IntroductionWhen we are having conversation with others we will get difficulties in accepting the feauturesof word. If it is in question form we will question and answer necessarily. We will not payattention of the words formation. It is because there will be the obstacle in relating with thesound, environment and the sound formation.Learning about language is like learning about science. It is because many linguists supposedthat language as living organism. It can be breaking down into small pieces. We can take anexample for the study of morphology. It is proven by the process of morphology which has beenstudied for a long time before saussure period. They take seriously attention to the formation ofwords. Here there is the story inside: "The term morphology has been taken over from biologywhere it is used to denote the study of the forms of plants and animals. . . . It was first used forlinguistic purposes in 1859 by the German linguist August Schleicher (Salmon 2000), to refer tothe study of the form of words. In present-day linguistics, the term morphology refers to thestudy of the internal structure of words, and of the systematic form-meaning correspondencesbetween words."The notion systematic in the definition of morphology given above is important. For instance,we might observe a form difference and a corresponding meaning difference between theEnglish noun ear and the verb hear. However, this pattern is not systematic: there are no similarword pairs, and we cannot form new English verbs by adding h- to a noun."So based on the explanation above we can infer thatmorphology is one of the branch oflinguistics (and one of the major components of grammar) that studies word structures,especially in terms of morphemes.Word ClassesWords are fundamental units in every sentence, so we will begin by looking at these. Considerthe words in the following sentence: my father rides a fast bycicleWe can tell almost instinctively that father and bycicle are the same type of word, and also thatfather and rides are different types of words. By this we mean that father and bycicle belong to
the same word class. Similarly, when we recognise that father and rides are different types, wemean that they belong to different word classes. We recognise seven MAJOR word classes: Verb be, drive, grow, sing, think Noun brother, car, David, house, London Determiner a, an, my, some, the Adjective big, foolish, happy, talented, tidy Adverb happily, recently, soon, then, there Preposition at, in, of, over, with Conjunction and, because, but, if, orYou may find that other grammars recognise different word classes from the ones listed here.They may also define the boundaries between the classes in different ways. In some grammars,for instance, pronouns are treated as a separate word class, whereas we treat them as a subclassof nouns. A difference like this should not cause confusion. Instead, it highlights an importantprinciple in grammar, known as gradience. This refers to the fact that the boundaries between theword classes are not absolutely fixed. Many word classes share characteristics with others, andthere is considerable overlap between some of the classes. In other words, the boundaries are"fuzzy", so different grammars draw them in different places.We will discuss each of the major word classes in turn. Then we will look briefly at some minorword classes. But first, let us consider how we distinguish between word classes in general.Criteria for Word ClassesWe began by grouping words more or less on the basis of our instincts about English. Wesomehow "feel" that brother and car belong to the same class, and that brother and drives belongto different classes. However, in order to conduct an informed study of grammar, we need amuch more reliable and more systematic method than this for distinguishing between wordclasses.
We use a combination of three criteria for determining the word class of a word: 1. The meaning of the word 2. The form or `shape of the word 3. The position or `environment of the word in a sentence1. MeaningUsing this criterion, we generalize about the kind of meanings that words convey. For example,we could group together the words brother and car, as well as David, house, and London, on thebasis that they all refer to people, places, or things. In fact, this has traditionally been a popularapproach to determining members of the class of nouns. It has also been applied to verbs, bysaying that they denote some kind of "action", like cook, drive, eat, run, shout, walk.This approach has certain merits, since it allows us to determine word classes by replacing wordsin a sentence with words of "similar" meaning. For instance, in the sentence My son cooks dinnerevery Sunday, we can replace the verb cooks with other "action" words: My son cooks dinner every Sunday My son prepares dinner every Sunday My son eats dinner every Sunday My son misses dinner every SundayOn the basis of this replacement test, we can conclude that all of these words belong to the sameclass, that of "action" words, or verbs.However, this approach also has some serious limitations. The definition of a noun as a worddenoting a person, place, or thing, is wholly inadequate, since it excludes abstract nouns such astime, imagination, repetition, wisdom, and chance. Similarly, to say that verbs are "action" wordsexcludes a verb like be, as in I want to be happy. What "action" does be refer to here? Soalthough this criterion has a certain validity when applied to some words, we need other, morestringent criteria as well.
