DEVELOPING SUPPLEMENTARY READING MATERIALS FOR
EXTENSIVE READING ACTIVITY FOR THE EIGHTH GRADERS
OF SMPN 1 MALANG

THESIS
...
DEVELOPING SUPPLEMENTARY READING MATERIALS FOR
EXTENSIVE READING ACTIVITY FOR THE EIGHTH GRADERS
OF SMPN 1 MALANG

THESIS
...
This is to certifu that the Sarjana's thesis of Lukman Hidayat has been approved
by the thesis advisor for further approva...
This is to certifu that the Sarjana's thesis of Lulman Hidayat has been approved
by the Board of Examiners as the requirem...
STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY
The undersigned,
Name

: Lukman Hidayat

Registration number : 109221422454
Study Program

: Engl...
ABSTRACT
Hidayat, Lukman. 2013. Developing Supplementary Reading Materials for
Extensive Reading Activity for the Eighth G...
Thus, the supplementary reading materials of this study are hugely
expected to carry a positive bearing on the teaching an...
ABSTRAK
Hidayat, Lukman. 2013. Developing Supplementary Reading Materials for
Extensive Reading Activity for the Eighth Gr...
Oleh karena itu, bahan bacaan tambahan hasil dari penelitian ini
diharapakan mampu memberikan pengaruh positif terhadap pe...
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The first and always, I would like to lavish my gratitude upon The
Almighty God, Allah SWT for the majesti...
ix

Lastly, I dedicate my acknowledgement to my friends Afrillia, Coy, Dyah,
Mega, Annysa, Asizah, Bila, Mbak Ika, Fajar, ...
TABLE OF CONTENTS

APPROVAL SHEET ...........................................................................................
xi

2.2.4 The Data Analysis .........................................................................................22
CH...
LIST OF TABLES
Page
1. Table 3.1 Mapping of the Supplementary Materials……………………29

xii
LIST OF FIGURES
Page
1. Figure 2.1: Stages in Research and Development……………………...15
2. Figure 2.2: Stages in Materials Dev...
LIST OF APPENDICES
Page
1. Recommendation Letter ............................................................................
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
This study deals with creating supplementary materials for extensive
reading activity for the eight...
2

(bottom up skills) and background knowledge combined with social experiences
(top down skills). Additionally, reading c...
3

simultaneously extracting and constructing meaning through interaction and
involvement with written language. Reading c...
4

Some students may decipher every single word in a linear fashion and
quite often spend more time looking in a dictionar...
5

Moreover, the students do not use particular coursebook to accommodate
their needs in reading. The availability of inte...
6

the supplementary materials for extensive reading are great in need for the
students particularly for the eighth grader...
7

(Bamford and Day, 1998 in ER Foundation). They are also practicing the skill of
reading by reading for information – re...
8

extensive reading activities in EFL classroom, it can also increase students’
reading habit in which logically can also...
9

understanding relations within the sentence, understanding relations between the
texts, understanding grammar, interpre...
10

the content deals with selecting materials that are appropriately and relevantly
designed for students’ needs and inte...
11

for the students of the eighth grades; (3) It promotes edutainment, meaning the
students read to learn something and b...
12

For the future researcher, this study can be used for reference to undertake
similar studies on material development, ...
13

efficiently written functional and simple short essay text in narrative, recount and
exposition text related to the su...
CHAPTER II
THE RESEARCH METHOD
This chapter describes the method of the study. The method includes the
research design, th...
15

or chosen sources by adding, deleting, replacing some words from the materials.
The following stage to undertake is co...
16

2.1.1 Conducting Needs Assessment
Needs assessment is prevalently defined as the process of identifying and
evaluating...
17

students’ preferences and interest about the materials which will be developed;
and (4) to investigate the students’ f...
18

exploitation and research (Tomlinson, 2012). In this study, the materials are
particularly developed and designed for ...
19

researcher then determined the reading skill employed in the product. In doing
this step the researcher looked at the ...
20

2.1.3 Experts and Teachers Validation
The following consequential stage to establish after developing materials
is val...
21

more interesting by putting some pictures and illustrations. Then the researcher
replaced some words which students th...
22

Grade, but then the researcher solely picked one class. The class that has already
been picked was based on the recomm...
23

of students’ response, the questionnaire was then presented in a description. In
order to support the description, the...
CHAPTER III
FINDINGS & DISCUSSION
This chapter discussed the result of the materials development and the
discussion of it....
25

appropriate reading materials that are able to help the students in learning English,
and various topics of the text t...
26

Last but not least, the researcher included 7 topics of text types such as
famous people, the uniqueness of an animal,...
27

approximately 600 words and with various vocabulary items that considered
difficult for eighth graders but surprisingl...
28

As the result of need assessment, importantly the language used should be
easily understood by the students. The texts...
29

texts with unique information and raises the students’ sense of curiosity indeed.
Popularity features the description ...
30

varied in terms of the types, including True/False, Matching, Crossword Puzzle,
Hidden Words, and WH-Questions. This p...
31

evaluation to the product based on several criteria. The results of the validation,
moreover, were explicated as follo...
32

because it is clear and readable. Besides, the answer key matches with the reading
exercises.
The third criterion to b...
33

The first, for the content of the product, the teacher stated that generally it
had adequately met the needs of the st...
34

Firstly, the expert suggested to reduce the length of the text and to
harmonise the length of the text in each chapter...
35

To obtain data from the try-out, the instrument used was questionnaire
which generally covers the following aspects: 1...
36

The third worth-elaborating aspect is about variation of text-types and
exercises. The result showed that criterion of...
37

Next, some of the students were still faced difficulty in understanding some
dictions or vocabulary items. Therefore, ...
38

From the text above, it is expected to be able to motivate them to read.
Additionally, the texts about “Do Fish Sleep?...
39

questions which represent educating activity and at the same time they are also
doing game as entertainment activity. ...
40

product brings pleasure and is able to broaden their knowledge. The sample unit
was taken from activity 4 in chapter W...
41

since the students are expected to read more. However, this condition is because
of time limitation and production cos...
CHAPTER IV
CONCLUSION & SUGGESTION
This last chapter features the conclusion and several suggestions for other
educational...
43

most of the texts included are able to expand students’ knowledge as well as the
activities provided are not quite bur...
44

the teacher is highly recommended to add some texts. With advancement of the
technology nowadays, some students tend t...
REFERENCES
Alderson, J.C. 2000. Assessing Reading. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bamford, J and Day, R.R. 1998. E...
46

McKillip, J. 1998. Need Analysis. In Bickman, L and Rog, D.J. (Eds). Handbook
of Applied Social Research Methods. Cali...
47

Appendix 1 Reccomendation Letter
48

Appendix 2: Questionnaire for Needs Assessment
KUESIONER/ANGKET PENELITIAN UNTUK SISWA

Petunjuk Pengisian Kuesioner:
...
49

5. Apakah yang kalian lakukan untuk mengatasi kesulitan dalam memahami teks Bahasa
Inggris? (pilihan bisa lebih dari s...
50

Long ago, there lived a little boy named Sammy. He was obedient to his
parents, more intelligent than many other boys ...
51

Appendix 3: Interview Guidelines for the English Teacher
INTERVIEW GUIDELINES FOR THE ENGLISH TEACHER
1. Menurut Ibu, ...
52

from the class, Timmy opened Sammy's bag and took out his pen. Then he hid it
inside his bag.
When Sammy came back and...
53

Appendix 4: Expert Validation Checklist
Expert Validation Checklist

1.

