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PIID-SAB Auxillary Lesson Plan

PIID-SAB Auxillary Lesson Plan

St. Scholastica's College Manila

Interior Design

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    Lighting Lighting Presentation Transcript

    • Light and Lighting
    • Introduction
      Good lighting can make or break a home in the same way that furnishings and interior decoration set a style, yet too often lighting is treated as an afterthought.
      Designing light require the architect to start with the space to light and most importantly will look at what space is FOR.
      Designers must treat space as a dynamic entity because homes are not static showpieces, people live in them and lighting design must account the different activities in each spaces.
      Every human activity needs different lighting state that gives the right levels of light for visual task on appropriate mood.
      Finally, the quality of lighting design must evoke the emotional feeling of the space.
    • Light
      Energy producing brightness: the energy producing a sensation of brightness that makes seeing possible
      Is visually perceived radiant energy on the electromagnetic spectrum in the range visible to the human eye.
    • Visible light comprises only a very small part of the energy spectrum yet makes it possible for people to see.
      Light and color affects human sight.
      Color is determined by wave length
      (370 nanometers to 800 nanometers)1 nanometer = 1billionth of a meter
      Longest wavelength has lowest frequency and shortest wavelength has highest frequency
      Fundamental Laws of Light
    • Electromagnetic Spectrum
    • Sources of Light
      Incandescence
      In an incandescent light source, hot atoms collide with one another. These collisions transfer energy to some electrons, boosting them into higher energy levels. As the electrons release this energy, they emit photons. Some collisions are weak and some are strong, so the electrons are excited to different energy levels and photons of different energies are emitted.
      Candle light is incandescent and results from the excited atoms of soot in the hot flame. Light from an incandescent light bulb comes from excited atoms in a thin wire called a filament that is heated by passing an electric current through it.
    • Sources of Light
      Luminescence
      A luminescent light source absorbs energy in some form other than heat, and is therefore usually cooler than an incandescent source. The color of a luminescent source is not related to its temperature. A fluorescent light is a type of luminescent source that makes use of chemical compounds called phosphors..
    • Sources of Light
      Laser
      A laser is a special kind of light source that produces very regular waves that permit the light to be very tightly focused. Laser is actually an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. Each radiating charge in a non laser light source produces a light wave that may be a little different from the waves produced by the other charges. Laser sources have atoms whose electrons radiate all in step, or synchronously. As a result, the electrons produce light that is polarized, monochromatic, and coherent, which means that its waves remain in step, with their peaks and troughs coinciding, over long distances.
    • Behavior of Light
      Light behavior can be divided into two categories: how light interacts with matter and how light travels, or propagates through space or through transparent materials. The propagation of light has much in common with the propagation of other kinds of waves, including sound waves and water waves.
    • is the bending of light when it passes from one kind of material into another. Because light travels at a different speed in different materials, it must change speeds at the boundary between two materials. If a beam of light hits this boundary at an angle, then light on the side of the beam that hits first will be forced to slow down or speed up before light on the other side hits the new material. This makes the beam bend, or refract, at the boundary.
      Refraction
    • Reflection
      Reflection also occurs when light hits the boundary between two materials. Some of the light hitting the boundary will be reflected into the first material. If light strikes the boundary at an angle, the light is reflected at the same angle. Light that is reflected from a flat boundary, such as the boundary between air and a smooth lake, will form a mirror image. Light reflected from a curved surface may be focused into a point, a line, or onto an area, depending on the curvature of the surface.
    • Types of Reflection
      Specular – Directed from a smooth polished surface
      Diffused – A scattered reflection of light from an irregular surface or an erratic dispersion through a translucent material.
    • Reflectance – The ratio of the radiation reflected by a surface to the total incident on the surface