2. The form or `shape of a wordSome words can be assigned to a word class on the basis of their form or `shape. For example,many nouns have a characteristic -tion ending: action, condition, contemplation, demonstration, organization, repetitionSimilarly, many adjectives end in -able or -ible: acceptable, credible, miserable, responsible, suitable, terribleMany words also take what are called inflections, that is, regular changes in their form undercertain conditions. For example, nouns can take a plural inflection, usually by adding an -s at theend: car -- cars dinner -- dinners book -- booksVerbs also take inflections: walk -- walks -- walked -- walking3. The position or `environment of a word in a sentenceThis criterion refers to where words typically occur in a sentence, and the kinds of words whichtypically occur near to them. We can illustrate the use of this criterion using a simple example.Compare the following:  I cook dinner every Sunday  The cook is on holidayIn , cook is a verb, but in , it is a noun. We can see that it is a verb in  because it takesthe inflections which are typical of verbs: And we can see that cook is a noun in  because ittakes the plural -s inflection.
Notice that we can replace verbs with verbs, and nouns with nouns, but we cannot replace verbswith nouns or nouns with verbs: *I chef dinner every Sunday *The eat is on holidayIt should be clear from this discussion that there is no one-to-one relation between words andtheir classes. Cook can be a verb or a noun -- it all depends on how the word is used. In fact,many words can belong to more than one word class.Lexical wordThe branch of linguistics that studies the stock of words (the lexicon) in a given language.Some word classes are open, that is, new words can be added to the class as the need arises. Theclass of nouns, for instance, is potentially infinite, since it is continually being expanded as newscientific discoveries are made, new products are developed, and new ideas are exploredLexicology and Syntax. Here are the examples of lexical words; are nouns, lexical verbs,adjectives, and adverbs.Having a look at the explanation below; - Noun is The part of speech (or word class) that is used to name or identify a person, place, thing, quality, or action. Most nouns have both a singular and plural form, can be preceded by an article and/or one or more adjectives, and can serve as the head of a noun phrase. - Verb is the part of speech (or word class) that describes an action or occurrence or indicates a state of being. There are two main classes of verbs: (1) the large open class of lexical verbs (also known as main verbs or full verbs--that is, verbs that arent dependent on other verbs); and (2) the small closed class of auxiliary verbs (also called helping verbs). The two subtypes of auxiliaries are the primary auxiliaries (be, have, and do), which can also act as lexical verbs, and the modal auxiliaries (can, could, may, might, must, ought, shall, should, will, and would). Verbs and verb phrases usually function as
predicates. They can display differences in tense, mood, aspect, number, person, and voice - Adjective is The part of speech (or word class) that modifies a noun or a pronoun. Adjective: adjectival. In addition to their basic (or positive) forms, most descriptive adjectives have two other forms: comparative and superlative. - Adverbs is The part of speech (or word class) that is primarily used to modify a verb, adjective, or other adverb. Adverbs can also modify prepositional phrases, subordinate clauses, and complete sentences. Adjective: adverbial. Adverbs typically add information about time (rarely, frequently, tomorrow), manner (slowly, quickly, willingly), or place (here, there, everywhere). Many adverbs--especially adverbs of manner--are formed from adjectives by the addition of the ending -ly (easily, dependably). But many common adverbs (just, still, almost, not) do not end in -ly, and not all words that end in -ly (friendly, neighborly) are adverbsFunction wordA word that expresses a grammatical relationship. Also known as a grammatical word. Functionwords include determiners, conjunctions, and prepositions. Contrast with content word. Function words are like thumbtacks. We dont notice thumbtacks; we look at the calendar or the poster they are holding up. If we were to take the tacks away, the calendar and the poster would fall down. Likewise, if we took the function words out of speech, it would be hard to figure out what was going on The the function words include pronouns (you, them), modal verbs (could, must), determiners (a, the), prepositions (of, in), and conjunctions (and, but). New members of these classes are not added to the language very often. Instead they tend to gradually evolve from lexical words in a process called grammaticalization. For example, the lexical verb go means to move (toward a goal). But its progressive form be going (to) has evolved into a grammaticalized prospective (future) marker, as in Shes going to love her gift. The movement meaning of go has been bleached out of the grammaticalized version and so the going in be going to can be considered to be a function word, rather than a content word.
