NUCLEOSYNTHESIS
WHERE DID ELEMENTS COME FROM?
Our universe started with a   BIG BANG.
big   bang   n.  ( cosmology ) the  cosmic   explosion   that  is  hypothesized   to   have   marked  the  origin  of the ...
After the  BIG BANG , the universe started to e x p a n d .
The first seconds after the BIG BANG, it was very hot.
Then, the universe started to cool down.
Right after the BIG BANG, the p + , the n 0  and the e -  were flying around without control.
When it started to cool down, the quarks started making primitive elements:
1 H 1 Hydrogen, 1 proton
1 H 2 Hydrogen, 1 proton, 1 neutron
2 H 3 Helium, 2 protons, 1 neuron
2 H 4 Helium, 2 protons, 2 neurons
Those elements started forming stars.
Star  n.  a self-luminous gaseous spherical celestial body of great mass which produces energy by means of nuclear fusion ...
In the stars, because of high pressure, the elements started bonding and forming heavier elements
HOW WILL WE END?
WE all star We all started with the BIG BANG…
…  but how will we end?
Some scientists are sure that the universe will continue to expand forever.
However, there is a theory that our universe will end in “big crunch”
It states that someday the universe will stop expanding and crunch together.
There is no proof for that theory.
Classifying Stars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TO RECOGNISE STARS, SCIENTISTS HAVE TO  CLASSIFY  THEM
STARS ARE CLASSIFIED BY
T E M P E R A T U R E
C O L O R
size size size size
brightness
If the star is  blue , it means it is very  hot  .   ( ≈50,000 C°)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...
The  bigger  or  hotter  the star is, the  brighter  it is.
Brightness is measured in 2 ways:
apparent brightness (brightness seen from earth)
absolute brightness (the “real” brightness of the star)
Stars are mostly made out of hydrogen.
Helium is about ¼ of the stars’ composition.
Enjar Hertzsprung and Henry Norris Russell made a diagram that classifies stars.
The hertzsprung-russel diagram stars temperature size color of star
Scientists measure distance between stars using  parallax
Parallax  n.  apparent change in apposition of an object when you look at it from different places
Scientists watch the positions of stars during different times of the year to figure out it’s position.
LIVES OF STARS
Stars  do not  live forever.
The  larger  a star is, the  shorter  its life is.
Stars are born in  nebulas.
Nebula  n.  a large cloud of dust in space
Gravity pulls dust together so it forms a  protostar
Protostar  n.   an early stage in the evolution of a star, after the beginning of the collapse of the gas cloud from which...
As the protostar gets denser and denser, it forms a star
as the star becomes older, it becomes a  red   giant
red  giant =  star uses up its energy and becomes cooler, so it expands
Layers of the red giant fall off, releasing dust and gas into space.
It is called a  planetary nebula.
The remaining  star  is very   dense   and  bright .
It is a  white   dwarf .
When a white dwarf stops glowing, it is called a  black dwarf.
high-mass  stars are  different .
When they die, they make a supernova – a  giant  explosion.
After the supernova, the star becomes either a  neutron star  or a  black hole.
a neutron star :  a white dwarf that has very  high  pressure and temperature
A black hole is a neutron star with gravity so strong that nothing, even light, can escape.
CAREERS
Nucleosynthesis is been studied by  physicists  and  astronomers .
www.nasa.gov http://www.dictionary.net / big+bang   http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/star http://www.wolaver.org / S...
http://www.agdesktop.com/wallpapersspace
ebula
ebula-0006.jpg   http://www.abc.net.au/unleashed/images/OpenBook_Stock_400....
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Nucleosynthesis

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Nucleosynthesis in stars, basics of the universe, basics of the elements, stars' life cycle.

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  • Background: nebula picture Font: Arial, 30, white Text: nucleosynthesis
  • Nucleosynthesis

