Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein


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DOCENTE : Dr. Wilson Lozano
Maestrante : Lic. Lupe Rivera GOnzales

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Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein

  1. 1. Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein BIOGRAPHY Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in the areas of logic, philosophy of mathematics, philosophy of mind, and philosophy of language. Considered by some to be the greatest philosopher of the 20th century, Ludwig Wittgenstein played a central and controversial, role in 20th-century analytic philosophy. He continues to influence current philosophical thought in topics as diverse as logic and language, perception and intention, ethics and religion, aesthetics and culture.
  2. 2. There are two commonly recognized stages of Wittgenstein's thought — the early and the later. The early Wittgenstein is epitomized in his Tractatus Logic-Philosophical. By showing the application of modern logic to metaphysics, via language, he provided new insights into the relations between world, thought and language and thereby into the nature of philosophy. In the stage , later Wittgenstein, mostly recognized in the Philosophical Investigations, who took the more revolutionary step in critical all of traditional philosophy including its climax in his own early work. The nature of his new philosophy is heralded as anti-systematic through and through, yet still conducive to genuine philosophical understanding of traditional problems. Works of Ludwig Wittgenstein : WORKS MOST IMPORTANT OF WITTGENSTEIN Age Work 1921 Tractatus Logic-Philosophic us 1953 * Philosophical investigations 1953 * Annotations on the foundations of the mathematical 1958 * Notebooks blue and brown 1961 * Philosophical newspaper 1914-1916 1965 * Philosophical observations 1965 * Readings of Ethics 1966 * Readings and conversations on aesthetics, psychology and religious beliefs 1969 About the certainty *
  3. 3. The main Book : “The Tractatus” In a letter to Bertrand Russell from 1919, Wittgenstein says of his Tractatus Logic-Philosophicus (TLP): Now I'm afraid you haven't really got hold of my main contention to which the whole business of logical propositions is only corollary. The main point is the theory of what can be expressed by propositions, i.e., by language (and, which comes to the same thing, what can be thought) and what cannot be expressed by propositions, but only shown; which I believe is the cardinal problem of philosophy. This corresponds to the Preface where he writes: The whole sense of the book might be summed up in the following words: what can be said at all can be said clearly, and what we cannot talk about we must pass over in silence. Those things that cannot be expressed in words make themselves manifest; Wittgenstein calls them the mystical (6.522). They include everything that is the traditional subject matter of philosophy, because what can be said is exhausted by the natural sciences. Influences: Ludwig Wittgenstein Influence for > Arthur Schopenhauer - Baruch Spinoza - Bertrand Russell - Friedrich Nietzsche - Georg Christoph Lichtenberg - Immanuel Kant - Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe - León Tolstoi - San Agustín - Soren Kierkegaard - William James Influence to > Friedrich Hayek - Karl Popper - Paul Auster Both his early and later work have been major influences in the development of analytic philosophy. Former colleagues
  4. 4. and students include Bertrand Russell, G.E. Moore, Gilbert Ryle, Friedrich Waismann, Norman Malcolm, G. E. M. Anscombe, Rush Rhees, Georg Henrik von Wright, Peter Geach and the Buddhist scholar K.N. Jayatilleke. Contemporary philosophers heavily influenced by him include Richard Rorty, Michael Dummett, Donald Davidson, P.M.S. Hacker, John R. Searle, Saul Kripke, John McDowell, David Pears, Hilary Putnam, Anthony Quinton, Peter Strawson, Paul Horwich, Joseph Owens, Colin McGinn, Daniel Dennett, D. Z. Phillips, Stanley Cavell, Cora Diamond, James F. Conant, Isaiah Berlin, Iris Murdoch, Anthony Kenny, Jürgen Habermas and Jean-François Lyotard. With others, Conant, Diamond and Cavell have been associated with an interpretation of Wittgenstein sometimes known as the New Wittgenstein. Saul Kripke has published his own interpretation of Philosophical Investigations in Wittgenstein on Rules and Private Language, which came to be dubbed by critics "Kripkenstein". Wittgenstein has also had a significant influence in the social sciences. Patrick Lynch's thinking as an economist was deeply influenced by Wittgenstein's visits to Ireland and the holidays they spent with friends in the west of the country on the wind swept shores of the Atlantic. As Ireland emerged from hundreds of years in the intellectual wilderness, the then Irish Taoiseach, Eamon de Valera had entrusted Patrick Lynch with developing the relationship between Wittgenstein and an emerging Irish intellectual set of academics. Psychologists and psychotherapists inspired by Wittgenstein's work include Fred Newman, Lois Holzman, Brian J. Mistler, and John Morss. American anthropologist Clifford Geertz heavily
