Tamas Soton 2008
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Tamas Soton 2008

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  • Introduction Welcome to the University of Southampton’s corporate PowerPoint template. This template has been designed to present a consistent corporate image throughout all University of Southampton communications. The design reflects the design standards being developed for Print and Online communications. The template has been developed in consultation with Academic Schools and Professional Services. Please observe the following guidelines if you want your presentation to conform to this style: The University logo must remain in solid blue and not be moved, replaced, covered or altered in any way. Departmental logos can be added to the presentation by inserting them onto the Slide/Title Master in the designated zone at the bottom right. If no logo is available/desired then either delete the place holder or add a descriptive name such as “The International Office” or “School of Humanities” if desired. The fonts, colours and arrow bullet points are part of the style and should be retained if consistency with this house style is required. Need support? Should you require assistance in creating presentations, organising imagery or you would like to make recommendations for ongoing developments the please contact Matt Goode, Marketing Communications, Corporate and Marketing Services on extension 28542 or Sarah Prendergast, Marketing Communications, Corporate and Marketing Services on extension 24174

Tamas Soton 2008 Tamas Soton 2008 Presentation Transcript

  • Optimizations in Spatial Cognition: Strategies and Trade-offs
  • Overview
    • Optimality in Spatial Cognition
      • Spatial Abilities, Trade-off, Exploratory Strategies
    • Empirical Studies
      • Experiment I.: Physical Environment
      • Experiment II.: Agent-based Simulation
    • Overall Summary
  • Optimality in Spatial Cognition
    • Spatial Cognition involves skills that enables us to :
      • interact effectively and efficiently with our environment
    (Theoretical) Optimum ‘ do the best possible’ Behavioural Optimum ‘ do the best you can’ increase spatial knowledge (memory) reduce travel distance (energy) Optimization find the target with minimal effort exploratory strategies ?
  • Overview
    • Optimality in Spatial Cognition
      • Spatial Abilities, Trade-off, Exploratory Strategies
    • Empirical Studies
      • Experiment I.: Physical Environment
      • Experiment II.: Agent-based Simulation
    • Overall Summary
  • Research question & hypotheses 1.
    • RQ: What are the cognitive and behavioural factors that influence spatial exploration?
    • Hy1: Humans explore novel physical environments differently, according to how they optimize their spatial cognition:
      • increase spatial knowledge (memory)  extensive exploration
      • reduce distance travelled (energy)  limited exploration
    • Hy 2: Humans are optimizing their explorations in terms of a trade-off b/w:
      • spatial memory
      • distance travelled
  • Experiment I. – Physical Environment
    • Experimental Design
    • 41 participants; 2 omitted
    • 24 female; 17 male
    • 3.5m x 3.5m squared space
    • black curtain on the walls
    • 5 objects in boxes to explore
    • 3 phases:
      • Free exploration*
      • Learning
      • Navigation test
    • 2 measures of navigation:
      • extendedness of routes (memory)
      • distance travelled (energy)
    Makany, T., Redhead, E., & Dror, I. E. (2007). Spatial exploration patterns determine navigation efficiency: Trade-off between memory demands and distance travelled. QJEP, 60, 1594-1602 .
  • Experiment I. – Physical Environment
    • Results
      • 2 initial exploratory strategies were found:
    extensive exploration (higher memory demands) shorter overall distance travelled (lower energy cost) limited exploration (lower memory demands) longer overall distance travelled (higher energy cost) Makany, T., Redhead, E., & Dror, I. E. (2007). Spatial exploration patterns determine navigation efficiency: Trade-off between memory demands and distance travelled. QJEP, 60, 1594-1602 . (n=28) (n=11) Memory Distance
  • Experiment I. – Physical Environment
    • Summary
      • we found 2 distinct patterns of exploration: axial & circular
      • these patterns seem to reflect on different spatial optimization strategies:
        • spatial knowledge (memory) optimization
        • travelled distance (energy) optimization
      • interaction of navigation performances suggests a trade-off between memory & distance strategies
    • Further Steps
      • empirically test whether the manipulation of these exploratory strategies result in optimization trade-off