    1. 1. NUCLEOSYNTHESIS
    2. 2. WHERE DID ELEMENTS COME FROM?
    3. 3. Our universe started with a BIG BANG.
    4. 4. big bang n. ( cosmology ) the cosmic explosion that is hypothesized to have marked the origin of the universe.
    5. 5. After the BIG BANG , the universe started to e x p a n d .
    6. 6. The first seconds after the BIG BANG, it was very hot.
    7. 7. Then, the universe started to cool down.
    8. 8. Right after the BIG BANG, the p + , the n 0 and the e - were flying around without control.
    9. 9. When it started to cool down, the quarks started making primitive elements:
    10. 10. 1 H 1 Hydrogen, 1 proton
    11. 11. 1 H 2 Hydrogen, 1 proton, 1 neutron
    12. 12. 2 H 3 Helium, 2 protons, 1 neuron
    13. 13. 2 H 4 Helium, 2 protons, 2 neurons
    14. 14. Those elements started forming stars.
    15. 15. Star n. a self-luminous gaseous spherical celestial body of great mass which produces energy by means of nuclear fusion reactions .
    16. 16. In the stars, because of high pressure, the elements started bonding and forming heavier elements
    17. 17. HOW WILL WE END?
    18. 18. WE all star We all started with the BIG BANG…
    19. 19. … but how will we end?
    20. 20. Some scientists are sure that the universe will continue to expand forever.
    21. 21. However, there is a theory that our universe will end in “big crunch”
    22. 22. It states that someday the universe will stop expanding and crunch together.
    23. 23. There is no proof for that theory.
    24. 24. Classifying Stars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
    25. 25. TO RECOGNISE STARS, SCIENTISTS HAVE TO CLASSIFY THEM
    26. 26. STARS ARE CLASSIFIED BY
    27. 27. T E M P E R A T U R E
    28. 28. C O L O R
    29. 29. size size size size
    30. 30. brightness
    31. 31. If the star is blue , it means it is very hot . ( ≈50,000 C°)
    32. 32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cold stars are red . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
    33. 33. The bigger or hotter the star is, the brighter it is.
    34. 34. Brightness is measured in 2 ways:
    35. 35. apparent brightness (brightness seen from earth)
    36. 36. absolute brightness (the “real” brightness of the star)
    37. 37. Stars are mostly made out of hydrogen.
    38. 38. Helium is about ¼ of the stars’ composition.
    39. 39. Enjar Hertzsprung and Henry Norris Russell made a diagram that classifies stars.
    40. 40. The hertzsprung-russel diagram stars temperature size color of star
    41. 41. Scientists measure distance between stars using parallax
    42. 42. Parallax n. apparent change in apposition of an object when you look at it from different places
    43. 43. Scientists watch the positions of stars during different times of the year to figure out it’s position.
    44. 44. LIVES OF STARS
    45. 45. Stars do not live forever.
    46. 46. The larger a star is, the shorter its life is.
    47. 47. Stars are born in nebulas.
    48. 48. Nebula n. a large cloud of dust in space
    49. 49. Gravity pulls dust together so it forms a protostar
    50. 50. Protostar n. an early stage in the evolution of a star, after the beginning of the collapse of the gas cloud from which it is formed, but before sufficient contraction has occurred to permit initiation of nuclear reactions at its core.
    51. 51. As the protostar gets denser and denser, it forms a star
    52. 52. as the star becomes older, it becomes a red giant
    53. 53. red giant = star uses up its energy and becomes cooler, so it expands
    54. 54. Layers of the red giant fall off, releasing dust and gas into space.
    55. 55. It is called a planetary nebula.
    56. 56. The remaining star is very dense and bright .
    57. 57. It is a white dwarf .
    58. 58. When a white dwarf stops glowing, it is called a black dwarf.
    59. 59. high-mass stars are different .
    60. 60. When they die, they make a supernova – a giant explosion.
    61. 61. After the supernova, the star becomes either a neutron star or a black hole.
    62. 62. a neutron star : a white dwarf that has very high pressure and temperature
    63. 63. A black hole is a neutron star with gravity so strong that nothing, even light, can escape.
    64. 64. CAREERS
    65. 65. Nucleosynthesis is been studied by physicists and astronomers .
    66. 66. www.nasa.gov http://www.dictionary.net / big+bang http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/star http://www.wolaver.org / Space/abell39nebula.jpg https://segue.atlas.uiuc.edu / uploads/ryemm2/heic0409a.jpg http://www.janis.or.jp / users / kitahara / sww / rigel-z.jpg http://www.dorlingkindersley-uk.co.uk/static/clipart/uk/dk/sci_space/image_sci_space013.jpg http://www.mauthelimited.com / Assignments / Dreamweaver / Science_Class / Images / stars / whitedwarf_star.jpg http://cse.ssl.berkeley.edu / bmendez/ay10/2000/cycle / redgiant.gif
    67. 67. http://www.agdesktop.com/wallpapersspace ebula ebula-0006.jpg http://www.abc.net.au/unleashed/images/OpenBook_Stock_400.jpg http://techlibrarian.files.wordpress.com/2009/06/horsehead-nebula2.jpg
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