Cover Design

2.

Typing and Font

3.

Spacin...
54

Question

10. Grammar review

11. Activities

12. Directions
13. Answer key

14. Coverage of

given context.
b. The qu...
55

materials

15.

Content of
materials

16.

Amount of
materials

relevant to the needs of students.
b. The coverage of ...
56

Appendix 5: Teacher Validation Checklist
Teacher Validation Checklist

1.

Cover Design

2.

Typing and Font

3.

Spac...
57

Question

10. Grammar review

11. Activities

12. Directions
13. Answer key

14. Coverage of

given context.
b. The qu...
58

materials

15.

Content of
materials

16.

Amount of
materials

relevant to the needs of students.
b. The coverage of ...
Developing Supplementary Reading Mterials
Developing Supplementary Reading Mterials
Developing Supplementary Reading Mterials
Developing Supplementary Reading Mterials
Developing Supplementary Reading Mterials
Developing Supplementary Reading Mterials
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  1. 1. DEVELOPING SUPPLEMENTARY READING MATERIALS FOR EXTENSIVE READING ACTIVITY FOR THE EIGHTH GRADERS OF SMPN 1 MALANG THESIS BY LUKMAN HIDAYAT NIM 109221422454 STATE UNIVERSITY OF MALANG FACULTY OF LETTERS ENGLISH DEPARTMENT APRIL 2013
  2. 2. DEVELOPING SUPPLEMENTARY READING MATERIALS FOR EXTENSIVE READING ACTIVITY FOR THE EIGHTH GRADERS OF SMPN 1 MALANG THESIS Presented to State University of Malang in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Sarjana in English Language Teaching by Lukman Hidayat NIM 109221422454 STATE UNIVERSITY OF MALANG FACULTY OF LETTERS ENGLISH DEPARTMENT APRIL 2013
  3. 3. This is to certifu that the Sarjana's thesis of Lukman Hidayat has been approved by the thesis advisor for further approval by the Board of Examiners. Malang, April 5,2013 Advisor Dr. Arwijati Murdibjono, M.Pd., Dip. TESL NIP. 19501104197603 2 007
  4. 4. This is to certifu that the Sarjana's thesis of Lulman Hidayat has been approved by the Board of Examiners as the requirement for the degree of Sarjana in English Language Teaching. Malang, May 66,2013 The Board of Examiners: M.A. Dr. Gunadi 198601 I , Chair 001 rH, Evynurul Lwly Zen, S.S., M.A. NrP 19840s14 201012 2 002 , Member M.Pd, Dip. TESL Dr. NrP 195011A4197603 2 001 , Acknowledged by Head, English Department Member 6X 9ff/, fi-ro.-"- 'ta7 l..'a Dr. Johannerfiluro*o, M.Pd, M.Ed. NIP 19581028 198601 1 001 NrP 19590610 198s03 11 1 005
  5. 5. STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY The undersigned, Name : Lukman Hidayat Registration number : 109221422454 Study Program : English Language Teaching Faculty : Faculty of Letters declares that present Sarjana’s thesis describes an original research undertaken by the researcher for the English Department, Faculty of Letters, State University of Malang. Any theories, findings, research techniques which are not my own have been properly acknowledged therein. Theoretical contribution and findings in this thesis are my own original word and have not been submitted for any degrees in this or other universities. If later it can be revealed that my Sarjana’s thesis contains partly or entirely plagiarised pieces of other’s intellectual work or any kind. I shall be ready to accept any sanction established by the university on this matter. Malang, April 5th 2013 As signed hereby, Lukman Hidayat iii
  6. 6. ABSTRACT Hidayat, Lukman. 2013. Developing Supplementary Reading Materials for Extensive Reading Activity for the Eighth Graders of SMPN 1 Malang. Thesis, English Department, Faculty of Letter, State University of Malang. Advisor: Dr Arwijati Murdibjono M. Pd, Dip. TESL Key words: Supplementary Reading Material, Extensive Reading, VIII Grade The objective of this particular research and development is to produce supplementary materials for extensive reading activity designed for the eighth graders of SMP Negeri 1 Malang. Based on the preliminary study conducted by the researcher, it was discovered that students lacked intention of reading. It was because the text-provided in coursebook used cannot interestingly equip students’ needs. Additionally, the teacher also finds difficulties in providing the students with attractive reading materials that makes the students become more motivate to read. Hence, the product of this particular study is expected to be a better solution for the problems aforementioned by equipping various kinds of reading materials which suit the students needs so that they can enjoyably and independently learn the target language. To achieve the goal of this study, the researcher adapted the model of R&D proposed by Hyland (2003). The model has been immaculately modified as follows: (1) needs assessment; (2) developing the materials; (3) expert validation; (4) 1st revision; (5) try out; (6) 2nd revision; and (7) the final product. Needs assessment is intended to investigate the initial conditions in the targeted field to be used as the bedrock of the product development. Reading materials are then developed based on the obtained data in the need analysis phase. Expert validation is appertaining to evaluating the product meticulously by judging and giving feedback about it. The expert validation results are then used as the consideration for the product before the try out is piloted. The upshot of this study is in the form of printed supplementary reading materials consisting of three chapters: World of Fantasy, World of Curiosity, and World of Popularity. To understand the text and with respect to attractiveness, lots of pictures and illustrations are relevantly included. Reading practices such as True/False, W-H Questions, Completion, Crossword Puzzle, and Hidden Words are laid therein. Glossary and Key answers are also provided in order to assist the students in doing reading independently. The product of this study has been validated by an expert and the English teacher also revised on the root of the feedback and comments given. After the revision is undergone, the product is tried out to ten students of VIII-C at SMP Negeri 1 Malang. The results of the try-out described that the students are mostly interested in and enjoy reading the materials because the gained lots of new and precious information from the variety of topics offered in the materials. They stated that the materials can help them to develop their reading skills in fun way. In addition, the product is then revised based on the constructive suggestions mentioned by the students during the try out phase. iv
  7. 7. Thus, the supplementary reading materials of this study are hugely expected to carry a positive bearing on the teaching and learning of reading. Moreover, they are valuable to encourage the students for independent learning. Nevertheless, due to the limitations of the study it is expected that more groundbreaking studies are undertaken in order to achieve perfection. v
  8. 8. ABSTRAK Hidayat, Lukman. 2013. Developing Supplementary Reading Materials for Extensive Reading Activity for the Eighth Graders of SMP 1 Malang. Skripsi, Jurusan Sastra Inggris, Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Negeri Malang. Pembimbing: Dr Arwijati Murdibjono M. Pd, Dip. TESL Kata kunci: Materi Tambahan Membaca, Extensive Reading, Kelas 8 Tujuan utama dari Penelitian dan Pengembangan ini adalah untuk menghasilkan suplemen materi untuk membaca secara mandiri yang didesain bagi peserta didik kelas 8 SMP Negeri 1 Malang. Berdasarkan studi awal yang dilakukan oleh peneliti, ditemukan bahwasanya peserta didik memiliki keinginan membaca yang kurang. Ini dikarenakan teks-teks yang disajikan dalam buku paket belum mampu memenuhi kebutuhan peserta didik. Selain itu, tenaga pengajar juga menemukan kesulitan dalam menyediakan bahan ajar membaca yang mampu memotivasi peserta didik untuk lebih giat membaca. Oleh karenanya, produk dari penelitian ini diharapkan mampu memberikan solusi yang lebih baik dengan menyediakan variasi bahan membaca yang telah disesuaikan dengan tingkat kemampuan membaca peserta didik. Untuk mencapai tujuan penelitian tersebut, peneliti mengadaptasi model penelitian dan pengembangan milik Hyland (2003). Model tersebut telah dimodifikasi sedemikian rupa: (1) Peninjauan kebutuhan; (2) Pengembangan materi; (3) validasi ahli; (4) revisi 1; (5) Uji coba; (6) revisi 2; dan (7) produk akhir. Peninjauan kebutuhan dilakukan untuk mengetahui kondisi lapangan yang nantinya dijadiakan sebagai dasar penembangan produk. Pengembangan Materi dikembangkan berdasarkan hasil temuan di lapangan. Validasi ahli ditujukan untuk mengevaluasi produk secara detail dengan memberikan komentar dan mengisi checklist. Hasil dari validasi ahli tersebut kemudian dijadikan bahan pertimbangan sebelum nantinya berlanjut ke proses uji coba. Hasil dari studi ini berbentuk tambahan bahan ajar membaca yang terdiri dari tiga bab: World of Fantasy, World of Curiosity, and World of Popularity. Untuk memahami teks dan juga mengedepankan nilai kemenarikan, banyak gambar dan ilustrasi disajikan secara relevan. Latihan membaca semacam True/False, W-H Questions, Completion, Crossword Puzzle, dan Hidden Words juga turut disertakan. Tak lupa Glosari dan Kunci jawaban juga tersertakan agar peserta didik dengan mudah memahami teks secara mandiri. Produk dari penelitian ini telah divalidasi oleh ahli dan guru Bahasa Inggris serta telah direvisi yang mengacu dari komentar dan penilaian yang diberikan. Setelah revisi terlampaui, produk tersebut diujicobakan kepada sepuluh siswa kelas 8-C SMP Negeri 1 Malang. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa banyak dari peserta didik yang tertarik serta menikmati akitivitas membacanya karena mereka memperoleh banyak informasi menarik serta berharga dari keberagaman topik yang disajikan. Lebih lanjut, mereka menyatakan bahwa bahan membaca tersebut mampu mengembangkan kemampuan membaca dengan cara yang menyenangkan. Sebagai tambahan, produk ini direvisi berdasarkan saran yang direkomendasikan oleh peserta didik selama fase uji coba. vi
