tube Measurements → Composites a b c Measurements of nanotube lengths as produced d=1.25 nm d=0.86 nm d=0.8 nm L>22 µm L>18 µm L=380 nm •Nanotube length is extremely important for stress transfer in composite materials. 3 •Difficult to determine lengths of individual nanotubes from conventional TEM, SEM or AFM images because they bundle •Processing (purification, sonication) seems to cut tubes •Measured tensile strength (Ruoff) indicates long tubes •Individual tubes longer than ~10 µm are required for strong ropes (Yakobson) as-produced Our observation: • We see very long (≥20µm) individual tubes and thin bundles processed Liu et al. Sivaram Arepalli, et al. Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 78, March 12, 2001, pp. 1610-12 (2001).
  11. 11. Applications for Human Space Exploration Power / Energy Storage Materials Advanced Life Support – Proton Exchange Membrane – Regenerable CO2 Removal (PEM) Fuel Cells – Water recovery – Supercapacitors / batteries Thermal Management and Multi-functional / Protection – Ceramic nanofibers for advanced Structural Materials reentry materials – Primary structure (airframe) – Passive / active thermal – Inflatables management (spacesuit fabric, avionics) Electromagnetic / Radiation Shielding and Monitoring – ESD/EMI coatings Nano-Biotechnology – Radiation monitoring – Health monitoring (assays) – Countermeasures
  12. 12. Electrical Power / Energy Storage Systems Shuttle 3x Alkaline Fuel Cells NiMH, Li-MnO2 and Ag/Zn batteries ISS Photovoltaics & NiH 2 batteries
  13. 13. Advanced Power Generation: Hybrid Systems Fuel Cell Battery Supercapacitor + + • Continuous energy supply • Smaller, lighter, longer life • Pulse power source • High energy density with hybrid • Fast charge/discharge • Low power density • Intermediate power density • Very high power density • Intermediate energy density • Virtually unlimited cycle life 104 Energy-power Specific Energy Fuel Cell tradeoff (Wh/kg) 103 102 Battery Supercapacitor 10 10 102 103 104 Specific Power (W/kg)
  14. 14. Nanomaterials: Supercapacitors SWCNT mats as electrodes in double-layer electrochemical capacitors High surface area, How super is it? nanopores dramatically Capacitance ~ Farads increase current density (µF or pF for Electrolyte conventional electrolytic capacitors) …with Goal: replace + supercap current SAFER plus ordinary battery… batteries Expensive Cheap Inorganic Specialists, Inc. Capacitor increased battery lifetime 15% ReyTech Exceeds Maxwell PC10 power by 5x, specific power by 30x Exceeds NASA requirements for power by 5x, energy by 20x Commercial product line in development Georgia Tech Recent- Exceeds Maxwell PC10 power by 3x
  15. 15. Advanced PEM Fuel Cells – Nanotube Electrodes • Carbon nanotube electrode assemblies for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells • Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) formed from a NafionTM membrane sandwiched between nanotube electrodes with Pt catalyst • Increased surface area of the electrodes • Reduce Ohmic losses – increase efficiency • Higher power density • Small diameter HiPco tubes may enhance H2 dissociation • Enhanced thermal management • More uniform current density Source:
  16. 16. Advanced PEM Fuel Cells - Characterization Prototype Membrane Electrode Assembly Carbon Fiber Gas Diffusion NafionTM Layer Membrane (GDL) SWCNT Electrode Single Wall Carbon Nanotube (SWCNT) Carbon Fiber Electrode (GDL) SWCNT NafionTM interface interface in MEA in MEA
  17. 17. Advanced PEM Fuel Cells – Testing Performance Testing at Energy Systems Test Area (ESTA) - Collaboration with JSC Energy Systems Division –Test initial viability of SWCNT for MEA – Use for material down-select – Initial Results encouraging: – Overall performance within 80% of reference on first design iteration – Future Testing: Use new electrode designs, incorporate advanced membranes (GRC), increase fuel cell test temperature – Complete characterization work: feedback into second design iteration
  18. 18. Air Revitalization: Regenerable CO2 Removal Advanced life support for space exploration: Advanced Air Revitalization using amine-coated single wall carbon nanotubes • Lithium hydroxide technology not suited for long duration missions • Advanced solid amine bed system flown in mid-1990’s (pressure swing) - Volume constraints, thermally inefficient, amine volatility - Not suited for planetary use (need temperature swing) Need for new material: high surface area, high thermal conductivity, ability to be coated with amine system • Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes To be replaced by High Surface Area, Polymer Bead and Conductive Aluminum Structure SWCNT Structure