      • build a computational model to simulate human spatial exploratory behaviour
    Makany, T., Redhead, E., & Dror, I. E. (2007). Spatial exploration patterns determine navigation efficiency: Trade-off between memory demands and distance travelled. QJEP, 60, 1594-1602 .
  • Overview
    • Optimality in Spatial Cognition
      • Spatial Abilities, Trade-off, Exploratory Strategies
    • Empirical Studies
      • Experiment I.: Physical Environment
      • Experiment II.: Agent-based Simulation
    • Overall Summary
  • Research question & hypothesis 2.
    • RQ: What are the cognitive and behavioural factors that influence spatial exploration?
    • Hy3: Human exploratory behaviour can be simulated by using simple optimization strategies
      • follow/avoid known routes (memory-strategy)  extensive exploration
      • minimize/maximize overall distance travelled (energy-strategy)  limited exploration
    • Hy 4: Our model will reproduce the same trade-off as in humans b/w:
      • spatial memory
      • distance travelled
  • Experiment 2. – AB Simulation
    • Agent-based model in NetLogo
    • Single artifical agent per run
    • 2D 6x6 grid square lattice space
    • 5 objects to explore
      • Task: visit all objects based on an object cost function :
        • e i,j = distance to object j from position i
        • m = steps already taken on the way
        • α= parametre weight (complementary)
        • 121 test runs; full parametrization
    • 2 measures of navigation:
      • extendedness of routes (memory)
      • distance travelled (energy)
    Makany, T., & Makowsky, M. (submitted). Human spatial exploratory strategies in an agent-based model: Trade-off between distance and memory demands. Spatial Cognition Conf., Freiburg (Germany).
  • Experiment 2. – AB Simulation
    • Results
      • 2 exploratory strategies were found:
    extensive exploration (higher memory demands) limited exploration (lower memory demands) longer overall distance travelled (higher energy cost) shorter overall distance travelled (lower energy cost) Circular (n=84) Axial (n=35) Makany, T., & Makowsky, M. (submitted). Human spatial exploratory strategies in an agent-based model: Trade-off between distance and memory demands. Spatial Cognition Conf., Freiburg (Germany). Memory Distance
  • Experiment 2. – AB Simulation
    • Summary
      • we found 2 patterns of exploration, similar to Exp. 1.: axial & circular
      • simulation results confirmed the strategy optimization trade-off
    • Further Research
      • test the model with other environmental parameters (e.g., virtual)
    Makany, T., & Makowsky, M. (submitted). Human spatial exploratory strategies in an agent-based model: Trade-off between distance and memory demands. Spatial Cognition Conf., Freiburg (Germany). Memory Distance Memory Distance
  • Overview
    • Optimality in Spatial Cognition
      • Spatial Abilities, Trade-off, Exploratory Strategies
    • Empirical Studies
      • Experiment I.: Physical Environment
      • Experiment II.: Agent-based Simulation
    • Overall Summary
  • Overall Summary RQ: What are the cognitive and behavioural factors that influence spatial exploration? - Hy1: Humans explore novel physical environments differently, according to how they optimize their spatial cognition - Hy 2: Humans are optimizing their explorations in terms of a trade-off - Hy3: Human exploratory behaviour can be simulated by using simple optimization strategies - Hy 4: Our model reproduced the same trade-off as in humans ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔
    • Spatial Cognition involves skills that enables us to :
      • interact effectively and efficiently with our environment
    increase spatial knowledge (memory) reduce travel distance (energy) Optimization find the target with minimal effort exploratory strategies ?
  • Overall Summary
    • Impact of Research
    • Theoretical :
      • how the human cognitive system optimizes information when exploring novel spaces
      • individual differences between good/poor explorers
      • cognitive/behavioural efficiency
    • Applied :
      • predict spatial performances based on initial exploratory behaviours
      • aid poor explorers from a very early phase of their spatial learning
      • spatial design applications in multiple environments
  • Optimizations in Spatial Cognition: Strategies and Trade-offs Thank you! Acknowledgements Dr. Edward Redhead – University of Southampton Dr. Itiel Dror – University of Southampton Dr. Anne McBride – Univerisity of Southampton *T.M. was supported by the School of Psychology PhD Scholarship
  • Cluster Analysis Dendrogram I.
  • Cluster Analysis Dendrogram 2.