Lighting
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PIID-SAB Auxillary Lesson Plan

PIID-SAB Auxillary Lesson Plan

St. Scholastica's College Manila

Interior Design

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Lighting Lighting Presentation Transcript

  • Light and Lighting
  • Introduction
    Good lighting can make or break a home in the same way that furnishings and interior decoration set a style, yet too often lighting is treated as an afterthought.
    Designing light require the architect to start with the space to light and most importantly will look at what space is FOR.
    Designers must treat space as a dynamic entity because homes are not static showpieces, people live in them and lighting design must account the different activities in each spaces.
    Every human activity needs different lighting state that gives the right levels of light for visual task on appropriate mood.
    Finally, the quality of lighting design must evoke the emotional feeling of the space.
  • Light
    Energy producing brightness: the energy producing a sensation of brightness that makes seeing possible
    Is visually perceived radiant energy on the electromagnetic spectrum in the range visible to the human eye.
  • Visible light comprises only a very small part of the energy spectrum yet makes it possible for people to see.
    Light and color affects human sight.
    Color is determined by wave length
    (370 nanometers to 800 nanometers)1 nanometer = 1billionth of a meter
    Longest wavelength has lowest frequency and shortest wavelength has highest frequency
    Fundamental Laws of Light
  • Electromagnetic Spectrum
  • Sources of Light
    Incandescence
    In an incandescent light source, hot atoms collide with one another. These collisions transfer energy to some electrons, boosting them into higher energy levels. As the electrons release this energy, they emit photons. Some collisions are weak and some are strong, so the electrons are excited to different energy levels and photons of different energies are emitted.
    Candle light is incandescent and results from the excited atoms of soot in the hot flame. Light from an incandescent light bulb comes from excited atoms in a thin wire called a filament that is heated by passing an electric current through it.
  • Sources of Light
    Luminescence
    A luminescent light source absorbs energy in some form other than heat, and is therefore usually cooler than an incandescent source. The color of a luminescent source is not related to its temperature. A fluorescent light is a type of luminescent source that makes use of chemical compounds called phosphors..
  • Sources of Light
    Laser
    A laser is a special kind of light source that produces very regular waves that permit the light to be very tightly focused. Laser is actually an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. Each radiating charge in a non laser light source produces a light wave that may be a little different from the waves produced by the other charges. Laser sources have atoms whose electrons radiate all in step, or synchronously. As a result, the electrons produce light that is polarized, monochromatic, and coherent, which means that its waves remain in step, with their peaks and troughs coinciding, over long distances.
  • Behavior of Light
    Light behavior can be divided into two categories: how light interacts with matter and how light travels, or propagates through space or through transparent materials. The propagation of light has much in common with the propagation of other kinds of waves, including sound waves and water waves.
  • is the bending of light when it passes from one kind of material into another. Because light travels at a different speed in different materials, it must change speeds at the boundary between two materials. If a beam of light hits this boundary at an angle, then light on the side of the beam that hits first will be forced to slow down or speed up before light on the other side hits the new material. This makes the beam bend, or refract, at the boundary.
    Refraction
  • Reflection
    Reflection also occurs when light hits the boundary between two materials. Some of the light hitting the boundary will be reflected into the first material. If light strikes the boundary at an angle, the light is reflected at the same angle. Light that is reflected from a flat boundary, such as the boundary between air and a smooth lake, will form a mirror image. Light reflected from a curved surface may be focused into a point, a line, or onto an area, depending on the curvature of the surface.
  • Types of Reflection
    Specular – Directed from a smooth polished surface
    Diffused – A scattered reflection of light from an irregular surface or an erratic dispersion through a translucent material.
