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             ncise Intro   tion


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      Bruce M.
A Concise Introduction
    to Linguistics

                  Bruce M. Rowe
                    Los Angeles Pierce College
...
Series Editor: ]ennifer Jacobson
Series Editorial Assistant: Emma Christensen
Marketing Manager: Laura Lee Manley
Producti...
ChapterT            211


   serve a group of females talking together. Note what topics they talk about.
   Are the topic...
212   Sociolinguistics and Linguistic Anthropology


                                   We see and hear and otherwise expe...
Chapter 7          21'.3




                                                           segments such as bags of rice'
nak...
214       SociolinguisticsandLinguisticAnthropology


                                       commonly said in a particular...
Chapter 7           215



      aleaSmanyasthirteendifferentlexicalcategoriesdealing:11'':"hcharacteris'
                ...
2L6   Sociolinguistics and Linguistic Anthropology


                                   Englishdoesnotincludelocationalinf...
Chapter    7       217


 2. Ask your informant to tell you   a folk tale, Iegend, or myth from their native
     country....
218   Sociolinguistics and Linguistic Anthropology


                              economic, and other social advantages t...
Chapter 7   219


                                                          language, the polite question,
        speech ...
220   Sociolinguistics and Linguistic Anthropology

                               Errington,joseph,,GettingLanguageRights...
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Bruce m. rowe a concise introduction to linguistics linguistic anthropology

  1. 1. /)/ ncise Intro tion r.; r' Bruce M.
  2. 2. A Concise Introduction to Linguistics Bruce M. Rowe Los Angeles Pierce College Diane P. Leoine Los Angeles Pierce College Boston . New York . San Francisco Mexico City . 14otl,.eal o Toronto . London . Madrid . Munich o Paris Hong Kong . Singapore . Tokyo . Cape Town . Sydney
  3. 3. Series Editor: ]ennifer Jacobson Series Editorial Assistant: Emma Christensen Marketing Manager: Laura Lee Manley Production Editor: Patrick Cash-peterson Editorial Production Service: Nesbitt Graphics Composition Buyer: Linda Cox Manufacturing Buyer: Megan Cochran Electronic Composition: Nesbitt Graphics Cover Administrator: Kristina Mose-Libon Cover Designer: Rebecca Krzyzaniak For related titles and support materials, visit our online catalog at www.ablongman.com. Copyright A2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of the material protected by this copyright notice may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, iniluding photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the copyright owner. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Allyn and Bacon, Permissions Department, 75 Arlington street, Boston, MA 02116 or fax your request to 617-848-7320. Between the time website information is gathered and then published, it is not unusual for some sites to have closed. Also, the transcription of uRLi can result in typographical errors. The publisher would appreciate notification where these errrors occur so that they may be corrected in subsequent editions. Libr ary of Congress Cat alo ging-in-Publication D ata Rowe, Bruce M. A concise introduction to linguistics/Bruce M. Rowe, Diane p. Levine. p.cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-205-44615-9 1. Linguistics. I. Levine, Diane P. II. Title. P121.R69262005 410-dc22 2005048650 Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 43 21 09 08 07 06 05
  4. 4. ChapterT 211 serve a group of females talking together. Note what topics they talk about. Are the topics the same? Are they different? Why or why not? Lin gui sti c Anthr o p o I o gy -{s a subfield of cultural anthropology, linguistic anthropology is the study of how language is used in everyday life and how it is integrated into the various cultures iround the world. A linguistic anthropologist is first and foremost a cul- :ural anthropologist, or ethnographer, studying a culture or ethnic gloup. To live a: a participant observer within the group, it is necessary to learn the language. Participanl observet is the role assumed by a cultural anthropologist, Bv goingbeyond simply learning the language,by analyzing it and its usage, the or ethnographer, who is living within anthropologist attempts to learn how the people think about their world. The a group and studying their culture. topics discussed in the first part of this chapter are of importance to linguistic anthropologists. Below are some additional topics associated with linguistic an- thropology. Langu age, Culture, an d Linguistic ReI atizt ity -t the tum of the twentieth century, anthropologist Franz Boas (1858-1942) proposed the concept of cultural relativism, which has become a basic tenet of Cultural relativism is a basic tenet 0f cultural anthropology; it is the idea cultural anthropology. This is the idea that a culture is consistent and compre- that a culture is consistent and hensible within itself. In other words, to understand why the people of a culture comorehensible within itself . do a particular thing, you have to look for the answer within that culture. You have to look at the question from the point of view of those people. Boas also proposed that all cultures were equally valid adaptations to the universal problems encountered by humans. They were equally complex, equally