BrainstormTake a crack at the guiding questions. What is a cell? Finish this sentence. A cell is . . . the basic unit of life very small like a little factory amazing alive
The Cell Theory – 3 statements 1. All living things are made up of cells Unicellular organisms are comprised of a single cell. Most bacteria and protists are unicellular
The Cell Theory – 3 statements 1. All living things are made up of cells Multicellular organisms are comprised of many cells. In simple multicellular organisms like algae, these cells are all similar. In more complex multicellular organisms, there can be many different types of cells.
The Cell Theory – 3 statements 2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in organisms. In unicellular organisms, each individual cell must perform all of the functions required for life.
The Cell Theory – 3 statements 2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in organisms. In multicellular organisms, different types of cells work together so overall, the organism can perform the functions required for life.
The Cell Theory – 3 statements 3. All cells arise from existing cells. Cells grow, develop and divide into more new cells.
What is inside a cell? Cells are often classified based on their structure and the organelles found inside. For example Cells can be classed as either animal or plant cells Cells can be classed as either prokaryotic or eukaryotic To understand these classifications, we must first know what structures can be found inside cells and what the purpose of these structures are.
Structure of Eukaryotic Cells all eukaryotic cells have the features shown here using an animal cell as an example Section 7-2 Cytoplasm Nucleolus Nucleus Cell Membrane Go to Section:
Cell Membrane The outer covering of the cell Function: transportation of nutrients and waste materials into and out of the cell the membrane controls what enters and leaves the cell Cytoplasm
The substance that fills the cell
Function: holds all the cell structures (called organelles) except nucleus
most cellular processes occur in the cytoplasm
Nucleus Nickname: “The Control Center” Function: holds the DNA Parts: Nucleolus: dark spot in the middle of the nucleus that helps make ribosomes
Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells Section 7-2 Cytoplasm Nucleolus Ribosomes Nucleus Cell Membrane Go to Section:
Ribosomes Function: makes proteins Found in all cells, prokaryotic and eukaryotic
Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells Section 7-2 Cytoplasm Nucleolus Ribosomes Nucleus Cell Membrane Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Go to Section:
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Nickname: “Roads” Function: The internal delivery system of the cell
Rough appearance because it has ribosomes
Function: helps make proteins, that’s why it has ribosomes
Function: makes fats called lipids used in cell membrane
Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells Section 7-2 Cytoplasm Ribosomes Nucleolus Nucleus Cell Membrane Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi Complex Go to Section:
Golgi Complex Nickname: The “shippers” Function: packages, modifies, and transports materials to different location inside/outside of the cell Appearance: stack of pancakes
Lysosomes: circular, but bigger than ribosomes) – not shown Nickname: “Clean-up Crews” Function: to break down food into particles the rest of the cell can use and to destroy old cells
Mitochondria Nickname: “The Powerhouse” Function: Energy formation – the site of cellular respiration Breaks down food to make ATP ATP: is the major fuel for all cell activities that require energy
Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes All living organisms can be classified as either eukaryotes or prokaryotes depending on the structure of their cells protists fungi plants animals bacteria
Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes protists fungi plants animals
ProkaryotesEukaryotes membrane bound nucleus has membrane bound organelles genetic material is DNA DNA is organized in chromosomes can be unicellular or multicellular have ribosomes only plant cells have cell walls cytoskeleton large no nucleus no membrane bound organelles genetic material is DNA DNA is a single loop most are unicellular, some multicellular have ribosomes have a cell wall no cytoskeleton small