  • Reflectance – The ratio of the radiation reflected by a surface to the total incident on the surface
    Absorptance – The ratio of the radiation absorbed by a surface to the total incident on the surface
    Transmittance – The ratio of the radiation transmitted through and emerging from a body to the total incident on it, equivalent to 1 minus the absorption
  • Materials in relation to Light
    Opaque – Impenetrable to light
    Translucent – Transmitting and diffusing light so that bodies on the opposite side are not clearly visible
    Transparent – Capable of transmitting light so that bodies situated beyond or behind can be distinctly seen.
  • Lighting
    The science, theory, or method of
    providing illumination through the use electric lamps
  • Lighting Fundamentals
    Candlepower – The Intensity of light from a source in a certain direction, and measured in candelas.
    Coefficient of Utilization – The ratio of illuminance to the lumens radiated from the light source.
    Efficacy – The ratio of the approximate initial lumens produced by a light source divided by the necessary power to produce them.
  • Lighting Fundamentals
    Footcandle – A unit of illuminance measurement; the number of lumens that are incident on each square foot of work surface. 1fc = 10.76 lux
    Illuminance – The light falling on a surface, measured in footcandles or lux.
    Lumen – A measure of total light producing output of a source; the quantity of visible light emitted.
  • Lighting Fundamentals
    Luminaire – An assembly used to house one or more light sources. Also called lighting fixture.
    Luminance – The emitted or reflected light from a surface in a particular direction, measured in candelas per square meter.
    Lux – A unit of measurement used to gauge the illuminance falling on a surface; the number of lumens incident on each square meter
  • Luminance and Illuminance
  • Categories of Luminaires
    Direct: 90 – 100% downward
    Semi direct: 60 – 90% downward
    General diffuse: 40 – 60% both downward and upward
    Direct – indirect: little light is emitted in the horizontal plane
    Semi – indirect: providing 60 – 90% of its output upward
    Indirect: providing 90-100% of its luminous output upward.
  • Classification of Luminaires
    Recessed
    Ceiling Mounted
    Track Mounted
    Wall mounted
    Suspended
    Architectural
    Portable
    Pole Mounted
    Bollard
    Outdoor
  • Lighting and Vision
    Factors that affect visual performance independent of lighting
    Contrast: refers to the luminance difference between the critical detail of a task and its immediate background
    Size: refers to the size of the visual task
    Time: refers to the time a visual task is presented.
  • Factors that affect visual performance dependent on lighting
    Task Luminance
    Reflectance of a surface
    Veiling Reflections: reflections that create a luminous veil over a visual task
    Glare: an annoying or painful sensation caused by the non-uniformityof lighting
    Lighting and Vision (cont.)
  • Veiling Reflection
    Glare
  • The following means can reduce discomfort glare
    Decrease the luminance of the offending source of light
    Reducing the area or size of the offending source
    Increasing the luminance of surfaces surrounding the offending source
  • Lighting and Psychology
    Research has resulted in some approaches to lighting a space that tend to reinforce some subjective impressions.
    Visual Clarity: reinforced by bright, uniform lighting combined with high brightness of the walls
    Spaciousness: reinforced by uniform wall lighting
    Relaxation: reinforced by non-uniform lighting and lower ceiling brightness
    Privacy/Intimacy: reinforced by non-uniform lighting (low levels around the occupants, higher levels further away)
    Pleasantness/preference: reinforced by non-uniform lighting with high wall brightness
  • Artificial Light Sources
    Incandescent Lamps
    Fluorescent Lamps
    High – Intensity Discharge Lamps
    Mercury Lamps
    Metal Halide Lamps
    High Pressure Sodium Lamps
    Low Pressure Sodium Lamps
    Electrodeless Lamps
    Compact arc xenon and Mercury Lamps
    Electroluminescent Lamps
    Light Emitting Diodes
    Carbon arc Lamps
    Gaslights
  • Lighting Calculations
    Illuminance
    Inverse Square Cosine Law
    E =(I cosx)/D2
    Where: I is the Luminous Intensity in Candelas
    D is the distance between the source and the point
    and the angle x between the normal or perpendicular to
    surface A and the direction along the distance D
    Luminance
    L = rE/
    Where: r is the reflectance, and E is the illuminance in lux
  • Types of Lighting
    General Lighting
  • Types of Lighting
    Accent Lighting
  • Types of Lighting
    Decorative Lighting
  • Types of Lighting
    Task Lighting
  • Types of Lighting
    Kinetic Lighting