moral, and equally intellectually satisfying. Cultures were different only because of the environment in which the culture had developed. This was a rather radical view at a time when governments of European countries and the United States were treating native peoples around the world as inferior, ignorant savages. Closely related to the idea of cultural relativism is the concept of linguistic Linguislic relativism is the idea that each language is consistent and relativism. There are no languages that are superior to other languages; they are comprehensible within itself and musl equally complex, expressive, and complete. Each language is consistent and be studied as a unique system comprehensible within itself and must be studied as a unique system. tying to translate one language into another is like trying to force one object into a con- tainer made for another. Differences between languages are not a reflection on the intellectual capacities of the people of that culture, but are a reflection of the world around them and of their necessity to communicate about it. Cultures may have simple technology, but that does not mean they have a language with simple syntax or lexicon. ln the early twentieth century,linguistic theorists Edward sapir (1884-1939) and Benjamin Lee Whorf (1.897-1941) expanded this theory with the concept of linguistic relativity, which has become known as the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis. The Sapir-Whorl Hypothesis proposed that people of different They proposed that people of different cultures think and behave differently be- cultures think and behave difierently cause the languages that they speak require them to do so. In other words, the because the languages they speak way in which individuals view the world around them is affected by the lan- influence them to do so. guage that they have learned to use to interpret their world.
  5. 5. 212 Sociolinguistics and Linguistic Anthropology We see and hear and otherwise experience very largely as y". do because the of interpre- of our co"'*u"ity predispose certain choices 1ung.rug" habits tation.tt sotherelationshipbetweentheenvironment,theculture,andthelanguageofa causes the people to have a particu- ;;;; ;,"lf_reiniorcing. The environment in the language' and then the lan- lar world.view, that ;;?id"iJ is encoded about thsworld in a way that ex- guage forces tf-," p"opi"1o sqgak and think Dresses that same worldview'20 n*";;il.;;;ft;orir.,oti."a that the lexicon of a language is not simply a list of the. experience of the peo- words and definitiorrr, Uttt is a system for organizing emphasizes whatever is important to ff" rrn" ,p"ak that turrguug"' This system is.noi impgllant' While,Fnglish has one the culture ur-,a a"-"-piusizes whatever ifalling snow," "snow on the word snow, Eskimos have different words for ground,"and"hard-puttt"a"to*"andtheAztecshaveonewordthatincludes trsrrow,,, ,,ice,,, and,,r'1U.,, yapanese has ten words for rice, including such dis- ,,freshly tlurt"si"d rice," "uncook"d .i."," and "cooked tlce'"zI Eng- tinctions as lish (and all of the E";;;;; languages) have nouns such as time, beauty, iustice and.Ioae to express abstract concepts' .- ) -.-^^ Whorf,whowaseducated.asachemicalengineerandwasaninsurancern- ac- spector by professiorr,-'1otit"a that people behive' sometimes irrationally' them. He observed that workers are cording to the *uy ,n"i, language dlrecls that arc full of gasoline. But when carefur to not ,-ok.-urorroa"gaJoune drums about their smoking' The.problem the drums are empty,the worfers are careless isthatemptyd,rumsarenotreallyempty'butcontaingasolinevaporthatisfar to the workers are acting according more explosive than in" iiq"ia gasotini."so the entry in their -;i ffi.? for the word empty and not according to the presence of PhYsical danger'" includes rules that allow the Furthermor", tr"t" g';^*ar of each language are imPortant in that culture' speakers of the language to express t9tt1"n!.tn"1 be expressed' as in the words The Europeur", fur"rgtu;"' '"q'it" that p1u'rality days, boys, friends,when there is more tnan one of the item' Even if we add a numbertothesewordstoexpressprecrselyhowmanyitemsthereare/wecai. the plural marker is requirec not say *ten day, yi"ity,;'i"n Vi'na'.In English though the number makes :: when there is more thair one of these items'"even perfectlyclearthatthereismorethanoneandindeedtellsuspreciselyhor' *%, non-count nouns, that cannr-r course there are other English nouns, the bemadeplural,rtr"hu'rice,ssnd"'mllk'Thesenounsrefertosubstancesthatrst mass. In fact, the way in which we ca: perceive to be a .o.ii..rorrr'undividable (ed ), selected INrt!- 6ra--urasupir, ,,The status of Linguistics as a science." In D.G. Mandelbaum Personality (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University ot ings of Edward sopir in raoguogr, cfiturr-and Relation of Habitual Thou=r California press. 1949), ri6-ro'0. O"o*d by Beniamin L"e Wtto.i, "The Anthropologv: AReader (Oxforc and Behavior to rangu;;,'i;trru.,a.Jl..*.ti(ed.),Linguistic rdeas and rssues" Linguistic Anlhropotc't ffiY*lil;Y1','"Xtliil:"iii:T"iJ*#:i:r.'ro.L,,,o.o AReader(oxfordandMaldenMA:Blackwel1Publishers,2001)p.11-13. published inThe lapan Forun: 2lSandra Lopez-Rictrter,l n Uir,or' of )apanese Rice," originilly " paf'Juty 28'2003' nOZ, *-*.it.ot.ip /eng/ ge /gepdf /04sandra Language" in Ales-:- zBenjamin Lee w1,o*,ilfn" R.eiation of Habitual Thought a"d.!:h:Yitt.T aneader (oxiord and Malden, Massachusetts: Black$'e dro Duranti (ed..),Linguistic Anthropology: 2007),364.