  9. 9. Oleh karena itu, bahan bacaan tambahan hasil dari penelitian ini diharapakan mampu memberikan pengaruh positif terhadap pengajaran dan pembelajaran membaca. Selain itu, produk tersebut berharga untuk mendorong minat baca peserta didik juga belaja secara mandiri. Namun, dikarenakan batasanbatasan yang terjadi saat pelaksanaan penelitian, diharapkan lagi adanya penelitian lebih lanjut untuk mencapai kesempurnaan produk. vii
  10. 10. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The first and always, I would like to lavish my gratitude upon The Almighty God, Allah SWT for the majestic grace and blessing that has immensely enlightened me in finishing this thesis. Specifically, my thanks sincerely go to my Advisor, Dr. Arwijati Murdibjono, M.Pd, Dip. TESL who has given her unflagging advices and invaluable support also in particular for discussions at each step of the way concerning the approach to the research and what it all means. A word of thanks I also devoted to my expert judgement Dr. Arwijati Murdibjono, M.Pd, Dip. TESL who has validated the product that I developed. My enormous indebtedness goes to the Board Examiners, Dr. Gunadi H. Sulistyo, M.A., and Evynurul Laily Zen, S.S., M.A. for their constructive criticism and suggestion to give betterment to the overall content of this thesis. I would like to thank the Principal of SMPN 1 Malang and the English teacher Dra. Ida Kadarwati for giving me the opportunity to undertake this study and supporting me in the research. I would also like to extend my gratitude to the beloved students of VIII-C who completed my questionnaire and provided the raw data for my analysis, as well as contributed valuable comments. Without them a large part of this research could not have been completed. Specially, I proudly have my beloved parents Subagiyo and Rofi’ah Adawiyah to thank for their affection and encouragement towards me. My solemn love and gratitude are also pierced to my big brother, Rofi’udin Subekti who always reassures me to finish my study. viii
  11. 11. ix Lastly, I dedicate my acknowledgement to my friends Afrillia, Coy, Dyah, Mega, Annysa, Asizah, Bila, Mbak Ika, Fajar, Biyant, Orista, Elin, Restu, Fenny Mei, Imam, Isna and Trias, who supported me during the years of study. In addition, million thanks go to all of my friends in English Department. A task of this magnitude cannot be undertaken alone, thus the encouragement I received was undeniably vital to completing the study. The Writer
  12. 12. TABLE OF CONTENTS APPROVAL SHEET ............................................................................................... i STATEMENT OF SARJANA THESIS ORIGINALITY ..................................... iii ABSTRACT ........................................................................................................... iv ABSTRAK ............................................................................................................. vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ................................................................................... viii TABLE OF CONTENT ...........................................................................................x LIST OF TABLES ................................................................................................ xii LIST OF FIGURES ............................................................................................. xiii LIST OF APPENDICES ...................................................................................... xiv CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the Study....................................................................................1 1.2 Research Objective...........................................................................................10 1.3 Specification of the Product .............................................................................10 1.4 Significance of the Study .................................................................................11 1.5 Scope of The Study ..........................................................................................12 1.6 Definition of Key Terms ..................................................................................13 CHAPTER II RESEARCH METHOD 2.1 The Research Design and Model of Development ..........................................14 2.1.1 Conducting Needs Assessment .....................................................................16 2.1.2 Developing Materials ....................................................................................17 2.1.3 Experts and Teachers Validation .................................................................20 2.1.4 Try-Out/Testing the Product ........................................................................20 2.1.5 Revising the Product ....................................................................................20 2.1.6 Final Product .................................................................................................21 2.2 Try Out of the Product .....................................................................................21 2.2.1 Try Out of the Design ...................................................................................21 2.2.2 The Subject....................................................................................................21 2.2.3 The Data Collection ......................................................................................22 x
  13. 13. xi 2.2.4 The Data Analysis .........................................................................................22 CHAPTER III FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION 3.1 The Result of Needs Assessment .....................................................................24 3.1.1 The Result of Learners’ Needs ......................................................................24 3.1.2 The Result of Teacher Interview ...................................................................26 3.2 The Materials Development .............................................................................28 3.2.1 The Materials ................................................................................................28 3.3 Materials Evaluation ........................................................................................30 3.3.1 The Result of Expert Validation ...................................................................30 3.3.2 The Result of Teacher Validation .................................................................32 3.3.3 The Result of Trying Out the Product ...........................................................34 3.4 Discussion ........................................................................................................37 CHAPTER IV CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION 4.1 Conclusion .......................................................................................................42 4.2 Suggestion ........................................................................................................43 REFERENCES.......................................................................................................45 APPENDICES .......................................................................................................47 CURRICULUM VITAE ........................................................................................64
  14. 14. LIST OF TABLES Page 1. Table 3.1 Mapping of the Supplementary Materials……………………29 xii
  15. 15. LIST OF FIGURES Page 1. Figure 2.1: Stages in Research and Development……………………...15 2. Figure 2.2: Stages in Materials Development………………………….18 xiii
  16. 16. LIST OF APPENDICES Page 1. Recommendation Letter ..............................................................................47 2. Questionnaire for Need Assessment ...........................................................48 3. Interview Guidelines ..................................................................................51 4. Expert Validation Checklist .......................................................................53 5. Teacher Validation Checklist .....................................................................56 6. Questionnaire for Try-Out .........................................................................59 7. Revision ......................................................................................................61 8. Letter of Confirmation ...............................................................................63 9. Product ........................................................................................................65 xiv