  5. 5. grounded his development of linguistic symbolism in Wittgenstein's work ; while the influential French sociologist, Pierre Bourdieu, stated that "Wittgenstein is probably the philosopher who has helped me most at moments of difficulty. He's a kind of saviour for times of great intellectual distress" Wittgenstein's influence has extended beyond what is normally considered philosophy and may be found in various areas of the arts. Conclusion It is fundamental to point out an important difference in the attitude of Wittgenstein and that of the rest of philosophers that they are included in the average neopositivist; the characteristic note of this movement was the hostility to the traditional philosophical speech and the same topics of the philosophy. In the case of Wittgenstein we find a more similar attitude to the Kantian: the traditional metaphysics objects exist, but of them it doesn't fit the knowledge: the mystic thing exists (God), the metaphysical fellow, the moral and aesthetic values but they are beyond what one can say. Contrary to Kant, Wittgenstein doesn't present a resource that links us with the metaphysical thing clearly (for Kant it was the ethics and the reflection on the moral behavior), but in some texts and in particular conversations Wittgenstein seems to affirm its existence; the metaphysical thing is shown but it cannot be, of the metaphysical thing alone it fits the silence: “On what one cannot speak, he should stay silence.” (“Tractatus”, 7) Recommendations
  6. 6. We can conclude that the works of Ludwig Wittgenstein with all their deficiencies, it has been important historically because it raised a new interest for the language and to leave open many questions as the truth, the sense, the relationship between logic and ontology, etc. Some interpreters have compared their philosophy to the doctrine Kantian: as well as Kant put a limit to the use of the reason that took him to eliminate the philosophy like science, transferring it to the plane of the practical reason, Wittgenstein in this work would put limits to the language transferring the big metaphysical contents to the environment of the ineffable that is shown. This is partly true, but be maybe more effective in definitive to consider Wittgenstein in an own way, starting from that him same he has said, without carrying to an extreme the comparisons with other authors. He doesn't get lost this way their characteristic originality and the danger of a false interpretation is avoided. ARCHE The whole modern conception of the world is founded on the illusion that the so-called laws of nature are the explanations of natural phenomena. Thus people today stop at the laws of nature, treating them as something inviolable, just as God and Fate were treated in past ages. And in fact both were right and both wrong; though the view of the ancients is clearer insofar as they have an acknowledged terminus, while the modern system tries to make it look as if everything were explained — Wittgenstein, Tractatus, 6.371-2
  7. 7. ANNEXES VOCABULARY 1. Illusion : desire, yearning, security, fee 2. Intellectual: thinker, academic, brain , scholar , rational, logical 3. Logic : reason, judgment, sense ,common sense 4. Metaphysics: basic, esoteric, essential, eternal, fundamental, general, ideal, intellectual, philosophical, profound, speculative, spiritual, subjective, universal. 5. Mystical: spiritual, mystic, numinous, magical, supernatural, magic.
  8. 8. 6. Phenomena : exceptional, extraordinary, fantastic, marvellous, miraculous, notable, outstanding, prodigious, remarkable, sensational, singular, stellar , uncommon, unique, unparalleled, unusual, wondrous (archaic or literary) Glossary 1. Analytic Philosophy: Analytic philosophy (sometimes, analytical philosophy) is a generic term for a style of philosophy that came to dominate English-speaking countries in the 20th century 2. Natural Sciences: In science, the term natural science refers to a naturalistic approach to the study of the universe, which is understood as obeying rules or laws of natural origin. 3. Perception: In philosophy, psychology, and cognitive science, perception is the process of attaining awareness or understanding of sensory information. ... 4. Social Sciences: The social sciences are the fields of academic learning which explore aspects of human society. Social sciences may draw upon empirical methods and attempt to emulate the standards of conventional scientific practice. ... 5. Sociologist : a social scientist who studies the institutions and development of human society.
  9. 9. QUOTES  “Anything is as difficult as not to be deceived. “ Difficult  “A new word is like a fresh seed that hurtles to the land of the discussion.” Word  “To work in philosophy -like to work in architecture, in many senses - it is in fact a work on oneself. On the own interpretation. On the own way of seeing the things -y that that one wait of them –“. Philosophy  “In philosophy the winner of the career is that that knows how to run more slowly; or the one that arrives last.” Philosophy  “The philosophy is a fight against the charm of our intelligence for the language.” Philosophy  “The philosopher is not civic of any community of ideas. This is what makes it be philosopher. “ Philosopher  “It is always good in philosophy to outline a question instead of giving an answer to a question. Because an answer to a philosophical question easily can be
  10. 10. incorrect; I didn't seize their liquidation by means of another question. “ Philosophy  “Our life is as a dream. But in the best hours we wake up enough like to realize that we are dreaming. Most of the time, however, we are deeply sleeping.” Our life  “We don't realize the prodigious diversity of daily language games because the external lining of our language makes that it seems all equally. “ Language  “Although all the possible questions of the science receive answer, they would not even touch the true problems of the life.” Science  “The limits of my language are the limits of my world. “ Language  “The sense of the world has to reside outside of him and, besides, outside of the significant language. “ World
  11. 11. BIBLIOGRAPHY  Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus Wittgenstein, Ludwig Tecnos 2007  Investigaciones Filosoficas Wittgenstein, Ludwig Critica 2008 LINKOGRAPHY     wittgenstein-tractatus-logico.html