  6. 6. Chapter 7 21'.3 segments such as bags of rice' nake them plural is to divide them into countable :uckets of sand, bottles of milk' observed that there are also While studying the Hopi language' Whorf as-a plural' t"Y"1?111";te are different nouns in Hopi that cannotbJ "*p'"""J segments of time' such as day' rrom the English non-count "o""'' in Hoii' ,ttonth, season,cannot;" ;;p;";; as plurals. r.vrrorr refers to them as imaginary Real plurals exist in reality in plurals, which n" airii"j"ishes from real p-lurals. -i*gir"ruty the observabt" *orfa, Uit plrrrals exist onlyln theminds of the peo- boys is a real plural because it is pos- ;; ;;;;ilg auo.rt.tt-,e,tt ro' &u','iti' ,iae n"*u"s in one plage--and observe them sible to bring togeth"t fi"" young tt'ut" as a group, or they .r. u" individually as five different individuals' "ip"rie"nced But a day, month;;;;u"o'-t tu'-t only be experienced one at a time' You can- one. day at a time' and that is the day you not see or interact *iin u'ty more than when English speakers use the are experiencing at this veiy moment-today"So' of 24-hour p"liodt, perhaps in the plural daysthey are i,ougili,.rg an assemblv past, perhaps in the,;;i;; ;.ilps including the present day. But nevertheless, real"or observable' The Hopi language rt is an imaginary assemblage. It is-not not imag- these nouns and Hopi speakers do .foes not allow the pluralizat"ion of speakers do days. In fact, Hopi ine an assembly or ir"rairria.rul distinguishable different ani distinct, but rather each day not perceive .o'rr".rr,iJ" ;;tr "r bein[ day' The English sentence is the reappearance of the previous I studied for five daYs' ivould be rendered in HoPi as I studied until the sixth daY'23 by The way time is perceived in the Hopi language is expressed in Hopi culture fir firture events. Because today is an a great deal of emphasis on p."puruiion that is again appear in the future, something earlier appearance oiu auy tnut witl done today hu"" u" on thatJutut" auy' Atrhorf said: "an "ff"tt "Well begun is one might say that Hopi society understand's -til-fjrT"tb another o.ay' -- haff ione,"'but not our "Tomorrow is proposed by Sapir and Whorf' It Other linguists have criticized the hypothesis rel- The strong theory of linguistic has been referred t""";-i;;;;tic deteriinis* orih"rttot g tfieory of linguistic relativism holds that language of coercion, compels people to think accordino t0 uiirrir*, known for its usJ of the vocabulary linguistic categories. our language' it is "constrained" by it; . . . our thought is "at the mercy" of "compelled" a ne"utril way; we are no one is free to describe the world in to read certain features into the world ' ' '25 The weaker theory ol linguistic a weaker theory might reflect more accu- relativism holds that language Critics have suggested that perhaps language influ- influences people to think certain r1-t11Sn' They propose.that rately the role of r".'gJ"gi-*'n"*i" all ideas, whether com- ways according to linguistic have tools?o, but that people ences thought, "*ptltiit-tg easier or more categorles. mon in their cultur" o' Some concepts may indeed be "tt' 23Whorf,361. ',l}*"oo- ,tic Rerativity Hw*|":k . t.'*!?:l::y:'::37:t:'"::Xi3fy{$f-'"' to Retatioism' f'rrrp'Z lpfut t,anford edu/entries/reiativism/ supplel
  7. 7. 214 SociolinguisticsandLinguisticAnthropology commonly said in a particular language. But if speakers of another language want to say that same thing, words can be borrowed. japanese tourists visiting in the United States, when offered "optional activities or tours," have no direct equivalent for the word optional, so they simply borrow the English word. Eng- lish speakers having no direct equivalent for the Spanish concept of hyper-mas- culinity have borrowed the word macho. In other cases, special lexical categories can be created, as when English speakers use such terms for snow conditions as packed pozuder, slush, and sleet. Just as people are not confined to one language, but can shift from one language to another, we are not confined to thinking in just the way our native language has compelled us. Some concepts may not be language based; in fact, they may be based on concepts that are part of our evolution, which we share with animals. Certain Native American languages are non-numefate, that is, they have a limited vo- cabulary for numbers. Yet the people are