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Coffee is part of our day, find out more about it

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  • 1. Coffee
  • 2. Two Types of Coffee About 90 Coffea spp in Africa
    • Arabica , C. arabica
    • Tetraploid, self fertile
    • Ethiopia highlands
      • >1600m
      • 15-24°C
      • 1300 mm
    • Best quality
    • Susceptible to rust
    • Robusta , C. canephora
    • Diploid, self incompatible
    • Rain forest of Congo basin
      • <750m
      • 24-30°C
      • 1550 mm
    • Less flavor, acidity
    • Resistant to rust
    Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University
  • 3. Two Types of Coffee About 90 Coffea spp in Africa
    • Arabica , C. arabica
    • Medium size tree
      • 14-20’ tall
    • Medium vigor
    • Leaves
      • Smaller
      • Thinner
    • Seedlings uniform
    • Robusta , C. canephora
    • Medium to large tree
      • Up to 32’ tall
    • Vigorous
    • Leaves
      • Larger
      • Thicker
    • Seedlings variable
    Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University
  • 4. Distribution of Cultivated Coffee Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University Amsterdam Paris canephora arabica Yemen 1710 1725 1690 1700 Java Martinique 1900
  • 5. Coffee Production and Yield Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University Africa Africa C. Amer C. Amer S. America S. America Asia Asia
  • 6. World Coffee Production
    • Brazil
      • 21.1%, arabica
      • Only country with frost possibility in coffee zone
    • Colombia
      • 13.9%, arabica
    • Indonesia
      • 7.3%, robusta
    • Other important producing countries
      • Vietnam, Mexico, Ethiopia, India, Guatemala, Ivory Coast, Uganda
    Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University 1996 data from Wilson, 1999. Coffee, Cocoa, and Tea. CABI Publishing.
  • 7. Major Consumers
    • High proportion imported by developed countries
      • USA 23%
      • EEC 39%
    Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University
  • 8. The Seed of the Fruit is the Economic Part A Drupe like a Peach
    • Both begin bearing in 3-4 years
    • Time to mature fruit
      • Arabica, 7-8 months
      • Robusta, 11-12 months
    • Productive for 20-30 years
    • Both need pruning for best production
    Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University
  • 9. The Coffee Fruit is called a Cherry
    • Exocarp
      • Red skin
    • Mesocarp
      • Sweet pulp
    • Endocarp, hull
      • Testa (silvery)
      • Bean (embryo and cotyledons)
    Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University
  • 10. The Coffee Fruit is called a Cherry
    • Exocarp
      • Red skin
    • Mesocarp
      • Sweet pulp
    • Endocarp, hull
      • Testa (silvery)
      • Bean (embryo and cotyledons)
      • Parchment coffee is the bean, testa, endocarp
    Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University From Wilson, 1999. Coffee, Cocoa, and Tea, CABI Publishing.
  • 11. Coffee Tree Growth Habit
    • Orthotropic stem
      • Erect growth
    • Plagiotropic stems
      • Horizontal secondary stems growing off of orthotropic stems
      • These are the fruiting wood
    Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University
  • 12. Coffee Production
    • Propagation
      • For arabica
        • Most is done by seed
      • Clonal propagation
        • Hybrids
        • Robusta types
    Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University
  • 13. Shade and Coffee Production Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University Data from Wilson, 1999. Coffee, Cocoa, and Tea, Figure 6.4. Conclusion: High input system - better with fertilizer Low input system - not as essential
  • 14. Harvest
    • Most done by hand
      • Ripe berries only
        • Pick every 8-10 days
      • In Brazil, allow cherries to dry on tree
    • Machine harvest in Brazil
      • Oscillating fingers
      • 7-9% immature fruit
    Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University From Wilson, 1999. Coffee, Cocoa, and Tea, CABI Publishing.

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