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Cell theory and organelles r1
Cell theory and organelles r1
Cell theory and organelles r1
Cell theory and organelles r1
Cell theory and organelles r1
Cell theory and organelles r1
Cell theory and organelles r1
Cell theory and organelles r1
Cell theory and organelles r1
Cell theory and organelles r1
Cell theory and organelles r1
Cell theory and organelles r1
Cell theory and organelles r1
Cell theory and organelles r1
Cell theory and organelles r1
Cell theory and organelles r1
Cell theory and organelles r1
Cell theory and organelles r1
Cell theory and organelles r1
Cell theory and organelles r1
Cell theory and organelles r1
Cell theory and organelles r1
Cell theory and organelles r1
Cell theory and organelles r1
Cell theory and organelles r1
Cell theory and organelles r1
Cell theory and organelles r1
Cell theory and organelles r1
Cell theory and organelles r1
Cell theory and organelles r1
Cell theory and organelles r1
Cell theory and organelles r1
Cell theory and organelles r1
Cell theory and organelles r1
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Cell theory and organelles r1

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  • 1. Cells and SystemsCell Structures and Functions
  • 2. BrainstormTake a crack at the guiding questions.
    What is a cell? Finish this sentence.
    A cell is . . .
    the basic unit of life
    very small
    like a little factory
    amazing
    alive
  • 3. The Cell Theory – 3 statements
    1. All living things are made up of cells
    Unicellular organisms are comprised of a single cell. Most bacteria and protists are unicellular
  • 4. The Cell Theory – 3 statements
    1. All living things are made up of cells
    Multicellular organisms are comprised of many cells.
    In simple multicellular organisms
    like algae, these cells are all similar.
    In more complex multicellular organisms, there can be many different types of cells.
  • 5. The Cell Theory – 3 statements
    2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in organisms.
    In unicellular organisms, each individual cell must perform all of the functions required for life.
  • 6. The Cell Theory – 3 statements
    2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in organisms.
    In multicellular organisms, different types of cells work
    together so overall, the organism can perform the
    functions required for life.
  • 7. The Cell Theory – 3 statements
    3. All cells arise from existing cells.
    Cells grow, develop and divide into more new cells.
  • 8. What is inside a cell?
    Cells are often classified based on their structure and the organelles found inside. For example
    Cells can be classed as either animal or plant cells
    Cells can be classed as either prokaryotic or eukaryotic
    To understand these classifications, we must first know what structures can be found inside cells and what the purpose of these structures are.
  • 9. Structure of Eukaryotic Cells
    all eukaryotic cells have the features shown
    here using an animal cell as an example
    Section 7-2
    Cytoplasm
    Nucleolus
    Nucleus
    Cell Membrane
    Go to Section:
  • 10. Cell Membrane
    The outer covering of the cell
    Function: transportation of nutrients and waste materials into and out of the cell
    the membrane controls what enters and leaves the cell
    Cytoplasm
    • The substance that fills the cell
    • 11. Function: holds all the cell structures (called organelles) except nucleus
    • 12. most cellular processes occur in the cytoplasm
  • Nucleus
    Nickname: “The Control Center”
    Function: holds the DNA
    Parts:
    Nucleolus: dark spot in the middle of the nucleus that helps make ribosomes
  • 13. Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells
    Section 7-2
    Cytoplasm
    Nucleolus
    Ribosomes
    Nucleus
    Cell Membrane
    Go to Section:
  • 14. Ribosomes
    Function: makes proteins
    Found in all cells, prokaryotic and eukaryotic
  • 15. Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells
    Section 7-2
    Cytoplasm
    Nucleolus
    Ribosomes
    Nucleus
    Cell Membrane
    Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
    Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
    Go to Section:
  • 16. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
    Nickname: “Roads”
    Function: The internal delivery system of the cell
    • 2 Types:
    Rough ER:
    • Rough appearance because it has ribosomes
    • 17. Function: helps make proteins, that’s why it has ribosomes
    Smooth ER:
    • NO ribosomes
    • 18. Function: makes fats called lipids used in cell membrane
  • Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells
    Section 7-2
    Cytoplasm
    Ribosomes
    Nucleolus
    Nucleus
    Cell Membrane
    Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
    Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
    Golgi Complex
    Go to Section:
  • 19. Golgi Complex
    Nickname: The “shippers”
    Function: packages, modifies, and transports materials to different location inside/outside of the cell
    Appearance: stack of pancakes
  • 20. Lysosomes: circular, but bigger than ribosomes) – not shown
    Nickname: “Clean-up Crews”
    Function: to break down food into particles the rest of the cell can use and to destroy old cells
  • 21. Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells
    Section 7-2
    Cytoplasm
    Nucleolus
    Ribosomes
    Nucleus
    Cell Membrane
    Mitochondria
    Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
    Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
    Golgi Bodies
  • 22. Mitochondria
    Nickname: “The Powerhouse”
    Function: Energy formation – the site of cellular respiration
    Breaks down food to make ATP
    ATP: is the major fuel for all cell activities that require energy
  • 23. Cytoplasm
    Nucleolus
    Ribosomes
    Nucleus
    Cell Membrane
    Mitochondria
    Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
    Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
    Golgi Bodies
  • 24. Now let’s talk about structures only found in PLANT Cells!!
  • 25. Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells
    Plant Cell
    Section 7-2
    Vacuole
    Cell Membrane
    Go to Section:
  • 26. Vacuoles
    Function: stores water, supports cell structure
    This is what makes lettuce crisp
    When there is no water, the plant wilts
  • 27. Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells
    Plant Cell
    Section 7-2
    Vacuole
    Chloroplasts
    Cell Membrane
    Go to Section:
  • 28. Chloroplasts
    Function: traps energy from the sun to produce food for the plant cell through photosynthesis
    Green in color because of chlorophyll, which is a green pigment
  • 29. Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells
    Plant Cell
    Section 7-2
    Vacuole
    Chloroplasts
    Cell Membrane
    Cell Wall
    Go to Section:
  • 30. Cell Wall
    Function: provides support and protection to the cell membrane
    Found outside the cell membrane in plant cells
  • 31. Plant Cell
    Cytoplasm
    Smooth ER
    Vacuole
    Ribosomes
    Chloroplasts
    Cell Membrane
    Cell Wall
    Nucleolus
    Golgi Bodies
    Nucleus
    Mitochondria
    Rough ER
  • 32. Comparing Plant and Animal Cells
    Plant
    Animal
  • 33. Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes
    All living organisms can be classified as either eukaryotes or prokaryotes depending on the structure of their cells
    protists
    fungi
    plants
    animals
    bacteria
  • 34. Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
    protists
    fungi
    plants
    animals
  • 35. ProkaryotesEukaryotes
    membrane bound nucleus
    has membrane bound organelles
    genetic material is DNA
    DNA is organized in chromosomes
    can be unicellular or multicellular
    have ribosomes
    only plant cells have cell walls
    cytoskeleton
    large
    no nucleus
    no membrane bound organelles
    genetic material is DNA
    DNA is a single loop
    most are unicellular, some multicellular
    have ribosomes
    have a cell wall
    no cytoskeleton
    small
  • 36. Prokaryotes
    Eukaryotes

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