able to perform mathematical tasks such as adding and subtracting small sets of dots and determining which set is more numerous and which sets are equivalent. It is only when the tasks call for more precision and larger numbers that non-numerate people arrive at different conclusions than people with number words. Researchers believe that this abil- ity to perform mathematical tasks without the language for it is evidence "that [we] share with nonverbal animals a language-independent rePresentation of number . . . which supports simple arithmetic computation and which plays an important role in elementary human numerical reasoning whether verbalized or rrot."26 In this case, language only influences the performance of more precise, more complex mathematical operations involving larger numbers. Does Language Influence Culture, or Culture lnfluence Language? Language lnfluences Culture Color telminology is the set of An example of how language influences culture is color terminology, the words words in a language that describe with which a language describes colors. All humans see the color spectrum in segments of the color spectrum. the same way, but different languages divide it up in different ways and assign Color terms in English include words such as re4 blue, green, white, names to the segments of the spectrum. Of course, these segments of the spec- yellow, el.c. trum include a variety of shades within them; blue denim jeans and a baby's pastel blue blanket look different but are still called by the color term blue. Be' iunr" *" call them allblue,we tend to consider them in the same color category. Some languages simply distinguish black and white, or dark and light. Oth- ers have black, white, and red. ln these languages, the speaker describing some- thing will compare it to an object that is either visible or something of a known color. So green would be referred to as the color of grass; purple might be the color of an object in the room. Some languages have color terms similar to the European languages, except that they group blue and green together in one color term. When asked to pick out the most perfect example of this blue-green color, speakers of these lan- guages will choose a turquoise color, midway between the English color blue and the English color green. In the Athabascan languages, which include Navajo and Apache, lexical cat- egories classify items by number, length, and rigidity. Verbs have different end- ings depending on the characteristics of the object spoken about. In fact, there 26Roche1 Gelman and C. R. Gallistel, "Language and the Origin of Numerical Concepts," Science, Vol. 30, Octobe r 1.5, 2004, 441,-443. www.sciencemag.org
  8. 8. Chapter 7 215 aleaSmanyasthirteendifferentlexicalcategoriesdealing:11'':"hcharacteris' Jnclosed or not enclosed, animate or tics as number, f""g,f, JsiJiiy,portability, inanimate, and solid or liquid'" some things In the Navajo .";;;q', pre-school-age- child1e1.were shorarn "asked stick, then which one was most like a yel- such as a blue ,op" urrJ u y"fior" English-Navajo tended to categorize low rope. The chitdrei;i;;"r; fttingrrut childrlen would, and picked the yellow items by color, iust ", E"girrr--rpeakin! to categorize fi.i. ;t;;;;:fi;;i chiidren who spoke o1lv.N1v1io ':*,t tifiJity' acco'ding to the lexical categories of their lan- thinss bv ]ength ""a g.ru;e, ut a piit*a the blue roPe'/b Culture lnfluences Language Kinship terminologY is the set of is kinship terminology' the .n example of how t"Itu'" irfluences language words in a language that describe famllv ielationships' For example, our *,ords that a langu";;;;; to express the fa- family relationshlps. Kinship terms In the motirer's side of ihe family and English include words such as culrure makes no atriio.ti* betwJen make no iinguistic distinction be- mother, father, brother, sister, elc' ther,s side or tn" tu-"ir|.'