  17. 17. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This study deals with creating supplementary materials for extensive reading activity for the eighth graders of SMP 1 Malang. This chapter explicates the background of the research, the research objective, the specification of the product, the significance of the research, scope of the research and the definition of key terms. 1.1 Background of the Study Reading is an activity which we all do almost every day. It can be associated with extracting information from written text. Most of our activities deal with the reading, such as reading daily newspapers, tabloids, magazines, or even friends’ tweets or statuses at Twitter and Facebook. Hence, we cannot separate reading from our daily activities. Regarding to the importance of reading, the government attempts to include reading as the one of the four language skills being taught in school. To accommodate the needs of the students reading skills, the standard of competence and basic competence are then formulated in each grade. Consequently, the students learn to read based on what has been directed from the curriculum. According to Goodman (1970) reading is a complex cognitive process dependent on an interaction between information processing/decoding skills 1
  18. 18. 2 (bottom up skills) and background knowledge combined with social experiences (top down skills). Additionally, reading can be defined variously by many people or language experts. Cline (2006) defines reading as decoding and understanding text for particular reader purposes. It can be interpreted that readers decode written text by translating text to speech, and translating the words directly to meaning. To understand written text, readers engage in constructive processes to make text meaningful, which is the end goal or product. Weaver (2009), moreover, states that reading is a process determined by what the reader’s brain, emotions and beliefs bring to the reading: the knowledge/information (or misinformation, absence of information), strategies for processing text, moods, fears and joys. Reading itself, however, will vary according to the purpose of reading since different purposes to some extent will need different strategies in reading. For instance, the one who reads for oneself only (to some extent, reading for pleasure) will read differently from the one who reads to answer comprehension questions, to perform, and many more. Weaver (2009) further asserts that those conditions in reading can affect confidence, fear, anger, defiance, and/or other emotions. Therefore, it is important to create such an enjoyable atmosphere while reading in order to help the students to understand the text better. Reading is mostly related to comprehension. Many experts define reading along with comprehension. Although Snow (2002) argues that formal definition of reading comprehension may seem unnecessary since its meaning is assumed to be generally understood, she still states that reading comprehension is a process of
  19. 19. 3 simultaneously extracting and constructing meaning through interaction and involvement with written language. Reading comprehension itself entails three prominent elements: the reader who comprehends; the text to comprehend; and the activity in which the comprehension is a part. Those three elements of reading comprehension essentially go hand in hand. To greatly comprehend the text, a reader must have capacities and abilities. These include cognitive capacities (e.g. attention, memory, critical thinking), motivation (a purpose of reading, an interest in the contents being read, selfefficacy as a reader), abilities (identifying the main point or important information, distinguishing the main idea, extracting noticeable points to summarize, so forth) and various types of knowledge (vocabulary, linguistic and discourse knowledge, learning strategies, et cetera). Indeed, those capacities and abilities depend upon the text in use and the specific activity in which reader is engaged. In the world of education, reading is one of the four language skills taught in English class. In Indonesia, English is a foreign language. Starting from kindergarten level, English has already been introduced to the learners. Among those four language skills, reading holds a prominent contributory factor to the developing of language acquisition. In addition, Sweeney (1993) states three reasons for ensuring that reading has an important position in the design of a foreign language teaching programme. These concern reading techniques, language acquisition and motivation.
  20. 20. 4 Some students may decipher every single word in a linear fashion and quite often spend more time looking in a dictionary than reading a text. Goodman (1970) states that good and fluent readers, for first language particularly, do not examine every single word but use their knowledge to arrive at the meaning of the text. Thus, the teachers should be able to develop the EFL students’ reading strategies which reflect the reading process in native language. This requires students to focus on meaning and on solving problems and not solely on interpreting individual words. Krashen (1984), moreover, states that reading may give useful contributions to developing language acquisition, benefiting both students’ competence and self-confidence. Reading impacts upon grammatical knowledge and vocabulary development so that logically the students who make the fewest mistakes are those who read more. Furthermore, reading should be done enjoyably. Students feel motivated to read more if they fell they read well. The researcher believes that if the reading texts provided are carefully and suitably selected and, therefore, contribute to motivation, the process of language learning can be tremendously aided. In SMP 1 Malang, particularly VIII-C class, the teaching of reading was mostly focused on translation. The students were drilled to translate English text into Indonesian version. This sort of reading activity is no longer used according to the curriculum; hence this study can change the paradigm of teaching reading used by the English teacher of SMPN 1 Malang.
  21. 21. 5 Moreover, the students do not use particular coursebook to accommodate their needs in reading. The availability of interesting materials is hard to find in SMPN 1 Malang or the use of internet which is actually aimed to facilitate their needs cannot be maximally utilised. In addition, the availability of books in the school library only concerns on intensive reading. Thus, developing supplementary material for extensive reading is worth doing. Nevertheless, some factors seem to affect students’ reading activity in a rather unfavourable way. Based on some observation and informal interview in SMPN 1 Malang, the researcher found two factors that cause the unfavourable condition. Firstly, the coursebook does not maximally accommodate the students’ need to expand their reading competence. Secondly, it appears that the selected texts in the coursebook cannot interestingly stimulate the students’ motivation to read more enthusiastically since the texts are monotonous. To accommodate the students’ needs, it surely needs a coursebook or module which can cover the suitable materials for them. A good coursebook can greatly assist the students in comprehending the materials. Providing appropriate texts which are attractive will also increase the students’ motivation in reading. Therefore, the researcher believes that supplementary materials for extensive reading activity should be developed and of course the developments of the materials could be methodically well-proven by conducting a research. In addition, the availability of supplementary material for extensive reading in the market, especially in Malang cannot be found. The bookstores in Malang only sell general coursebooks intended for the eighth graders of junior high school that are used for intensive reading activities in classroom. Therefore,
