Hazara
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Hazara

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Hazara Hazara Presentation Transcript

  • Presented By Mian Luqman Hussain
  • An Introduction to Hazara
  • Hazara- An Introduction The ancient history of Hazara is not traceable because it is shrouded in the mists of innumerable centuries. The historians have recorded different traditions among the people to construct its history. But due to lack of authentic evidence nothing can be said as a final word. Hazara seems to have been inhabited by man from times immemorial. Hazara has a very old history in Sub-continent. Its geographical boundaries had constantly been changed in the times of various Rajas, Maharajas and Kings in the past. Alexander the Great, after conquering the northern India, established his rule over a large part of it. He handed over this area to Abisaras the Raja of Poonch state. In those days this area was known as "Arasa" and later on was named "Rash". View slide
  • During the Maurya dynasty, Hazara remained a part of Taxila. The Great Ashoka was the Governor of this area when he was a prince. After the death of his father, Bindusra, Asoka ascended the throne and made this area along with Gandhara valley major seat of his govt. The famous edicts of Ashoka inscribed on three rocks near Bareri hill, beside Mansehra Town, are the evidence of his rule here. These edicts prove that this area was a famous religious centre. From ages, the devout Hindus after climbing up the Bareri peak performed religious obligations to "Sheva". View slide
  • In the second century A.D, a mythical Hindu king, Raja Risalu, son of Raja Salbahan of Sialkot, brought this area under his sway. The local people consider him as their hero and even today parents narrate to their children the stories of Raja Risalu and his wife Rani Konklan in the winter nights. When a Chinese pilgrim Hieun-Tsang visited Indo Pakistan Sub-continent, this area was under the control of Durlabhavaradhana, the ruler of Kashmir. It is also said that Turkey Shahi and Hindu Shahi dynasties ruled Hazara one after another. Among the rulers of Hindu Shahi dynasty Raja Jaipala was the most prominent. Mehmud of Ghazni defeated him during his first Indian campaign. Mehmud paid no attention to Hazara for establishing a Muslim rule over there except using it as his approach to Kashmir.
  • Again in the 11th century A.D. after the fall of Hindu Shahi dynasty, the Kashmiris occupied this area under the leadership of Kalashan. From 1112 to 1120 A.D. King Susala ruled this area. In the last quarter of the 12th century A.D. Asalat Khan, a general of Mohammad Ghuri, captured this area but soon after Ghaurie's death the Kashmiris, once again, occupied Hazara. Thereafter, the history of Hazara is obscure up to 1399 A.D., when the great Muslim warrior Tamerlane, on his return to Kabul, left here some soldiers for the protection of this important route between Kabul and Kashmir. By this time, the Muslims ousted the Hindus from power and established their authority. In the beginning, Hazara remained under the direct control of Kabul. But in 1472 A.D. Prince Shahab-ud-Din came from Kabul and established his rule here. He founded the state namely Pakhli Sarkar.
  • During the Mughal period the local Turk chiefs acknowledged the authority of the Mughals. During the last days of Akbar, the Turk chief Sultan Hussain revolted against the Mughals. The Mughals exiled him after crushing this revolt but later on they pardoned him and handed over his state back to him. The first quarter of the 18th century became miserable for Turks because their rule came to an end due to the decay of their vitality, and the increasing aggression of the Pukhtoons and their allied forces. The most crucial attack was that of the Swaties under the command of Syed Jalal Baba in 1703 A.D. They ousted the Turks from upper Hazara (Mansehra) and captured it. While Jadoons and Tareens captured lower Hazara i.e. Abbottabad and Haripur; the Tanolis had already established their authority over Tanol who later on founded a state namely Amb state
  • When Ahmad Shah Durrani extended his Kingdom to Punjab and Kashmir, Hazara also came under the control of this new invader. The Durranis controlled Hazara through the local Khans. In the beginning of 19th century their power weakened which opened the way of revolt against them. They sent many detachments of troops to maintain law and order but rather their control decreased day by day. When the Sikhs rose in power under Ranjeet Singh (1777-1838) they asserted themselves independent of the Durranis. Ranjeet Singh organized his army on modern lines and then started to extend his regime over a vast area. The Sikhs got hold of Hazara in 1818. A.D. after a stiff resistance from its inhabitants. Soon after the Sikh's annexation of Hazara to Punjab, Syed Ahmad Shaheed along with the "Mujahidin" appeared on the soil of Hazara. He fought many battles against the Sikhs. But at last in 1831, along with a number of friends the Sikhs martyred Syed Ahmad and strengthened their hold in Hazara.
  • After the death of Ranjeet Singh, disintegration of the Sikh state started due to which the British annexed this state to their dominion. On 19th March, 1846 an agreement was signed between the British and Raja Gulab Singh according to which the latter took Kashmir and Hazara from the former for rupees 75 lacs. But due to widespread civil disorder and resistance movement, Raja asked the British govt to takeover Hazara in exchange of the Jammu Jehlum belt. The British accepted this offer and took over Hazara from him. They deputed James Abbot to Hazara to restore peace. At first the British faced no resistance here except that of Chuttar Singh, a Sikh general, but after three years Zaman Shah of Kaghan turned against British who deprived him of his estate and exiled to Pakhli plain. After four years of British forgave him and he was permitted to get back his lost estate.
  • Unlike the people of the settled areas, the Pukhtoon tribes that lived on the western outskirts of Hazara, remained a constant source of trouble for the British for four decades (1852-92) The British sent more than four expeditions against them and ravaged Black Mountains many times. To maintain peace in the area, the British also took preventive measures having conferred titles on the leading persons. After their advent, the British declared Hazara as a district, divided into three tehsils i.e. Mansehra, Abbottabad & Haripur, and annexed it with the Punjab. In 1901 NWF Province was formed. Hazara was separated from the Punjab and made a part of NWFP.
  • During the British period, Hazara remained in the forefront of various religio-political movements in the Indo-Pakistan Sub-continent. The people of this area joined the ranks of those Muslim freedom-fighters who wanted to strengthen the cause of Islam. The people of Hazara joined the Khilafat movement zealously. Consequently, Hazara became quite unruly. The people refused to acknowledge the British rule having selected their own functionaries in different villages. The British took strict measures to bring them under their control. When the Muslim League started its movement for a separate homeland, the local people joined it and struggled for liberation from the alien rulers under the leadership of Quaid-e-Azam and got victory against them, culminating in the creation of Pakistan, and independent state for the Muslims of the Sub-continent.
  • During the elder Bhutto's regime Hazara was upgraded to a division-level comprising two districts namely; Mansehra , Abbottabad & Kohistan. Later on, Haripur was also upgraded to the level of district of Hazara. Still later, Battagram was also given the status of a district. Today, Hazara is a place of scenic beauty. During the summer, people come here for recreation from far, flung areas of Pakistan as well as the rest of the world. They feel peace and tranquility here.
  • The End