^so'E"grirn speakers tween mother,s mother and fatf,er's mother; they are both grandmother' Cultures paternaf sides of the family have differ- that distinguisfr letween maternal and ent kinships terms for these relationshipi. ecnitt"t" child, who must leam a dif- Eng- ierent word ro, *otn"r;, *other and for father's mothet may wonder how apart.In the Chinese culture, which is lish speaker, .un t"tiit two grandmothers " patrilinealandemphasizesttreimportanceortr'"father,ssideofthefamily,the in relationship to the two grand- .ma nu, different t#;;;i-.esponsibilities between the two' p'"*",t. fn"refore, th"e language distinguishes where extended families share in In cultutes, ,.,"it u' mlnyiribal 'oii"ti"'' that means the responsibility oi r"Jrit g, children will use the kinship term "r,iJ .,mother,,fortheirmotherandhersistersalso.Theywillusethetermthatmeans .,father,, for father and his brothers. This means that many of the people in the le will in turn ad- child,s village *il n" uaJ.essed as mother or.father;rh?r" f,",o as son or daughter.It is easy then to understand why the Africans dress the child iay, "Ittakes a t"ile a child"' Each African village is filled with men "il;;;i; .-nila,, ,,mothers" and "fathers," who are responsible a.d women *no #"tfr" for the child and whom the child must obey' 1 :--- the subsis- Another example of how culture influences language involves a horticulturil-people living.t" 11" tence activities of the society. The samo, by_hunting and gath- torests of New cr'ir.r"u,-*ppiement their garden produce up and down hillsides' ering. Travetrng tttro;gn ili" fo'e'ts' alorig the l"".tt' they have ,"ur.,y -"ii3;il;;;6;i"_ lo.Jtior,r. In fact, in a coliection of samo locational information in them' There is a texts, g1 percent oiuii-r"rrt"r,cesiad place; verbs differen- sujfix added to a word that designates it as a mountaintop a place that pt date between go*g .r;rtream or"downstream; an adjective specifies fact, much of the samo's conversation and sto- ck is on the other side-of ihe river. In .n- wtellinginvolvesa",.'lpto"s.ofwheretheactiontookplaceandhowthepeo- many ue ple sot there. In tfti' that emphasizes location' the language has *.'uu", to describe it'29 "t'it"" at- rd- ere :Keith H. Basso, pP 2-16. ]liosephCasagrande(1960)citedinGaryFerrato,CulturalAnthropotogy,Sthed,,Thomson.,2004, '-26-727. roR.Danielshaw,FromLonghousetoVillage:SamoSocialChange'Belmont'Califomia: ,t adsworth/Thomson Leamin g' 2002' :- .-- .j= ]:i. |Z- L - =:--
  9. 9. 2L6 Sociolinguistics and Linguistic Anthropology Englishdoesnotincludelocationalinformationaspartoftherequiredfea- English-speaking tures of the languag". this we can in{er that the culture of F;;; we find many Peo- p""ff"-at"t no? "ripnurize locale and direction' And indeed' and teenagers who can't give ple who can,t pornt to the four cardinal directions lccurate directions to someone driving them home' is the use of Another way in which culture" influences language .in how the Western Apache use the metaphors. In Chapter 6 we talked about namesofbodypu,t,to,'u-eth"partsofacar.Inotherwords,theApacheuse car parts. Cultures find meaning- the metaphoric domain of body pirts to name them' irrt.tt"tupnors in domains that are important to IntheUnitedStates,baseballisanimportantpaltofourculture.Soitisnot ,.rrp.iJr11i ri.,a th;;' ;;"y 'y.; terms in the domain of baseball are used as metaphors ir, iii;. Q"l. o.ly three chances to do things right- "rr"ryaly with a disadvantage' you have "three strikes ur-td yo.,i," out'" AnL if you start ,,ballpark ,,two strikes against you.,, An approximation is a guess.,, And if your it is "in the ballpark'" Cooperat- estimate is somewhai close to the correct total, or i"f *irn someone is ;,playing ball,, with them. Being a tough negotiator shiewd businessperson is "playing hardball'" In the twentieth.""*tV, ti-t" ilitituty has been an important P1{ 9j {*tl- canlife,waglngseveralwarsandfiguringprominently.inthe"ColdWar'"This of *ilituty metaphors for sev- importance of tfr" miliiuri is reflectJd -In" use (particularly football), and eral domains, such as corporate business, sports health care. In business *" tutt about corporut" "tuid"ts," "tatget audiences," ,,hostile takeovers.,, In fact, one invesiment company that they and -advertises a long pass can be.a have "an army" of ,"ti,e"te''t specialists' ln footbill ,,bomb,,, a defensive ptuy u,'alrt ,), and.an offensive formation a "shotgun." we ,,figrit,, disease,,,defJnd',ourselves,, against disease "invasion," "arm ourselves" with preventive medicine' InBali,wherecockfightingisanimportantpastime,metaphorsreferringto thedomainofcockfightingpermeateeverydaylifeandsocialrelationships.The in and woman J"p" in" island l?e"rii" said to be ttLat of a rooster. A man arrogant man love "i at each other like two cocks with their ,,stare feathers "p'"4t is called ,,a tailless cock who