  22. 22. 6 the supplementary materials for extensive reading are great in need for the students particularly for the eighth graders. Reading can be associated with “the window of knowledge” in which through reading lots of information gained. The information gained is our background knowledge which is so much useful for language learning. Krashen (1982) argues that one of the key-elements in language learning is “comprehensible input”, among which he lists extensive reading. He argues that extensive reading will lead to language acquisition, provided that the texts include adequate exposure to the language, interesting material, and a relaxed learning environment. There are two terms in reading namely Intensive Reading and Extensive Reading and both of them have their own aims. The aim of Intensive Reading is to study the language whereas Extensive Reading is to help the students become better at the skill of reading rather than reading to study the language itself. When students read intensively they are reading a text to learn something about the language itself – maybe a new word, some grammar and so on. It could call as „study reading’. It is reading that many students do with their textbooks. The passages are short and often have lots of vocabulary items that the students do not know. The aim of this reading is to help students to acquire the language or build a reading skill such as guessing the topic, understanding some sequences of event, finding an implicit meaning, dealing with tenses used in the text, and so forth. On the other hand, when the students read extensively, they actually read very easy, enjoyable books to build their reading speed and reading fluency
  23. 23. 7 (Bamford and Day, 1998 in ER Foundation). They are also practicing the skill of reading by reading for information – reading a story book for example with the aim of enjoying the reading without consciously knowing they are learning. The aim is to build reading fluency - not necessarily to learn new things (although they may learn some), and to deepen their knowledge of already met language items and to get a better sense of how these fit together communicatively. This allows them to process language faster and improves comprehension and enjoyment. Furthermore, a current issue in pedagogical research on reading is the extent to which learners will learn to read better in a laissez-faire situation of reading. Krashen’s (1993) The Power of Reading and Bamford and Day (1998) both made the case that extensive reading is a key to students gain reading ability, linguistic competence, vocabulary, spelling and writing. Green and Oxford (1995) also found that reading for enjoyment and reading without looking up all the unknown words were both highly correlated with overall language proficiency. Those findings suggest that instructional program in reading should give strong consideration to the teaching of extensive reading. It does not suggest that strategies for intensive reading ought to be abandoned but strengthens the idea that an extensive reading component in conjunction with other focused reading instruction is highly warranted. Bamford and Day (2004) state that reading is no different from other learned human abilities such as playing football, driving or riding a motorcycle: the more you do it, the more fluent and skilful you become. By conducting
  24. 24. 8 extensive reading activities in EFL classroom, it can also increase students’ reading habit in which logically can also enhance their reading comprehension. Accordingly, Day (2008) showed the results of the study of Extensive Reading conducted by some researchers. The result can be seen from the research undertaken by Sheu (2003) and Nishono (2007). In Sheu’s research, the population involved in extensive reading activity was the students of junior high school in Taiwan. The result showed that Extensive reading can increase language proficiency in general. Similarly, in Nishono’s study, the subject was the secondary school students in Japan. The result depicted that extensive reading activities can also increase reading strategies and motivation of the students. Referring to the result of the studies aforementioned, it is obvious that Extensive Reading activity is greatly able to increase reading competence and it also simultaneously increases other skills. However, ER is rarely conducted in Indonesia, especially for teaching English in elementary or even high school level. The researcher, therefore deliberately develops supplementary materials which are simultaneously designed to be an extensive reading activity by providing many various texts. Besides, it is going to be more meaningful and useful to start administering ER from the early grade of Junior High, that is, seventh and eighth grade. In addition to the micro reading skills, Munby as cited by Grellet (1983) mentions the following skills: recognizing the language, deducing the meaning, understanding explicit information, understanding implicit information, understanding conceptual meaning, understanding the communicative utterances,
  25. 25. 9 understanding relations within the sentence, understanding relations between the texts, understanding grammar, interpreting text, recognizing indicators in text, identifying the main idea of text, distinguishing the main idea from supporting details, summarising the texts, extracting relevant points, skimming, scanning. To be able to develop students’ reading skills, logically the materials selected for the module should be able to trigger students’ motivation to read. However, what are learning materials actually? Roughly speaking, materials can be related to anything that is employed to facilitate the language learning. Tomlinson (2012) specifically argues that materials are anything that can be used to facilitate the learning of a language, including coursebooks, videos, graded readers, flash cards, games, websites and mobile phone interactions, though, inevitably, much of the literature focuses on printed materials. Moreover, no matter what the form of the materials, good materials should have the following criteria. Tomlinson (2012) asserts that materials should be informative (informing the learner about the target language), instructional (guiding the learner in practising the language), experiential (providing the learner with experience of the language in use), eliciting (encouraging the learner to use the language) and exploratory (helping the learner to make discoveries about the language). In the process of materials development for extensive reading activity, surely, needs some consideration and criteria in order to meet the students’ needs in learning language. Nuttall (1996) highlights three criteria in evaluating reading texts: suitability of context, exploitability, and readability. Firstly, suitability of
  26. 26. 10 the content deals with selecting materials that are appropriately and relevantly designed for students’ needs and interest so that they are triggered to learn the target language. Secondly, with respect to exploitability, it can be associated with how a material –in this case, a text- can be utilised fully and effectively to develop students’ competence as readers. Thirdly is about readability which is mainly focused on describing the level of the difficulty of a text. In addition, readability frequently deals with vocabulary, word length, grammatical complexity and sentence length of the text. Hence, it is prominent to carefully select a text with the right difficulty since it will encourage the students to read enjoyably and enthusiastically. 1.2 Research Objectives Linked to the background of the study, in which the students may have lack of intention due to some materials that cannot interestingly trigger their motivations to read, this research is set out to produce supplementary materials for extensive reading activity which expectedly can fulfil their needs. The researcher purposely develops the product for the eight graders because it is assumed that the eighth graders have acquired a higher level of reading comprehension and importantly to stimulate and motivate their reading habit. 1.3 Specification of the Product The specification of the developed product can be formulated as the following: (1) The product of this research is in the form of printed supplementary extensive reading materials; (2) It consists of various text types such as narrative, procedure, report, and descriptive which are appropriately and suitably designed
  27. 27. 11 for the students of the eighth grades; (3) It promotes edutainment, meaning the students read to learn something and be entertained at the same time; (4) It also contains some other informative text such as science, unique information about flora and fauna; (5) The exercises are found following each text and easy; (6) It consists of 16 texts of various types with the expectation the students will at least read one text in a week; (7) It also contains glossary and key answer for self-study (8) Additionally, the researcher personally names his product “CHEESE” (Cheer Up and Smile) to describe that the product will bring joy and happiness to the students. 1.4 Significance of the Study Firstly, to the learners, especially the eighth graders, the result of this kind of research will be expected to meet their needs. Since the market does not provide any kind of supplementary material for extensive reading, providing such edutainment reading materials will motivate their interest in reading in which additionally expected to develop their reading competence. Moreover, the product of this research can also be used by the students to self-assess their reading comprehension since exercises followed by answer keys are included. Secondly, to the English teachers, the product of this study is also deliberately designed to aid them in teaching reading. Thus this module can be a teaching companion and support the English teaching and learning process. This module also can be an alternative way for the teachers who want to implement ER or Sustained Silent Reading (SSR) in their class.