  19. 19. Ceramic Nanofibers: Thermal Protection Materials Current LI-2200 Shuttle Tile Solid Fibers 1-5µm (1000-5000nm) Ceramic Overcoating Carbon Nanofiber/tube Accomplished Hollow Fibers 0.1-0.3 µm (100-300nm) Based on Carbon Nanofibers • Reduced Vehicle Weight Proposed Hollow Fibers • Increased Performance 0.01-0.05 µm (10-50nm) • Mechanical Durability Based on Carbon Nanotube Ropes
  20. 20. Nanotechnology: Space / Life Sciences Long duration space missions Clinical conditions linked to free-fall/microgravity and space radiation: • Loss of bone density • Reduced cardiovascular • Loss of muscle mass performance • Reduced immune function • Carcinogenesis linked to exposure to radiation • Increased susceptibility to infection • Non-carcinogenic tissue • Slow wound healing degeneration due to radiation • Anemia and low blood cell • Renal stone formation count • Accelerated cataract formation Mission Constraints: • Limited space for medical equipment • Expertise in medical operations limited to crew • Sterility must be maintained in sealed environment Contact: Dr. Antony Jeevarajan, 281-483-4298,
  21. 21. Astronaut Health Management Personal Biomedical Monitoring Major Medical Operations • Identification of molecular indicators for • Contrast agents to target specific sites for onset of conditions surgery • High sensitivity assays • Bio-mimetic or engineered compounds to • Short prep-time assays, no prep-time assays help wound healing and in vivo monitoring • Miniaturized electron microscopes for • Multiple simultaneous assays biopsies Personal Countermeasures Life Support • Timed drug release • High surface area materials for CO2 removal • Targeted drug therapy • Inorganic coatings that catalyze the • Triggered drug release revitalization of air and water • Indicators for drugs effectiveness • Sensors to monitor harmful vapor and gases Toxicology & Ethics Basic Biomedical Research • Biodistribution of nanoparticles • The role that forces plays on cell mechanisms • Toxicology of nanoparticles (gravitational forces) • Ethical use of information from nanotech • Molecular machines (ATPase, Kinesin, devices Microtubules, Polymerase, etc.) • In vivo monitoring of ultra-low concentration Systems Integration proteins and biomolecules • Develop ‘common toolkit’ for bio-nano chemistry and assembly processes Contact: Dr. Antony Jeevarajan, 281-483-4298,
  22. 22. Exploration: Nanotechnology Integration CEV Lunar Manned Power/Energy Storage Power/Energy Storage - 1st gen transmission (quantum wires) - 2nd gen transmission (long range) - 1st gen CNT supercaps/batteries/fuel cells Advanced Life Support and storage (supercaps/batteries/fuel cells) - 1st gen photovoltaics Mars - 1st gen air revitalization (CO2 scrubber) - 1st gen water recovery (nanofiltration) Advanced Life Support - 2nd gen water/air revitalization Manned Astronaut Health Management Astronaut Health Management - 1st gen health monitoring (quantum dot assays) Combination - 2nd gen health monitoring Electromagnetic/Radiation Shielding - 1st gen medical countermeasures of the best - 1st gen EMI/ESD coatings Electromagnetic/Radiation Shielding technologies - 1st gen radiation shield/structural polymer - 2nd gen radiation shield/structural polymer & monitor from manned Multifunctional/Structural Multifunctional/Structural and robotic - 1st gen vehicle health monitoring (wireless) - 1st gen polymer and ceramic repair kit (microwave NTs) - 1st gen polymer and ceramic repair kit (µw NTs) - 1st gen lightweight/high strength nanocomposite (rover) missions Lunar Robotic Mars Robotic ISS Power/Energy Storage Power/Energy Storage - 1st gen transmission (quantum wires) - transmission (quantum wires), CNT supercaps/batteries & PV - 1st gen CNT supercaps/batteries & PV Electromagnetic/Radiation Shielding Electromagnetic/Radiation Shielding - radiation shielding/monitoring and EMI/ESD coatings - 1st gen radiation and EMI/ESD coatings - 1st gen radiation monitor Thermal Protection and Management - passive heat pipes / high k thermal interface Thermal Management - test 1st gen nanostructured thermal protection system - 1st gen passive heat pipes / high k thermal interface Analytical Sensors & Instrumentation Analytical Sensors & Instrumentation - 2nd gen mass spec, elemental analysis - 1st gen mass spec, elemental analysis Spacesuit Development 2008 2010 2015 2020 2035 Deep Space Exploration
  23. 23. JSC Nanomaterials Group: Team Members • Dr. Leonard Yowell • Dr. Brad Files • Dr. Carl Scott • Dr. Erica Sullivan • Dr. Sivaram Arepalli • Dr. Ram Allada • Dr. Pasha Nikolaev • Padraig Moloney • Dr. Brian Mayeaux • William Holmes • Dr. Olga Gorelik • Beatrice Santos • Dr. Ed Sosa • Heather Fireman
  24. 24. Nanomaterial Standards for NASA Applications Questions? 281-483-2811