Questionnaire : HEGEL


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Questionnaire : HEGEL

  1. 1. QUESTIONNAIRE : HEGEL 1. What theory Hegel sustains? George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel was a German philosopher, one of the creators of German Idealism. His historicist and idealist account of reality as a whole revolutionized European philosophy and was an important precursor to Continental philosophy and Marxism. 2. What philosophy type Hegel develops? Hegel developed a comprehensive philosophical framework, or "system", to account in an integrated and developmental way for the relation of mind and nature, the subject and object of knowledge, and psychology, the state, history, art, religion and philosophy. In particular, he developed a concept of mind or spirit that manifested itself in a set of contradictions and oppositions that it ultimately integrated and united, without eliminating either pole or reducing one to the other. Examples of such contradictions include those between nature and freedom, and between immanence and transcendence. 3. Where he was born? Hegel was born on August 27, 1770 in Stuttgart, in the Duchy Württemberg in southwestern Germany. 4. Where received their first studies? Hegel attended the seminar of Tubinga ( a seminar of the Protestant Church in Württemberg) where two fellow students were to become vital to his development—his exact contemporary, the poet Friedrich Hölderlin, and the younger brilliant philosopher-to-be Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling. 5. Which the first writings that realized Hegel? In Tubingen Seminars Hegel composed the text which has become known as the "Life of Jesus" and a book-length manuscript entitled "The Positivity of the Christian Religion".While in Frankfurt Hegel composed the essay "Fragments on Religion and Love". In 1799 he wrote another essay entitled "The Spirit of Christianity and Its Fate" which was not published during his lifetime. “Writings of Youth” have been study object and interpretation from their publication at the beginning of the XX century. 6. Mention their main works? Hegel published only four books during his life: “The Phenomenology of Spirit” (or Phenomenology of Mind), his account of the evolution of consciousness from sense-perception to absolute knowledge, published in 1807; “The Science of Logic”, the logical and metaphysical core of his philosophy, in three volumes, published in 1811, 1812, and 1816 (revised 1831); “Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences”, a summary of his entire philosophical system, which was originally published in 1816 and
  2. 2. revised in 1827 and 1830; and “The Elements of the Philosophy of Right”, his political philosophy, published in 1822. In the latter, he criticized von Haller's reactionary work, which claimed that laws were not necessary. He also published some articles early in his career and during his Berlin period. A number of other works on the philosophy of history, religion, aesthetics, and the history of philosophy were compiled from the lecture notes of his students and published posthumously. 7. Why was difficult to understand the writings of Hegel? Hegel's writing style is difficult to read; he is described by Bertrand Russell in the History of Western Philosophy as the single most difficult philosopher to understand. This is partly because Hegel tried to develop a new form of thinking and logic, which he called "speculative reason" and which includes the more famous concept of "dialectic", to try to overcome what he saw as the limitations of both common sense and of traditional philosophy at grasping philosophical problems and the relation between thought and reality. 8. What meant for Hegel “mind” and “spirit "? "Mind" and "Spirit" are the common English translations of Hegel's use of the German "Geist." Some have argued that either of these terms overly "psychologize" Hegel , implying a kind of disembodied, solipsistic consciousness like ghost or "soul." Geist combines the meaning of spirit—as in god, ghost or mind—with an intentional force. 9. How explained Hegel the concept of Dialectical The dialectical one as ontology, implies a conception of the reality in process to circulate of three moments whose motor is the contradiction. The infinite being is then, an entirety since anything is isolated and everything is in relationship. But it is a relationship of opposition and not of indentidad. The three moments of dialectical process are: • First moment: Thesis. Position. Inmediatez. Indetermination. To be in yes. • Second moment: Antithesis. Negation or contradiction. Mediation. (Vermittlung). Determination. To be for yes ,objetivación. Alienation could be added. • Third moment: Synthesis. Negation of the negation and superación The dialectical one as method, consists on to discover and to continue rationally in movientio of the Idea, so the reason and the reality express their true coincidence. Hegel, indeed, proposes a new logic different to the Aristotelian form that is based on the principle of identity. 10. Which is the relationship between the theory Hegelian and the Marxist theory?