struts about as though he had a large, spectacular one." Heaven is tt e way a man feels when his co& has just won and hell is the lt"y man feels when his cock has just lost'30 " States for less than five years Interview someone who has lived in the United and whose native language is not English' samples and ask them to L. Show your informant an assortment of color paint according to what name they name the colors. Cro,,p the samples togethei are given. Has your iniormant oiganizi the colors in the same way that an or why not? U"gTitn speaker would organize them? Why York: oxford University Press' 2001' 6oo-r. r"r""" Cognitiae Dimensions of social science, New
  10. 10. Chapter 7 217 2. Ask your informant to tell you a folk tale, Iegend, or myth from their native country. What is the theme of the story? Atrhat is the message that the story intends to communicate to the listener (perhaps the children who would hear it)? What does the story tell you about the culture that it comes from? Does it tell you about their religious beliefs, their games, their livelihood, and their family structure? Aithoughtheword:,?":r:*T:"T!,,{::':::-.y#"everydayspeech,in social science a nation is a group of people who share a history and culture, in- cluding a common language. Many countries contain different nationalities. The term nationality is sometimes used synonymously with ethnic group. In Great A nation is a group of people who Britain, for instance, there are four major nationalities or ethnic groups that have share a history and culture, including been there for a long time: the English, Scots, Irish, and Welsh. In Nigeria, there a common tanguage. are about three hundred ethnic groups. Almost all modern countries are com- posed of multiple nationalities. The language one speaks is an important symbol of group identity. In the United States, ethnic groups such as the Amish consider the mainte- nance of their language as central to their ethnic identity. The Amish are a reli- gious group who first came to the United States in the 1700s from Switzerland. They speak a form of German in their homes, schools, and communities, but are bilingual and generally only code switch to English when they need to do busi- ness with English-speaking people. The Native Americans of North America are often referred to as the First Na- tions. Many Native Americans are also bilingual. There are still about 175 Native American languages spoken in the United States, but only about twenty of them are spoken by a sizable number of people. Before European contact there may have been considerably more than a thousand languages spoken in what is now the United States (see the section of Chapter 12 on Disappearing and Reappear- ing Languages). So what happened to all of these languages? One reason for the extinction of the languages was that the people who spoke them were killed off either by bullets or disease. other languages became extinct because of a policy of the United States government to assimilate the Native Americans. In the past, Native American children were placed in boarding schools where they where taught in English and not allowed to speak their native languages. The idea was to kill their culture (ethnocide) through the elimination of their language. In 1992, the United States govemment reversed this practice with the Native Amer- ican Languages Act, which provides money for the preservation of the remaining ative American languages. But it might be too late. Native American children are no longer prevented from speaking their native languages, but the degree of assimilation into the general American culture has been so great that all but a few ative American languages may be extinct in the next fifty years or so.31 Although there has been some attempt to revitalize American Indian lan- +ages, the quest to maintain a native language has been more vigorous in other areas of the world. Civil wars have been fought, at least in part, over which lan- quage would be the official language of a country. One of many possible exam- ples of this is India. In 1947, after India became independent from the English, riolence broke out between ethnic groups over what language would be the offi- ;ial language of India. Alhichever language was chosen would give educational, :: "Native American Culture: Language," www.ewebtribe.com,/NACulture/lang. htm, larch 13, 2005.