  28. 28. 12 For the future researcher, this study can be used for reference to undertake similar studies on material development, especially intended for junior high school. Any weaknesses happen in this study can be alleviated in the future studies. 1.5 Scope of the Study This research is a development of supplementary materials (module) for extensive reading activity. This module is particularly designed for the eighth graders because they it is presumed that they acquire a higher level of reading comprehension. Also, it is developed only for second semester so that the texts included are specifically about narrative, descriptive, procedure and various informative texts dealing with biology, physics, geography, and recent issues are also laid therein. Additionally, the reading competences covered in this module include identifying detailed information from the text and reference to words. In order to arrive at the needs of students and teachers, moreover, the materials chosen are adapted from various sources such as internet, magazines, books, articles and many more. The themes in each chapter can be broken down as follows: (1) Chapter 1 is about fairy tales and short stories. (2) Chapter 2 deals with informative passages on certain phenomenon. (3) Chapter 3 concerns on describing famous people or places. The overall texts included in the material consist of 16 texts which focus on one reading skill namely understanding the explicit meaning. This goes in line with basic competence which is to understand the explicit meaning perfectly and
  29. 29. 13 efficiently written functional and simple short essay text in narrative, recount and exposition text related to the surrounding environment or in academic context. 1.6 Definition of Key-Terms In order to evade misconception and ambiguous perception, it is prominent to define some terms employed in this research. Such terms include Developing, Supplementary Materials, and Extensive Reading. Developing is adapting the materials which are taken from the internet, articles, magazines and many others. Supplementary Materials are materials used for complementary learning resources for the students of the eighth graders of SMPN 1 Malang. Extensive Reading activity is a reading activity without any involvement of the teacher as the students read independently. This activity is done at home.
  30. 30. CHAPTER II THE RESEARCH METHOD This chapter describes the method of the study. The method includes the research design, the model of development and the procedure of development. 2.1 The Research Design and the Model of Development This research is methodically designed as Research and Development (R&D). It develops and produces the supplementary materials for extensive reading for the eighth graders of SMPN 1 Malang. Research and Development (R&D) is not chiefly purposed to generate or to verify a theory but to develop or formulate educational products such as curriculum, syllabus, textbooks, instructional media, modules, assessment instruments, and so forth, for use in academic circumstances. This R&D study covers a set of stages which is used as the fundament of the study. The stages of Research and Development (R&D) are actually adapted from Hyland (2003). This study starts from need assessment. It is intended to acquire the actual learners’ and teachers’ need so that the researcher is beneficially able to determine and develop suitable, practical, and effective materials for the product. The next stage of this R&D is developing the supplementary materials. The development of the materials contains the process of modifying the available 14
  31. 31. 15 or chosen sources by adding, deleting, replacing some words from the materials. The following stage to undertake is concerning the draft of the product. The product is, indeed, developed to meet specific needs and according to the detailed specifications. Once accomplished, the product is validated by relevant experts or English teachers and revised in order to get quality guarantee. Then, the validated product is tried out in a small scale and revised based on the results of the try-out. In this case, the criteria of success are surely needed to determine the acceptability of the product. The cyclical nature of the process within each stage of development will be diagrammatically shown in Figure 2.1. Figure 2.1 Stages in Research and Development Adapted from Hyland (2003) and Tomlinson (1998)
  32. 32. 16 2.1.1 Conducting Needs Assessment Needs assessment is prevalently defined as the process of identifying and evaluating needs in a community or other defined population of people (Alderson, 2000). The identification of needs is a process of describing problems encountered by population and then providing possible solution to the problems. Need assessment focuses on the future, or what should be done, rather than on what was done as is the focus of most program evaluations that is why some people use the related term “needs assessment”. In conducting needs assessment, there are several steps suggested by McKillip (1998). (1) Identify the targets (learners and teachers) and purpose for the analysis. (2) Describe the target population and service environment. (3) Conduct need identification where descriptions of the problems (beyond the general level noted in step 1) and possible solutions are generated. (4) Evaluate the identified needs. (5) Communicate the result to the learners and teachers identified in the first step. Those five steps, however, might vary in different population and condition. It, of course, depends upon the scale of the population and it is also suited to the necessity of data collection. Needs assessment is intended to acquire the actual learners’ and teachers’ need so that the researcher is beneficially able to determine and develop suitable, practical, and effective materials for the product. This study is essentially designed to develop supplementary reading materials for Extensive Reading activity for the Eighth Graders of SMPN 1 Malang, the purposes of needs assessment can be specified as follows: (1) to identify the students’ previous learning experiences; (2) to obtain information dealing with a particular problem/difficulty that learners are experiencing in reading; (3) to identify
  33. 33. 17 students’ preferences and interest about the materials which will be developed; and (4) to investigate the students’ frequency of reading. Moreover, the researcher used two instruments namely questionnaire and interview guides to collect the data in need assessment. The questionnaire was purposefully utilised to achieve information on students’ needs. Then the interview was done to know the teacher’s needs of supplementary reading materials, in this case focusing on extensive reading activity. To construct the questionnaire the researcher had already made some items based on what the researcher obtained during his teaching practice in SMPN 1 Malang. For about three months, the researcher observed the condition and the condition of teaching English in SMPN 1 Malang. Then the information was put in the questionnaire. 2.1.2 Developing Materials This part discusses the stage of material development. It is different from the procedure of research design. Research design plays role as a framework of whole step of Research and Development whereas procedure of development focuses on how the product is developed by the researcher. After conducting needs assessment, the data obtained were analysed and then the researcher commenced developing the product based on the analysis. Materials Development, moreover, refers to all the processes made use of by practitioners or researchers who produce and/or use materials for language learning, including materials evaluation, their adaptation, design, production,
  34. 34. 18 exploitation and research (Tomlinson, 2012). In this study, the materials are particularly developed and designed for the necessity of Extensive Reading activity. Figure 2.2 depicts clear stages in developing the material. Figure 2.2 Stages of Material Development Adapted from Tomlinson (2012) Based on the figure 2.2, it can be explained that the materials development featured two stages namely drafting and organising. Drafting phase includes (1) designing the content; (2) selecting the topic of texts; and (3) identifying the reading skills. After the stage of drafting accomplished, the researcher then continued to organising. It features (1) constructing the texts; (2) determining the activities; and (3) making the answer key. Each step of material development can be further elaborated as follows. In the stage of designing the content, the researcher determined what should be put in the product. It contained the layout, the three chapters, references and the key answer. Next, the step is about selecting the topics of the texts. In doing this stage the researcher decided to give different topics for the three chapters. The topic of chapter 1 mostly talks about fairy tales and short stories. Chapter 2 deals with informative passages on certain phenomenon. Lastly, chapter 3 concerns on famous peoples and places. After selecting the topic of the texts, the
