SScience Forum Presentation: Using Markets to Promote a Healthy Dietary Transition

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Presentation at the CGIAR's Science Forum 2013 in Bonn Germany. The Forum theme was Nutrition and Health Outcomes: Targets for Agricultural Research and this was presented in a session on Value …

Presentation at the CGIAR's Science Forum 2013 in Bonn Germany. The Forum theme was Nutrition and Health Outcomes: Targets for Agricultural Research and this was presented in a session on Value Chains.

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  • How far can income take us?
  • Total cal/day are around 2500 and 3200. Starchy staples are grains, roots, and tubers. These are 80 and 50 % of calories. Nutrient rich foods includes dairy, eggs, meats and fish, legumes and nuts. These are 10 and 32 %. Fats and sugars are unhealthy dietary diversity– 10 and 18 %.
  • IncomeDiet quality improves through diversification, but slowly and unevenlyPricesRelative prices– eg., staples prices declining relative to more nutrient rich foodsOpportunity cost of time– eg., switch to more processed foods with urbanizationPreferences and cultural normsShape pathway towards diet diversity, eg. ASF increases with income vary widelyGiven the many market failures that can arise in nutrition, it is not surprising that improvements in diet and in nutritional outcomes do not track perfectly with development and rising incomes.
  • Given the many market failures that can arise in nutrition, it is not surprising that improvements in diet and in nutritional outcomes do not track perfectly with development and rising incomes.
  • TechnologiesImprovements in production, storage, handling, processing, or marketing to reduce nutritional loss, improve access, or reduce safety risks, eg. Greater seasonal availability for fruitsInformationIncreased demand for improved safety and nutrition through education or improved incentives for different actors in the value chain, eg. Nutrition education with improved vegetable seedsNutritional quality reflected in prices and/or made more affordable, eg., quality certification for locally sourced infant foodsPolicies and InstitutionsNew contractual arrangements create incentives to deliver more nutrient rich foods or to create demand for such foods, eg. Home grown school lunch programs
  • Release of 6 biofortified varieties in the past 3 years greatly extends the reach and impact of this program. Result of nearly 20 years of capacity building and planning. Crops and nutrients chosen to address important micronutrient deficiencies in the target populations and nutrient content on released varieties targeted to provide 50 to70% of nutrient requirement for women and children.