  11. 11. 218 Sociolinguistics and Linguistic Anthropology economic, and other social advantages to the ethnicity that spoke that language' ultimately, English was maintained as the lingua francs of India for use in busi- ness and political communication. However, to stop the nationalistic violence, fifteen indigenous languages of India are now considered official languages of that countr!. In addition, today most of India's main language (ethnic) grouPs have their own states. Summary People of a language community lives, works, socializes, and communicates to- gether in a dialJct & variety of their language. Standard American English (SAE) is the prestige dialect in the United States; BBC English is the prestige dialect in the United iittgdo-. Regional dialects show semantic variation, syntactic varia- tion, and phonological viriation. Regional dialects have a social meaning in that people urrnilptions about others based on the dialect that they speak- ^ African American English (AAE) is one of the terms for the varieties of Eng- ^uk" lish spoken in different pirts of the United States by African Americans' It is an important part of Africln American cultural heritage and communal values' Afiican Americans switch back and forth between SAE and AAE as the circum- stances require; this practice of changing from one style of language to another is called codl switching. The characteristics of AAE have often been misunder- stood as incorrect Eriglish. However, it is rule governed, following its distinct phonological rules thit include a rule for /t / and /I/ deletion, a final consonant deletion-rule, monophthongization, and modification of the interdental frica- tives [0] and [d]. Many of the differences between sAE and AAE are grammatical features that include verb deletion, verb asPect, the word order of indirect ques- tions, multiple negation, and the existential lf. One facet of African culture that has been pr"r"rrrJ in African American culture is respect and admiration for a "man of words." Some of the characteristics of Hispanic English (HE) are the result of the ap- plication of the Spanish phonologicil system on English words and Spanish word order on English ,etrtetr."r. other characteristics, such as double negation, come from the grimmar rules of Spanish. Another interesting syntactic practice of the bilingual"Hispanic American community is the use of spanish inflectional morphemes with English verbs. ilff,"n people of lifferent cultures come together, contac-t languages facilitate communicltion. Acommon second language canbecome a lingua franca. Pidgin languages are simplified languages developed for use in specific interactions; tf"r"! gi their vocabulary from the superstrate language, but syntactic qualities .o*"1.o^ the substrat" luttgt,ug". Whett a pidgin language is learned by the next generation as its first language, a Process called nativization, it becomes a creole language. Every-one"code switches between styles of speech-or registers' English speakers indicate the level of formality of their speech by the use of contractions, certain word deletions, and the placement of a preposition at the end of a sen- tence. Word choice is probably the single most important indicator of formality or situational dialect, including the use of everyday slang, taboo words, exple- tives, and racial epithets. Many slang expressions typig people of a particular generation. jargon is the special vocabulary of in-groups and_professions. Males andlemales differ in the way they use language. In some languages, verbs are conjugated differently by males and by females- In other languages, different words or pronunciations are used. In English, females use informal
  12. 12. Chapter 7 219 language, the polite question, speech less than males do. They also use indirect andtagquestionsmoreoftenthanmen.InmixedconversationSroups/mentalk other speakers and change more often and they olk 1o"g"'' They also interrupt the subiect or redirect the conversation more often than women do' that studies linguistic anthropology is 1 subfield of cultural anthropology no_ tariguug" i, .rs"i in e"veryday life- and how it is integrated into the various the idea that a culture is consis- cultures around the world. Cultuial relativism is i".rt urra comprehensible within itself. Closely related is,the concept of linguiltic and comprehensible within relativism, the idea that each language is consistent itself and must be studied as a unique system. The sapir-whorf Hypothesis pro- ihink and behive differently because the ;;;;Jih"tpeople of different cultures them to do so. In other words, the way in ffirrug", ihut'they speak influence rvhichindividualsviewtneworldaround.themisdependentonthelanguage have proposed that ,t,u,,n"y have learneJ ,o,rr" to interpret their world. others ,r,f-rif" fJr-rg.rage influences culture, there are other instances where culture influ- ences language. Languageisanimportantpartofthenationalidentityformanyethnic of a cul- grr"pr. ineioss or u tu,igtug" *"ull' the loss of an important