The closed classes represent a more restricted range of meanings, and the meanings of closed class words tend to be less detailed and less referential than open-class words. Prepositions have gradually expanded their membership somewhat by admitting participles such as including, concerning, but the remaining classes are very resistant to the introduction of new items. This has been noticeable in recent years when attempts have been made to find gender-neutral pronouns.Morphological ProcessesMorphology is the study of the rules governing the formation of words.Morphological processes can be by affixation or other words formation. Affixation can beinflection or derivation while other words formation can be compound, reduplication, suppletion,internal chage, clipping, conversion. A. AFFIXATIONAffixation is the process in which free morphome (root) is added with bound morphemes(affixes). There are two kinds of affixation, they are inflection and derivation. I. INFLECTIONInflection is word formation process that changes the morphological form of a word to fit asyntactic context.Example: - walk vs. walked - cat vs. cats There are some characteristics of inflection: inflection does not change the grammatical category of the base; inflection does not affect the meaning of the word; inflectional processes take place after derivational ones; Example neighborhoods vs. *neighborshood inflectional affixes have few exceptions (they are almost fully productive), while derivational affixes usually attach to a limited class of words; English inflectional affixes are all suffixes.
Example - plural -s: cat - cats - possessive/genitive ’s: John’s - 3rd person sg. non-past -s: sing-sings - progressive -ing: sing-singing - past tense -ed: talk-talked - past participle -en/-ed: eat-eaten/study-studied - comparative -er: happy-happier - superlative -est: happy-happiest There are two types of inflection. They are: regular inflection = rule-based; walk-walked irregular inflection = stored in the lexicon; come-came;goose-geese Evidence for distinction - for irregular verbs, response time is linked to the frequency of the verb - for regular verb, no such difference is found since the past tense is formed by a regular rule II. DERIVATIONDerivational affixes are affixes (suffixes) which change the meaning of the base in someimportant ways, or change it into a different word class. They turn nouns into adjectives,adjectives into verbs, nouns of one type into nouns to the other type, and so on. They add newmeanings to the base. They are readily followed by inflectional suffixes, and in many cases morethan one derivational suffix can be found in the some word.For instance, let us start with the verb Establish in its rather specialized meaning of ‘grant specialstate privileges to a church’. We can derive the verb disestablish, meaning ‘take away specialprivileges’. Then we can form the noun disestablishment meaning ‘the act of taking awayprivileges’, then the noun disestablishmentarian meaning ‘one who advocates disestablishment’,then the noun disestablishmentarianism meaning ‘the doctrine of disestablishment’, and finally
antidisestablishmentarianism, meaning ‘opposite to the disestablishing the church. The latterword is often cited as ‘the longest word in English Language’ Brockman (1971: 8)Some derivational affixes of English Nature of Class(es) of word to which affix AFFIX change in Examples applies meaning Noun: non- Negation/opposi starter Prefix non- Noun, adjective te Adj.: non- partisan electric/electr icity o Suffix -ity Adjective Changes to noun bese/ob esity tie/untie, Reverses action fasten/unfast Verb Prefix un- opposite en Adjective quality clear/unclear, safe/unsafe fame/famous, Changes to Suffix -ous Noun glamor/glam adjective orous tie/retie, Prefix re- Verb Repeat action write/rewrite Changes to print/printabl Suffix -able Verb adjective; e, means can drink/drinka
