Nucleosynthesis
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Nucleosynthesis

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Nucleosynthesis in stars, basics of the universe, basics of the elements, stars' life cycle.

Nucleosynthesis in stars, basics of the universe, basics of the elements, stars' life cycle.

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  • 1. NUCLEOSYNTHESIS
  • 2. WHERE DID ELEMENTS COME FROM?
  • 3. Our universe started with a BIG BANG.
  • 4. big bang n. ( cosmology ) the cosmic explosion that is hypothesized to have marked the origin of the universe.
  • 5. After the BIG BANG , the universe started to e x p a n d .
  • 6. The first seconds after the BIG BANG, it was very hot.
  • 7. Then, the universe started to cool down.
  • 8. Right after the BIG BANG, the p + , the n 0 and the e - were flying around without control.
  • 9. When it started to cool down, the quarks started making primitive elements:
  • 10. 1 H 1 Hydrogen, 1 proton
  • 11. 1 H 2 Hydrogen, 1 proton, 1 neutron
  • 12. 2 H 3 Helium, 2 protons, 1 neuron
  • 13. 2 H 4 Helium, 2 protons, 2 neurons
  • 14. Those elements started forming stars.
  • 15. Star n. a self-luminous gaseous spherical celestial body of great mass which produces energy by means of nuclear fusion reactions .
  • 16. In the stars, because of high pressure, the elements started bonding and forming heavier elements
  • 17. HOW WILL WE END?
  • 18. WE all star We all started with the BIG BANG…
  • 19. … but how will we end?
  • 20. Some scientists are sure that the universe will continue to expand forever.
  • 21. However, there is a theory that our universe will end in “big crunch”
  • 22. It states that someday the universe will stop expanding and crunch together.
  • 23. There is no proof for that theory.
  • 24. Classifying Stars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
  • 25. TO RECOGNISE STARS, SCIENTISTS HAVE TO CLASSIFY THEM
  • 26. STARS ARE CLASSIFIED BY
  • 27. T E M P E R A T U R E
  • 28. C O L O R
  • 29. size size size size
  • 30. brightness
  • 31. If the star is blue , it means it is very hot . ( ≈50,000 C°)
  • 32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cold stars are red . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
  • 33. The bigger or hotter the star is, the brighter it is.
  • 34. Brightness is measured in 2 ways:
  • 35. apparent brightness (brightness seen from earth)
  • 36. absolute brightness (the “real” brightness of the star)
  • 37. Stars are mostly made out of hydrogen.
  • 38. Helium is about ¼ of the stars’ composition.
  • 39. Enjar Hertzsprung and Henry Norris Russell made a diagram that classifies stars.
  • 40. The hertzsprung-russel diagram stars temperature size color of star
  • 41. Scientists measure distance between stars using parallax
  • 42. Parallax n. apparent change in apposition of an object when you look at it from different places
  • 43. Scientists watch the positions of stars during different times of the year to figure out it’s position.
  • 44. LIVES OF STARS
  • 45. Stars do not live forever.
  • 46. The larger a star is, the shorter its life is.
  • 47. Stars are born in nebulas.
  • 48. Nebula n. a large cloud of dust in space
  • 49. Gravity pulls dust together so it forms a protostar
  • 50. Protostar n. an early stage in the evolution of a star, after the beginning of the collapse of the gas cloud from which it is formed, but before sufficient contraction has occurred to permit initiation of nuclear reactions at its core.
  • 51. As the protostar gets denser and denser, it forms a star
  • 52. as the star becomes older, it becomes a red giant
  • 53. red giant = star uses up its energy and becomes cooler, so it expands
  • 54. Layers of the red giant fall off, releasing dust and gas into space.
  • 55. It is called a planetary nebula.
  • 56. The remaining star is very dense and bright .
  • 57. It is a white dwarf .
  • 58. When a white dwarf stops glowing, it is called a black dwarf.
  • 59. high-mass stars are different .
  • 60. When they die, they make a supernova – a giant explosion.
  • 61. After the supernova, the star becomes either a neutron star or a black hole.
  • 62. a neutron star : a white dwarf that has very high pressure and temperature
  • 63. A black hole is a neutron star with gravity so strong that nothing, even light, can escape.
  • 64. CAREERS
  • 65. Nucleosynthesis is been studied by physicists and astronomers .
  • 66. www.nasa.gov http://www.dictionary.net / big+bang http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/star http://www.wolaver.org / Space/abell39nebula.jpg https://segue.atlas.uiuc.edu / uploads/ryemm2/heic0409a.jpg http://www.janis.or.jp / users / kitahara / sww / rigel-z.jpg http://www.dorlingkindersley-uk.co.uk/static/clipart/uk/dk/sci_space/image_sci_space013.jpg http://www.mauthelimited.com / Assignments / Dreamweaver / Science_Class / Images / stars / whitedwarf_star.jpg http://cse.ssl.berkeley.edu / bmendez/ay10/2000/cycle / redgiant.gif
  • 67. http://www.agdesktop.com/wallpapersspace ebula ebula-0006.jpg http://www.abc.net.au/unleashed/images/OpenBook_Stock_400.jpg http://techlibrarian.files.wordpress.com/2009/06/horsehead-nebula2.jpg