      Absorptance – The ratio of the radiation absorbed by a surface to the total incident on the surface
      Transmittance – The ratio of the radiation transmitted through and emerging from a body to the total incident on it, equivalent to 1 minus the absorption
    • Materials in relation to Light
      Opaque – Impenetrable to light
      Translucent – Transmitting and diffusing light so that bodies on the opposite side are not clearly visible
      Transparent – Capable of transmitting light so that bodies situated beyond or behind can be distinctly seen.
    • Lighting
      The science, theory, or method of
      providing illumination through the use electric lamps
    • Lighting Fundamentals
      Candlepower – The Intensity of light from a source in a certain direction, and measured in candelas.
      Coefficient of Utilization – The ratio of illuminance to the lumens radiated from the light source.
      Efficacy – The ratio of the approximate initial lumens produced by a light source divided by the necessary power to produce them.
    • Lighting Fundamentals
      Footcandle – A unit of illuminance measurement; the number of lumens that are incident on each square foot of work surface. 1fc = 10.76 lux
      Illuminance – The light falling on a surface, measured in footcandles or lux.
      Lumen – A measure of total light producing output of a source; the quantity of visible light emitted.
    • Lighting Fundamentals
      Luminaire – An assembly used to house one or more light sources. Also called lighting fixture.
      Luminance – The emitted or reflected light from a surface in a particular direction, measured in candelas per square meter.
      Lux – A unit of measurement used to gauge the illuminance falling on a surface; the number of lumens incident on each square meter
    • Luminance and Illuminance
    • Categories of Luminaires
      Direct: 90 – 100% downward
      Semi direct: 60 – 90% downward
      General diffuse: 40 – 60% both downward and upward
      Direct – indirect: little light is emitted in the horizontal plane
      Semi – indirect: providing 60 – 90% of its output upward
      Indirect: providing 90-100% of its luminous output upward.
    • Classification of Luminaires
      Recessed
      Ceiling Mounted
      Track Mounted
      Wall mounted
      Suspended
      Architectural
      Portable
      Pole Mounted
      Bollard
      Outdoor
    • Lighting and Vision
      Factors that affect visual performance independent of lighting
      Contrast: refers to the luminance difference between the critical detail of a task and its immediate background
      Size: refers to the size of the visual task
      Time: refers to the time a visual task is presented.
    • Factors that affect visual performance dependent on lighting
      Task Luminance
      Reflectance of a surface
      Veiling Reflections: reflections that create a luminous veil over a visual task
      Glare: an annoying or painful sensation caused by the non-uniformityof lighting
      Lighting and Vision (cont.)
    • Veiling Reflection
      Glare
    • The following means can reduce discomfort glare
      Decrease the luminance of the offending source of light
      Reducing the area or size of the offending source
      Increasing the luminance of surfaces surrounding the offending source
    • Lighting and Psychology
      Research has resulted in some approaches to lighting a space that tend to reinforce some subjective impressions.
      Visual Clarity: reinforced by bright, uniform lighting combined with high brightness of the walls
      Spaciousness: reinforced by uniform wall lighting
      Relaxation: reinforced by non-uniform lighting and lower ceiling brightness
      Privacy/Intimacy: reinforced by non-uniform lighting (low levels around the occupants, higher levels further away)
      Pleasantness/preference: reinforced by non-uniform lighting with high wall brightness
    • Artificial Light Sources
      Incandescent Lamps
      Fluorescent Lamps
      High – Intensity Discharge Lamps
      Mercury Lamps
      Metal Halide Lamps
      High Pressure Sodium Lamps
      Low Pressure Sodium Lamps
      Electrodeless Lamps
      Compact arc xenon and Mercury Lamps
      Electroluminescent Lamps
      Light Emitting Diodes
      Carbon arc Lamps
      Gaslights
    • Lighting Calculations
      Illuminance
      Inverse Square Cosine Law
      E =(I cosx)/D2
      Where: I is the Luminous Intensity in Candelas
      D is the distance between the source and the point
      and the angle x between the normal or perpendicular to
      surface A and the direction along the distance D
      Luminance
      L = rE/
      Where: r is the reflectance, and E is the illuminance in lux
    • Types of Lighting
      General Lighting
    • Types of Lighting
      Accent Lighting
    • Types of Lighting
      Decorative Lighting
    • Types of Lighting
      Task Lighting
    • Types of Lighting
      Kinetic Lighting