Transcript

  • 1. Presentation at the ISPC Science Forum 2013 Session “’Leveraging Value Chains for Better Nutrition and Food Safety: Lessons for CGIAR Research?” September 24, 2013 Laurian Unnevehr Senior Research Fellow and A4NH Theme Leader IFPRI Using Markets to Promote a Healthy Dietary Transition
  • 2. Overview • The Challenge: Income growth and market development are not sufficient to improve nutrition and food safety. • The Opportunity: Can value chain research improve market performance for nutrition and food safety? • CGIAR Research: How is it embracing this opportunity?
  • 3. THE CHALLENGE Income growth and market development are not sufficient to improve nutrition and food safety.
  • 4. Income Growth Can Reduce Child Stunting, But Other Actions Needed A 10% increase in GDP/PC leads to a 6% reduction in stunting
  • 5. A Changing Focus for Ag and Nutrition • Increased calorie production and incomes no longer seen as ag’s only role • Focus on how agriculture influences other important determinants of child stunting – Women’s empowerment, education, time – Sanitation and water quality – Nutrient density and diet quality/diversity
  • 6. Income Growth Can Increase Risks of Overweight and Obesity 6 A 10% increase in GDP/PC leads to a 7% increase in overweight and obesity in women
  • 7. Dietary Transition • Diet shift from staples base to other foods is well- known development outcome • Healthy diet diversity includes vegetables, fruits, legumes, animal source foods – Documented link to improved micronutrient density and nutrition outcomes at micro level • Undesirable increase in fats, sugars, processed foods now occurring at lower income levels with food system modernization • Emerging double burden of over and under nutrition in many countries
  • 8. Ideal US China Bangladesh Starchy Staples 48 31 49 80 Legumes & Nuts 22 5 3 4 Animal & Fish Products 10 14 20 4 Fruits & Vegetables 9 7 9 2 Fats & Sugars 11 43 19 10 Total Calories 2200 Too many Too many Too few Income Doesn’t Lead Diets Towards Ideal Nutrition (shares of daily calorie consumption by food groups) Source for “Ideal” shares: Thompson and Meerman, FAO, 2013
  • 9. Summary: Income Growth Not Sufficient for Desired Nutrition • Income not perfect driver for improved diets, nutrition – Lags in reducing stunting; emerging double burden • Improved diets mean increases in diet diversity and consumption of nutrient rich foods – Micronutrient density and relationship to nutrition at micro level well-established – Potential for “unhealthy” diversity • Price trends reinforce less desired outcomes – Relative prices: staples prices declining relative to more nutrient rich foods – Opportunity cost of time rising: switch to more processed foods with urbanization
  • 10. THE OPPORTUNITY Can value chain research improve market performance for nutrition and food safety?
  • 11. Why Income Growth is Not Sufficient: Market Failures and Diet Quality • Consumer knowledge incomplete – nutrition, nutrient content/ safety of foods • Supply constraints for nutrient rich foods – perishability, seasonality, variable nutrient content, food safety, transport • Result: Under-provision of improved nutrition and food safety
  • 12. Are There Also Public Failures? • Public focus on staple crops means underinvestment in nutrient rich foods – Pulses in India • Public focus on meeting food safety standards for high income market access means underinvestment in public health oriented food safety – Aflatoxins
  • 13. Nutrition-sensitive Value Chains: A US Example • Policy change: Mandatory trans fat labeling in 2006 • Value chain actors adjust: – Testing new formulations; advertising new products – Farm production of alternative oil sources expands through contracting – Research key to support these changes • Benefits for all consumers as trans fat in food supply declines – CDC reports reduction in avg trans fat in US adults’ blood in 2009 health survey
  • 14. Food Safety in Value Chains: A US Example • Principles of supply chain approach to prevention and control well-understood • 2005 E.coli outbreak associated with spinach exposed new sources of risk • Permanent reduction in spinach demand • Leafy Greens Producer Agreement identified and enforced process controls through industry association
  • 15. What’s Missing in Developing Markets? • Effective demand and incentives through: – Brand equity – Mandatory disclosure – Regulations – Risk and health communication • Producer innovations supported through: – Research investments – Institutions to reward coordination • Can these be adapted for better nutrition in developing markets?
  • 16. Inputs into production Food production Food storage and processing Food distribution and transport Food retail and labeling Value Chain Approach Consumer Producer Supply side Develop and test solutions Demand side Characterize diets, market access and constraints to consumption of nutritious, safe foods Test solutions to improve demand for nutrition and safety along the value chain Identify production and market constraints to improved nutrition and safety Example: Increased seasonal availability of fruit Example: Nutrition education delivered by vegetable seed supplier
  • 17. Elements of This Approach • Each value chain study for a nutrient-rich food should include all of these elements: – Dietary and nutritional assessment of target population – Identification of key foods to improve / diversify diets – Mapping of the value chain for these foods – Identification of constraints to supply and to demand – Developing and/or testing interventions – Identification of enabling policies – Assessment of diet quality impact in target population
  • 18. Measuring Diet Quality Impact • Focus on diet diversity/ quality as desired outcome – Targeted increase of single food not always a good measure of diet quality—”do no harm” – How do changes in value chains contribute to diversity and address specific nutritional needs? – Several measures of diet diversity validated for diet quality in vulnerable groups
  • 19. Value Chain Impacts at Market / Whole Diet Level? • Develop markets for high value crops – Increase income for producers – Reduce relative prices of nutrient rich foods – Increase consumer access to healthy diversity • Leverage market incentives to enhance nutritional outcomes from markets – Partnerships with private sector to direct market development towards better nutrition • Can this provide the foundation for a more healthy dietary transition?
  • 20. CGIAR RESEARCH How is CGIAR research embracing this opportunity and leveraging existing expertise?
  • 21. 2011 Cassava Provitamin A DR Congo, Nigeria 2012 Beans Iron (Zinc) DR Congo, Rwanda 2012 Maize Provitamin A Zambia 2012 Pearl Millet Iron (Zinc) India 2013 Rice Zinc Bangladesh, India 2013 Wheat Zinc India, Pakistan Leveraging Crop Breeding: Biofortification VC Research Role: Test market channels for dissemination
  • 22. Leveraging Other ProductionTechnologies • Seasonality and Vitamin C content of mango (ICRAF) • Biocontrol of aflatoxin in maize and groundnut (IITA and ICRISAT) • Infant food development using small fish (WorldFish) • VC Research role: Test market viability and consumer impact from these technologies
  • 23. Leveraging the Private Sector • Danone-Grameen fortified yoghurt venture – Income enhancement for poor women – Nutrition enhancement for vulnerable groups • Vegetable seed suppliers in Bangladesh and Kenya – Nutrition messages with production extension – Encourage home consumption – Expand demand to support expanded supply • VC Research role: Validate responsible efforts; Identify scalable opportunities
  • 24. Leveraging Market Incentives for Reduced Aflatoxins • Aflatoxins naturally occurring and can enter or multiply at any stage from production to consumption • Market solutions to improve/reward control: – Warehouse receipts to improve storage – Alternate uses, eg., oil processing, animal feeds – Training and product testing delivered through farmer organizations – Biocontrol adoption linked to feed markets • VC Research role: Test market and technology interventions together
  • 25. Leveraging Dedicated Supply Chains • Home Grown School Feeding Programs – Develop and reward local supply chains for school feeding – Promote nutrition education linked to local foods – Support child nutrition, school performance, habit formation • VC Research role: measure nutrition, education, and market synergies
  • 26. A4NH Research In This Session • Micronutrients: OFSP (CIP/IFPRI) • Diet Diversity: Fruit (ICRAF) • Food Safety: Animal source foods (ILRI)
  • 27. THANK YOU! For more information on A4NH Value Chain Research: http://www.a4nh.cgiar.org/our-research/value-chains-for-enhanced- nutrition/