  35. 35. 19 researcher then determined the reading skill employed in the product. In doing this step the researcher looked at the Standard of content and basic competences for the eighth graders in one reading skill was picked namely to understand the explicit meaning perfectly and efficiently written functional and simple short essay text in narrative, recount and exposition text related to the surrounding environment or in academic context. In the stage of organising, the researcher first constructed the text. This process was done through taking texts from web-based resources. After all the texts were collected, the activities were developed. The activities included W-H questions, True and False, Crossword Puzzle, and Matching. The last step is making the key answer for students’ independent study. Furthermore, to strengthen the fundamental principle of how materials for Extensive Reading should well-developed, here some worth-considering criteria adapted from SEAMEO Regional Language Centre in Singapore (Davis et al, 1997). The criteria are itemised as follows: (1) reading materials are at the proper level of difficulty so that students can read them independently. At the same time, materials should not be too easy; (2) reading materials should appeal to a variety of students’ interest; (3) reading materials should expose students to a wide range of text types (e.g. fairy tales, myth, biography, etcetera); (4) reading materials should be organised in a way that simplifies and attract students’ use. The reading materials for Extensive Reading are, therefore, developed on the foundation of several aspects. In this case, five aspects are considerably taken such as language, length of the texts, content, level of difficulty and variety of texts.
  36. 36. 20 2.1.3 Experts and Teachers Validation The following consequential stage to establish after developing materials is validation from experts and teachers. They were surely needed to constructively criticise the materials in order to give some betterment to the materials being developed. After that, their valuable comments are used as the bedrock of the revision. To conduct this stage, the researcher gave a checklist to the expert and the teacher. They were to analyse and evaluate the product based on the checklist. 2.1.4 Try-Out/Testing the Product The product was tried out to the 10 students of VIII C of SMP 1 Malang. The product was distributed to them to be read at home. The researcher gave time allocation for the students to read the materials for three days. Trying out the product was conducted in order to identify some weaknesses of the materials; hence the weaknesses diagnosed were used to improve the quality of the materials. To know the quality of the materials the researcher then distributed a sort of questionnaire to the students. Such a questionnaire covered: level of difficulty, attractiveness of the texts, variety of exercises, clarity of the instructions, and so forth. 2.1.5 Revising the Product After piloting the product to the students, the researcher revised the product. The revision was based on the information gained during the try-out. Additionally, the result from the questionnaire became consideration for revision. To revise the product, the researcher made some changes on the layout to make it
  37. 37. 21 more interesting by putting some pictures and illustrations. Then the researcher replaced some words which students think too difficult to understand. Additionally, the glossary was changed into bilingual version which help the student identify the English words into Bahasa Indonesia. 2.1.6 Final Product The revision that has been done previously greatly impacted upon determining the quality of the product at the finalisation. If the revised product were attained, then the final product was officially ready to release. The final product was produced assuredly after considering many aspects such as validation from experts and teachers, try-out and revision. 2.2 Try Out of the Product The ultimate goal in this sort of developmental stage is to determine the acceptability of the product. Through this process, moreover, the researcher obtained as many constructive criticisms as possible for the product revision. 2.2.1 The Try-Out of the Design Trying-out the draft materials equipped the researcher with lots of beneficial information to be additional used to carefully scrutinise problems in applying the instructional materials. 2.2.2 The Subject The students at the eight grade of SMP Negeri 1 Malang were the subject in the need assessment and the try-out process. There are eight classes of Eight
  38. 38. 22 Grade, but then the researcher solely picked one class. The class that has already been picked was based on the recommendation of the teacher who handles the class. She told the researcher that the class is quite homogenous in terms of their level of reading comprehension. In addition, the researcher did not try the product out to the whole students in the class. The researcher used small group on the try out process in which consist of 10 students as the representative. 2.2.3 The Data Collection In the needs assessment phase, the data were taken from 26 students of VIII-C of SMPN 1 Malang. The students were asked to fulfil the questionnaire as the instrument to collect the data. Also, the interview was undergone to the English teacher who taught VIII-C of SMPN 1 Malang. In the expert validation phase, the data were derived from the checklist fulfilled by the expert and the English teacher as the evaluator. The data were in the form of comments and suggestion given by the expert and the teacher relating to the product. In the try-out phase, the data were obtained from the ten students who were given the product and asked to fulfil the questionnaire. Their comments and suggestions relating to the product were then treated as the basis of to develop the final product. 2.2.4 The Data Analysis The data derived from the needs assessment were then analysed descriptively and quantitatively. Since each choice of the question was in the form
  39. 39. 23 of students’ response, the questionnaire was then presented in a description. In order to support the description, the quantitative calculation was used. In this case, each choice of each question was worth 100 per cent since there was a possibility for the students to choose more than one option. The data obtained from the expert and teacher validation were scrutinised descriptively. The analysis taken from the expert and teacher validation covered: (1) suitability; whether or not the materials are suitable with the students’ language level, (2) clarity; whether or not the reading tasks have clear instructions for students so that the students can understand what to do, and (3) variety and presentation; whether or not the materials are wide in topics and are orderly arranged. The data gained from the try-out process were also analysed descriptively. The descriptive analysis focused on the comments and suggestion uttered by the students. Those included clarity, acceptability and suitability of the product. Their comments and suggestion were then used as the foundation of revision for final product.
  40. 40. CHAPTER III FINDINGS & DISCUSSION This chapter discussed the result of the materials development and the discussion of it. The result of the materials development covers four points, which are, the result of the need assessment, the materials development, the data analysis from material by the experts’ judgements and the data analysis from the try out, and the revision of the product. 3.1 The Result of Needs Assessment The data of needs assessment were derived from questionnaire and interview. The questionnaire was deliberately distributed to the students in order to know their needs and for the bedrock of the product development, whilst the interview was conducted to the teacher in order to investigate the students’ needs in accordance with the teacher’s perspective. 3.1.1 The Result of Learners’ Needs (Questionnaire) To know the students’ needs the researcher distributed questionnaires to the students, see Appendix 2. The questionnaires were given to the 26 eighth graders of SMP 1 Malang –specifically VIII C-. Then the answers were documented and analysed to be used as consideration for developing materials. The questionnaire covered the following aspects such as the difficulties faced by the students in learning English, how the students encounter such difficulties, suitable and 24