undergo ble action of verbDerivational Suffixes Abstract noun Concrete noun makers Nouns from Nouns from adjectives makers verbs -age = frontage - eer = engineer -age = -ity = falsity wastage -dom = kingdom - er = teenager - al = -ness = kindness refusal -ery = slavery - ess = waitress - ant = Adjective-noun makers inform ant -ful = spoonful - let = booklet -ation = -ese = Chinese education -hood = - ling = duckling -ee = -an = republican brotherhood commitee - ing = - ster = gangster -er = writer -ist= socialist farming - ism = -ing = -ite = Luddite idealism clothing - ocracy = -ment = aristocrac equipment y
EMPLOY - Ment EMPLOY-MENT AGREE AGREE- MENT DISCUSS - ion, tion, sion DISCUSS-ION PRODUCE PRODUC-TION PERMIT PERMI-S-SION INVITE - ation, - ition INVIT – ATION OPPOSE OPPOS – ITION PREFER -ence, - ance PREFER- ENCE DISTANT DISTAN- CE CERTAIN - ty, - ity CERTAIN-TY SECURE SECUR- ITY SAD - Ness SAD-NESS ILL ILL-NESS BUILD - Ing BUILD-ING UNDERSTAND UNDERSTAND-INGNouns for People SUFFIX ROOT WORD- er, -or, - ress Drive DRIV-ER Edit EDIT-OR Wait WAIT-RESS - ist Tour TOUR-IST Science SCIENT-IST- ant , - ent Assist ASSIST-ANT Study STUD-ENT
-an, - ian Republic REPUBLIC-AN Electric ELECTRIC-IAN- ee Employ EMPLOY-EE Examine EXAMIN-EE Address ADDRESS-EEForming Adjectives - y added to the names of Rock = ROCKY common substances, objects (full of rocks, like rocks) and things that are Noise = NOISY experienced ( producing noise) - ly Added to time words and to Day = DAILY certain family/personal Week= WEEKLY words Man = MANLY - ful Added when it indicates in a Use = USEFUL positive way the presence of Skill = SKILFUL a quality or ability - less Negatively suggests the Use = USELESS absence of a quality or Meaning = MEANINGLESS ability - al Added to certain nouns of Addition = ADDITIONAL Latin origin ending in – ion, Music = MUSICAL -ic(s) and -ure Ethics = ETHICAL Nature = NATURALWords can often be divided into morphemes. Words can have prefixes, infixes, suffixes, showinflectional or derivational morphology, and much more...
Morphology is the study of the rules governing the formation of words. B. OTHER WORD FORMATION1-CompoundingA compound word contains at least two bases which are both words ,or at any rate , rootmorphemes.examples :-n+n))(Tea) +( pot ) => teapotHair) + (dress) + er => hairdresser(n+v)Blue) + (bird) => bluebird (a+n)Over) + (lord) => overlord (pre+n)2-ConversionConversion is a process that assigns an already existing word to a new syntactic category.Examples :-=>V derived from ne.g button (the shirt)=>N derived from v(a long) walk =>V derived from AOpen (a door)3-Clipping
Clipping is a process that shortens a polysyllabic word by deleting one or more syllables. It isespecially popular among students.Examples:-Prof => for professorPoli – sci => for political scienceZoo for => zoological garden4-BlendsBlends are words that created from non-morhpemic parts of two already existing items.A blend is usually formed from the first part of one word and the the final part of the second one.Examples:-brunch =>from breakfast and lunchSmog => from smoke and fog.Spam => from spiced and ham.5-Internal changeInternal change is a process that substitutes one non-morphemic segment for another .Examples:-sing(present) =>sang(past)Sink(present) =>sank(past)Foot (singular) => feet(plural)Goose(singular) => geese(plural)
6-SuppletionSuppletion is a morphological process whereby a root morpheme is replaced by a phonologicallyunrelated form in order to indicate a grammatical contrast.Examples:-have => hadGo => wentgood=> better7. AcronymThey are formed from the initial letters of a set of other words.They are usually pronounced as single words (e.g. NATO, PIN, etc.) Or as a set of letters (e.g.CD, VIP, etc.)8. Back FormationA word of one type (usually a noun) is reduced to a word of a different type (usually a verb)through widespread use. • to donate from donation • to opt from option • Other examples: pronunciate (< pronunciation), resurrect (< resurrection), enthuse (< enthusiasm), 9. Borrowing Taking over words from other languages. • Examples from Italian • pasta
• piano 10. Coinage Coinage is the invention of totally new terms. Often a brand name becomes the name for the item or process associated with the brand name • Examples: – hoover – Kleenex – Xerox – KodakReferencesKusumawardhani, Ratna., Prabowo., Fani, Entika. 2008. A Handbook of Lexical Studies 1.Semarang: IKIP PGRI SMG press