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Law modprimcivlaw
Law modprimcivlaw
Law modprimcivlaw
Law modprimcivlaw
Law modprimcivlaw
Law modprimcivlaw
Law modprimcivlaw
Law modprimcivlaw
Law modprimcivlaw
Law modprimcivlaw
Law modprimcivlaw
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Law modprimcivlaw

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  1.  
  2. <ul><li>EXPLORATION (late 1400s to mid 1600s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Americas, Africa, Asia, Oceania. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COLONIALISM: The control of one society, through the monopoly on violence, over the territory and human and natural resources of another society for economic advantage. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MERCANTILISM (1600s to mid 1800s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>States keep and protect their national wealth through trade and force. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonies exist for the benefit of the controlling nation state. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IMPERIALISM (late 1700s to mid 1900s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EMPIRE: A supreme sovereign political authority that has control of extensive territories bordering or beyond its geographical boundaries. </li></ul></ul>THREE ERAS OF EUROPEAN EXPANSION
  3. STRUCTURAL PROCESSES OF “WESTERN” IMPERIALISM <ul><li>LEGALLY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementing the “rule of law” with the “Western” legal system. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>POLITICALLY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transforming and controlling governmental institutions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ECONOMICALLY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlling natural resources, markets, business, and labor. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MILITARILY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporting imperial power through the use or show of legitimized force. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CULTURALLY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Imposing “Western” gender relations, domestic life, religions, customs, manners, values, norms, mores, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PHYSICALLY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disciplining the body to conform to “Western” hegemonic standards. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PSYCHOLOGICALLY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transforming the consciousness of the imperial subject, generally as an inferior or lesser shadow of the rulers. </li></ul></ul>
  4. MAP OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE, 1886
  5. MANIFEST DESTINY: A RATIONALIZATION FOR AMERICAN IMPERIALISM ROOTED IN THE HISTORICAL BELIEF THAT THE UNITED STATES WAS DESTINED, EVEN DIVINELY ORDAINED, TO EXPAND WESTWARD ACROSS THE CONTINENT FROM THE ATLANTIC TO THE PACIFIC OCEANS.
  6. MAP OF AMERICAN EMPIRE, LATTER HALF OF THE 19 th CENTURY
  7. “ THE WHITE MAN’S BURDERN” <ul><li>Rudyard Kipling’s poem was first published in McClure’s Magazine in 1899 with the subtitle “The United States and the Philippine Islands.” </li></ul><ul><li>Take up the White Man's burden-- Send forth the best ye breed-- Go bind your sons to exile To serve your captives' need; To wait in heavy harness, On fluttered folk and wild-- Your new-caught, sullen peoples, Half-devil and half-child. </li></ul><ul><li>The “duty” to civilize “primitive” peoples came to define “Western” manhood, thus imperial processes were raced and gendered. (Merry, 7). </li></ul>
  8. <ul><li>The European Enlightenment table of modern “being.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Western” bourgeois men were civilized, behaved appropriately and with dignity, and qualified for the social contract. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All others were uncivilized to different degrees including primitive, not fully human, and not qualified for the social contract. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Their primitive status was validated by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social evolution (social Darwinism) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientific racism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regardless of how civilized “primitives” became through imperial projects, or by transforming their society to comply with “Western” models to remain independent, people of color could not overcome the inscription of their bodies as “different.” </li></ul><ul><li>In modernity, “Western” powers depended on relations of imperialism with their opposition of “primitive” and “civilized” to define their selves in contrast to the “Other.” </li></ul>
  9. THE IMPERIAL CIVILIZING PROJECT <ul><li>Paternalistic and patriarchal. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>White men were the standard bearers and overseers of modernity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the private, domestic sphere, women were the keepers of “tradition.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonized men were “feminized” in the pejorative sense. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Institute capitalism and “Western” models of governance and law. </li></ul><ul><li>Transform gender relations and sexuality to comply with the “Western” nuclear family, monogamous marriage, and Victorian standards of sexual behavior. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enforce through the law. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Punish adultery, fornication, and any behaviors legally defined as “lewd and lascivious.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Model the home on the “Western” private, domestic sphere. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Train women in childcare, hygiene, and domestic duties. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Establish “Western” education for children enforced by truancy laws. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Through missionaries, convert “heathens” to Christians. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Instill modern “Western” models of “shame” and “guilt.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transform the “primitive” body through discipline and “Western” clothing, especially women who wore indigenous garments suitable for tropical climates. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coerce men to participate in wage labor. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. <ul><li>“ Modern (‘Western’) law defines the civilized society.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The law developed during and was shaped by mercantilism and imperialism. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The law is a “creature of colonialism.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Law sits at the interstices of culture and capitalism: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The law is a system of meanings that—in turn--plays an important role in defining meanings, persons, and relationships. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The law has the capacity to both create and reflect popular consciousness. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The law is a social institution supported by the political power and monopolization of violence of the capitalist nation state. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Surveillance, judgment, and punishment generate compliance. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>As a symbol of progress, modern law was the ideological foundation for “Western” imperial projects. </li></ul><ul><li>Through serving the requirements of commerce and capitalism by procuring free labor and privatized land, the law was the arbiter of change, and the central institution of colonial power. </li></ul><ul><li>The capacity of the law to change entire sociocultural systems is two fold and enabled by its position at the interstices of culture and capitalism: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It has the power to directly impose sanctions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It creates cultural meanings within a domain of authority. </li></ul></ul>SALLY ENGLE MERRY ON THE LAW
  11. SAYER OF THE LAW

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