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H. H. Kelley, “Attribution in Social Interaction,” in E. Jones et al. (eds.), Attribution: Perceiving the Causes of Behavior (Morristown, NJ: General Learning Press, 1972).
See K. R. Murphy and R. L. Anhalt, “Is Halo a Property of the Rater, the Ratees, or the Specific Behaviors Observed?” Journal of Applied Psychology, June 1992, pp. 494–500; K. R. Murphy, R. A. Jako, and R. L. Anhalt, “Nature and Consequences of Halo Error: A Critical Analysis,” Journal of Applied Psychology, April 1993, pp. 218–25; A. L. Solomonson and C. E. Lance, “Examination of the Relationship Between True Halo and Halo Error in Performance Ratings,” Journal of Applied Psychology, October 1997, pp. 665–674; and C. E. Naquin and R. O. Tynan, “The Team Halo Effect: Why Teams are not Blamed for their Failures,” Journal of Applied Psychology, April 2003, pp. 332–340.
See H. A. Simon, “Rationality in Psychology and Economics,” Journal of Business, October 1986, pp. 209–24; and E. Shafir and R. A. LeBoeuf, “Rationality,” in S. T. Fiske, D. L. Schacter, and C. Zahn-Waxler, eds., Annual Review of Psychology, vol. 53 (Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews, 2002), pp. 491–517.
For a review of the rational model, see E. F. Harrison, The Managerial Decision-Making Process, 5th ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1999), pp. 75–102.
T. M. Amabile, “A Model of Creativity and Innovation in Organizations,” in B. M. Staw and L. L. Cummings (eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior, vol. 10 (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1988), p. 126; and T. M. Amabile, “Motivating Creativity in Organizations,” California Management Review, Fall 1997, p. 40; and J. E. Perry-Smith and C. E. Shalley, “The Social Side of Creativity: A Static and Dynamic Social Network Perspective” Academy of Management Review, January 2003, pp. 89–106.
See, for instance, A. Tversky and D. Kahneman, “Judgment Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases,” Science, September 1974, pp. 1124–31.
See R. S. Nickerson, “Confirmation Bias: A Ubiquitous Phenomenon in Many Guises,” Review of General Psychology, June 1998, pp. 175–220; and E. Jonas, S. Schultz-Hardt, D. Frey, and N. Thelen, “Confirmation Bias in Sequential Information Search After Preliminary Decisions,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, April 2001, pp. 557–71.
R. L. Guilbault, F. B. Bryant, J. H. Brockway, and E. J. Posavac, “A Meta-Analysis of Research on Hindsight Bias,” Basic and Applied Social Psychology, September 2004, pp. 103–17; and L. Werth, F. Strack, and J. Foerster, “Certainty and Uncertainty: The Two Faces of the Hindsight Bias,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, March 2002, pp. 323–41.
Approaches to Managing Organizational Change Lourdes Mu ñoz 9029835433
Learning Organization Lourdes Mu ñoz 9029835433
What Is Stress? Stress is a dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, demand, or resource related to what the individual desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important.”4” Lourdes Mu ñoz 9029835433
See, for instance, K. H. Hammonds, “Practical Radicals,” Fast Company, September 2000, pp. 162–74; and P. C. Judge, “Change Agents,” Fast Company, November 2000, pp. 216–26.
K. Lewin, Field Theory in Social Science (New York: Harper & Row, 1951).
D. H. Kim, “The Link Between Individual and Organizational Learning,” Sloan Management Review, Fall 1993, p. 37
Adapted from R. S. Schuler, “Definition and Conceptualization of Stress in Organizations,” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, April 1980, p. 189. For an updated review of definitions, see C. L. Cooper, P. J. Dewe, and M. P. O’Driscoll, Organizational Stress: A Review and Critique of Theory, Research, and Applications (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2002).
E. Demerouti, A. B. Bakker, F. Nachreiner, and W. B. Schaufeli, “The Job Demands-Resources Model of Burnout,” Journal of Applied Psychology, June 2001, pp. 499–512; N. W. Van Yperen and O. Janssen, “Fatigued and Dissatisfied or Fatigued but Satisfied? Goal Orientations and Responses to High Job Demands,” Academy of Management Journal, December 2002, pp. 1161–71; and N. W. Van Yperen and M. Hagedoorn, “Do High Job Demands Increase Intrinsic Motivation or Fatigue or Both? The Role of Job Control and Job Social Support,” Academy of Management Journal, June 2003, pp. 339–48.