  3. 3. Hegel's Dialectic Marx's Dialectic "Two Trees" - comparison of Hegel and Marx's view of reality.
  4. 4. 11. Which were the main ideas Hegelianism? Hegel's main philosophical project was to take these contradictions and tensions and interpret them as part of a comprehensive, evolving, rational unity that, in different contexts, he called "the absolute idea" or "absolute knowledge". According to Hegel, the main characteristic of this unity was that it evolved through and manifested itself in contradiction and negation. Contradiction and negation have a dynamic quality that at every point in each domain of reality—consciousness, history, philosophy, art, nature, society—leads to further development until a rational unity is reached that preserves the contradictions as phases and sub-parts by lifting them up (Aufhebung) to a higher unity. Antithesis Thesis Synthesis NATURE IDEA SPIRIT Idea-outside- Idea-in-itself Idea-in-and-for-itself itself Time (as "used Structure: Logical or Physical through" a fundamental Rational Space-Time time or time of manifestation Dialectic self-consciousness) Science as LOGIC GEOMETRY HISTORY fundamental discipline 12. What Hegel thought about the philosophy of Heraclitus? According to Hegel, "Heraclitus is the one who first declared the nature of the infinite and first grasped nature as in itself infinite, that is, its essence as process. The origin of philosophy is to be dated from Heraclitus. His is the persistent Idea that is the same in all philosophers up to the present day, as it was the Idea of Plato and Aristotle." For Hegel, Heraclitus's great achievements were to have understood the nature of the infinite, which for Hegel includes understanding the inherent contradictoriness and negativity of reality, and to have grasped that reality is becoming or process, and that "being" and "nothingness" are mere empty abstractions. According to Hegel, Heraclitus's "obscurity" comes from his being a true (in Hegel's terms "speculative") philosopher who grasped the ultimate philosophical truth and therefore expressed himself in a way that goes beyond the abstract and limited nature of common sense and is difficult to grasp by those who operate within common sense. Hegel asserted that in Heraclitus he had an antecedent for his logic: "... there is no proposition of Heraclitus which I have not adopted in my logic." 13. What idea has Hegel about God?
  5. 5. -Here we see Hegel's Dialectic. There is the Thesis of God, His antithesis in material Nature, and the Synthesis of the two in Spirit. -Space and Reason can be considered the physical ramifications of the existence of Nature and the Idea, respectively. The reality of Nature can be found in Space (consider Space as space-time or the material world in which Nature exists) and the existence of the Idea is found in Reason. -Just like in the case of our old favorite Triad (the Father, Holy Spirit, and Son) we are pretty sure the Thesis (Father/Idea) and the Synthesis (Son/Spirit) are God, but the Antithesis (Nature/Holy Spirit) is much more vague. The difference in the way Thought affects Nature and the way it affects History is that Nature is not conscious of its effect, whereas Spirit is the conscious manifestation of the Idea. Spirit has a desired end, the promotion of Freedom. Nature has no desired end, nor a consciousness with which to conceive anything. 14. What Hegel sustained about of the Logic? The same act of the knowledge is the introduction of the contradiction. The excluded principle of the third, something or it is A or it is not A, it is the proposition that he wants to reject the contradiction and when making in fact incurs in contradiction: A it should be +A or -A, with that which the third term is already introduced A that it is not neither + neither - and for the same thing it is +A and -A. A thing is herself and it is not her, because in fact all thing changes and he becomes herself another thing. This means is the formal logic and the establishment of the dialectical logic. 15. Why Hegel is known as philosopher of renaissance? In the latter half of the 20th century, Hegel's philosophy underwent a major renaissance. This was due to: (a) the rediscovery and reevaluation of Hegel as a possible philosophical progenitor of Marxism by philosophically oriented Marxists; (b) a resurgence of the historical perspective that Hegel brought to everything; and (c) an increasing recognition of the importance of his dialectical method
  6. 6. 16. Realized a synthesis of the philosophy Hegelians ……….. end……..