element the language of a country ture. Civil wars have bee"n fo'ught, in part, over what *-ill be. Suggested Reading Books The Meaning of Messages, 4th ed'' Bonvillain, Nancy, Language, Culture, and Communication: Upper Saddle-River, New |ersey: Prentice- Hall' 2003' York: William Mor- s*;;,, silf, The Mother Tongue: English and Hora It Got That Way' New row,1990. Language in the United e.yrorr, Blll, Made in America: An Informal History of the English -Btytott Sfafes, New York, william Morrow I9g4. BtIl is an American humorist who on best-seller lists in both T rirr"a * England for twenty years. These two books were London and New York' Dubuque' Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Hailcom, Francine, a Ciae tu Linguistics for ESL Teachers' -- e,rurirni.,g, 1gg5. This textboof has a chapter devoted to each language that an ESL I teacher is likely to encounter, including spinish, Tagalog, Chinese, and vietnamese. Hickerson,NancyP.,LinguisticAnthropol"ogy,2nded.FortWorth,Texas:Harcourt,2000. 1990' This is a satirical' humor- :e i-utz, William , Doublespfrk,New York: Harper Perennial' n ous book written by a professor of Engiish, who gives an annual award for the most egregious misuse of language' 1994' ES f--i"n] Deborah, Talking fiomkine to Firte, New York: Avon Books' New York: ne lamen, Deborah, vou liit Don,t lfnderstand: women and Men in Conoersation, Ballantine Books, 1990. Deborah Tannen is the best-selling author of books on the topic of gender differences in language' Lsh -lrticles ,,Language and the fis, R. Gallistel, origin of Numerical Concepts,,, en- -elman, Rochel and C. Science,Vol.30,Octobert5,2004,441-443'www'sciencemag'org Irty of American Anthropologist: lournal oJ The following articles uti upp"u."a in a special issue rle- the Americin Anthropologtial Associatioi,Volume 105' Number 4' December 2003' rlar 3ulag, Uradyn 8., "Mong8[an Ethnicity and.Linguistic Anxiety in ghh:"'753-763' ,,f_ur.r[.rug" ideology and Woriren's Speech: Talking Community in the Jhernela, Janet M. g€s, )'Jorthwest A mazon", 7 9 4-80 6' :ngland, Nora C. -tvtuyu. Revival and Revitalization Politics: Linguists and La.,guage Lges, iinguistic Ideologies", 7 33-7 43' rmal
  13. 13. 220 Sociolinguistics and Linguistic Anthropology Errington,joseph,,GettingLanguageRights:theRhetoricsofLanguageEndangerment and Loss", 723-722. Friedman,Jonathan,,GlobalizingLanguages:IdeologiesandRealitiesoftheContemPo. rary Global SYstem", 744-752' Reflections on Language and U.S. Haviland, John B. "ra*iogi", of Language: some Law",764-774. and the Anthropological Imagina- Maurer, Bill "Comment: Got Langu age? Law'Property fron",775-781 Whiteley,Peter,,,Do,LanguageRights,Servelndigenouslnterests?SomeHopiandOther Queries", 712-722. Suggested Websites ,,Explorel Linguistics,, The University of oregon's website introducing the topic in translating pidgin phrases' of sociolinguistics. It includes an online quiz http: / / lo$s.uoregon'edu/explore/socioling The University of Texas Austin Linguistics *"btitu includes interactive activi- ties, exampl", of ,p"J sourrdr Trom different parts of the country, full text resources' articles by noted linguists, and links to other www.utexas.edu/ courses /linguistics/resources/socioling Thiswebsite(inEnglish)isaboutsociolinguisticsinChina,includinganarticle on Chinese gkfr' pio,lttnciation, a kindlf "Valley talk" Chinese style' l"**.puoptE.fas.harvard'edu / -whu/ China / socio'htm English' These websites comPare British and American An - -- American-British British-American Dictionary -**.p"uk.orgl-jeremy/ dictionary/dict'html for British Speakers A Guideio Ameiican English www.scit'wlv'ac.uk/ -iphb / american'html#brit produced by Public Broadcasting ser- Do you speak Americanz iia documentary about American varieties of English vice (pBS). rn"r" ure interactive q"aL:i on their website at wwwpbs'org/speak' linguistic research. They devel- The University of Cl"rgf",itf,"r,"r, .orrarr.ted oped a ianguage JialE.t atla, of African Americin speech, including the Gul- lah/Geeche" ihei, .erear.h is available it nttp://hyde.park'uga' edu/afam. ""rity. Some sites about Gullah language: A dictionary of Gullah/Geechee is at: l"**. griluhtours. com,/ gullahdictionarv'htmlIsland Coalition' an organiza' Information about tfre CirUafr/Geechee Sea in Gullah/Geechee, is at tion that .orrarr.t, "onferences and other meetings wwwcoax.n et / people / lwf / gg-coal'htm' school teachers in south Carolina, has Developed u, u r"rorrrle for elementary folktalesunarorrg,itGullah,plusaninteractivepagewhereyoucanclick in Gullah' on an Englisn woid and hear iipronounced www.knowital l.org / gullahtales Psalm' and,Dr' Martin Luther You can read rhe L;t?i';;;;;t' in" r*""ty-rhy{ -Dream" prayers'html' King's "I Have a speech- at ww# guf alrtours'com / you can hear several radio essays about the Eulah/Geechee communities at the the keyword "Gullah" in the pro- National public n"Jr" website. search for gr am Alt Things Consider ed' www.npr.olg

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