Coffee is part of our day, find out more about it

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Coffee is part of our day, find out more about it

  1. 1. Coffee
  2. 2. Two Types of Coffee About 90 Coffea spp in Africa <ul><li>Arabica , C. arabica </li></ul><ul><li>Tetraploid, self fertile </li></ul><ul><li>Ethiopia highlands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>>1600m </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15-24°C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1300 mm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Best quality </li></ul><ul><li>Susceptible to rust </li></ul><ul><li>Robusta , C. canephora </li></ul><ul><li>Diploid, self incompatible </li></ul><ul><li>Rain forest of Congo basin </li></ul><ul><ul><li><750m </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>24-30°C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1550 mm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Less flavor, acidity </li></ul><ul><li>Resistant to rust </li></ul>Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University
  3. 3. Two Types of Coffee About 90 Coffea spp in Africa <ul><li>Arabica , C. arabica </li></ul><ul><li>Medium size tree </li></ul><ul><ul><li>14-20’ tall </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Medium vigor </li></ul><ul><li>Leaves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinner </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Seedlings uniform </li></ul><ul><li>Robusta , C. canephora </li></ul><ul><li>Medium to large tree </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 32’ tall </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vigorous </li></ul><ul><li>Leaves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thicker </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Seedlings variable </li></ul>Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University
  4. 4. Distribution of Cultivated Coffee Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University Amsterdam Paris canephora arabica Yemen 1710 1725 1690 1700 Java Martinique 1900
  5. 5. Coffee Production and Yield Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University Africa Africa C. Amer C. Amer S. America S. America Asia Asia
  6. 6. World Coffee Production <ul><li>Brazil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>21.1%, arabica </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only country with frost possibility in coffee zone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Colombia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>13.9%, arabica </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indonesia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7.3%, robusta </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other important producing countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vietnam, Mexico, Ethiopia, India, Guatemala, Ivory Coast, Uganda </li></ul></ul>Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University 1996 data from Wilson, 1999. Coffee, Cocoa, and Tea. CABI Publishing.
  7. 7. Major Consumers <ul><li>High proportion imported by developed countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>USA 23% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EEC 39% </li></ul></ul>Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University
  8. 8. The Seed of the Fruit is the Economic Part A Drupe like a Peach <ul><li>Both begin bearing in 3-4 years </li></ul><ul><li>Time to mature fruit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arabica, 7-8 months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Robusta, 11-12 months </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Productive for 20-30 years </li></ul><ul><li>Both need pruning for best production </li></ul>Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University
  9. 9. The Coffee Fruit is called a Cherry <ul><li>Exocarp </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Red skin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mesocarp </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sweet pulp </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Endocarp, hull </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Testa (silvery) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bean (embryo and cotyledons) </li></ul></ul>Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University
  10. 10. The Coffee Fruit is called a Cherry <ul><li>Exocarp </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Red skin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mesocarp </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sweet pulp </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Endocarp, hull </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Testa (silvery) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bean (embryo and cotyledons) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parchment coffee is the bean, testa, endocarp </li></ul></ul>Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University From Wilson, 1999. Coffee, Cocoa, and Tea, CABI Publishing.
  11. 11. Coffee Tree Growth Habit <ul><li>Orthotropic stem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Erect growth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plagiotropic stems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal secondary stems growing off of orthotropic stems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These are the fruiting wood </li></ul></ul>Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University
  12. 12. Coffee Production <ul><li>Propagation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For arabica </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most is done by seed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clonal propagation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hybrids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Robusta types </li></ul></ul></ul>Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University
  13. 13. Shade and Coffee Production Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University Data from Wilson, 1999. Coffee, Cocoa, and Tea, Figure 6.4. Conclusion: High input system - better with fertilizer Low input system - not as essential
  14. 14. Harvest <ul><li>Most done by hand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ripe berries only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pick every 8-10 days </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Brazil, allow cherries to dry on tree </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Machine harvest in Brazil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oscillating fingers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7-9% immature fruit </li></ul></ul>Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University From Wilson, 1999. Coffee, Cocoa, and Tea, CABI Publishing.

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