  41. 41. 25 appropriate reading materials that are able to help the students in learning English, and various topics of the text types that the students are interested in. The result of the questionnaire distribution would be expounded as follows. First of all, the difficulties faced by the students in learning English were split into three gauges featuring vocabulary, the length of the text, and the attractiveness of the text. In determining the quantitative score, each choice in each question was worth a hundred per cent because there was possibility for the students to choose more than alternative answers. In accordance with the result, there were 16 students (61. 5%) who had problem with vocabulary, 7 students (26. 9%) had problem with the length of text, and 6 students (23. 0%) felt the text provided was less attractive. The next aspect was about how the students encounter such difficulties in learning English. From the choices that the researcher provided, there were 12 students (46. 1%) were likely to frequently read English text, 10 students (38. 4%) inclined to do discussion with their classmates and ask the problem to the teacher, and 6 students (23. 0%) tended to do reading exercise, and The researcher also investigated the suitable and appropriate reading materials that can interestingly and independently help the students to learn English. The result showed that 12 students (46. 1%) voted that the text should be various and not too long, 9 students (34. 6%) chose various and sufficient activity should also be included, also 8 students (30. 8%) tended to dealing with many understandable vocabulary featured on the text, and lastly there were 7 students (26. 9%) voted that reading materials should be attractively designed.
  42. 42. 26 Last but not least, the researcher included 7 topics of text types such as famous people, the uniqueness of an animal, the description of a place or a building, legend, myth, fairy tale, and fable. The result was the following: The most chosen one was famous people topic with 17 students (65. 4%); the second most chosen topic was myth with 10 students (38. 4%); the third designated was about the uniqueness of animals and the description of a place with 6 students (23. 0%); legend topic was chosen by 5 students (19. 2%); and fable was chosen by solely 4 students (15. 4%). In conclusion, the texts should features understandable vocabulary items for the students. In addition, the texts should not too lengthy and have various interesting topics. Then, the topic about famous people was more included in the product. 3.1.2 The Result of Teachers’ Interview The interview was conducted on February 19th, 2013. Indeed, the interviewee was the English teacher of VIII C class in SMP 1 Malang. The interview covered four basic points as follows: (1) the students’ reading competences on the teacher’s viewpoint; (2) the students’ difficulties in reading comprehension and their reading habit according to the teacher’s point of view; (3) the teacher’s opinion about Extensive Reading; and (4) the availability of reading resources at SMP 1 Malang library. Those four points were further explicated as follows, see Appendix 3. According to her, the students’ reading competences –particularly VIII Cconstituted good. Once she gave her students an English text which was consist of
  43. 43. 27 approximately 600 words and with various vocabulary items that considered difficult for eighth graders but surprisingly most of her students could simply understand it. Notwithstanding good at reading, her students were not quite interested in reading activity. Therefore, she further asserted that their students needed something interesting to stimulate their willingness in reading, for instance, providing a narrative text that they might know it before and also doing such joyful activity like game, crossword puzzle, singing, and so forth Another point that she explained was the students’ difficulties in reading comprehension. She explained that most of her students had such difficulty in vocabulary. Additionally, her students were lack of intention of reading since the text was too difficult for them and the materials being discussed were not interesting so that it could not boost their motivation to read. The third point that she explicated was her opinion about Extensive Reading. At first, the interviewee did not understand or even know what actually Extensive Reading is. Therefore, she said that she never implemented ER activity in her English class. The last point was about the availability of reading resources at SMP 1 Malang library. Based on her explanation, the reading resources that the library provided at SMP 1 Malang could sufficiently facilitate the students to learn the target language. It was also tremendously supported by the condition of the library itself which can comfortably accommodate students to read. However, the books provided only concern on intensive reading activities. Therefore, there is a need to provide the students with supplementary material for extensive reading.
  44. 44. 28 As the result of need assessment, importantly the language used should be easily understood by the students. The texts provided should not be too lengthy and various in terms of topics. Additionally, the extensive reading activity was worth-implementing so that the students have interest in reading. 3.2 The Materials Development The materials were developed based on the need analysis which was obtained from the questionnaires and teacher interview. The result of materials development is outlined as follows. 3.2.1 The Materials Most of the materials were based on the result of need assessment. However, there is possibility for the researcher to include some texts which may consider worth-reading for the student. In addition, there are four steps in developing the materials. The steps starts from determining the topic, followed by constructing material mapping, material selection, and designing the activities. First of all, edutainment is all the bedrock of this product. To create such edutainment materials, the researcher tries to make an innovation through providing a product which is concerning about extensive reading. As previously mentioned that extensive reading focuses on doing reading, it means that providing lots of exercise and burdensome activities constitute unnecessary. Therefore, the researcher tries to make something different about this product. This product covers three main topic namely fantasy, curiosity and popularity. Fantasy deals with legend, myth, fairy tale and so forth. Curiosity mostly provides
  45. 45. 29 texts with unique information and raises the students’ sense of curiosity indeed. Popularity features the description of famous persons, unknowingly well-known places, and some popular activities occurring in certain place. After that, the mapping of the materials is constructed in order to know what is actually laid in each chapter. It can be seen in Table 3.1. Topic World of Fantasy World of Curiosity World of Popularity Text 1. Perseus and Medusa 2. Kaguya Hime 3. The Gift 4. You Can’t Please Anyone 5. The Twin Heroes 1. Do Fish Sleep? 2. A City without a Sun in Papua 3. Name After Famous People 4. Will the Earth Ever Run Out of Water? 5. Unusual Cell-Phone 1. One Direction 2. Lionel “The Messiah” Messi 3. Jokowi: An Inspired Leader 4. Venezuela Never Ending Storm 5. Mobile Phone Throwing Championships in Finland Activity Jumble sentence W-H Question W-H Question Matching Picture Crossword Puzzle Reading Skill Understanding explicit meaning - True and False Find the Meaning Matching Picture Hidden Words W-H Question - Understanding explicit meaning - Guessing a Picture Yes and No W-H Question Find the Meaning Opened Question - Understanding explicit meaning Table 3.1 Mapping of the Supplementary Materials After materials mapping were accomplished, the researcher chose the materials which are suitable for students’ needs. The materials were all taken from the internet. After materials selection process, then the researcher develop those materials through adaptation process so that the texts are not too lengthy for the students to read and surely match with the difficulty level of the students. After adapting the materials, the next step focuses on designing the reading activities. The design of the activities in this supplementary material is
  46. 46. 30 varied in terms of the types, including True/False, Matching, Crossword Puzzle, Hidden Words, and WH-Questions. This product also contains “Follow Up Activity” which makes students elaborate their activity. In addition to the process of developing the content of the supplementary reading materials, the researcher also sets several interesting pictures and relevant illustrations to help the students to understand the text. By doing so, the supplementary material can be attractive in terms of the design so that the students are more triggered to read it. Additionally, the researcher personally names his product “CHEESE” (Cheer Up and Smile) to describe that the product will bring joy and happiness to the learners, similarly to cheese. 3.3 Material Evaluation Material evaluation was purposeful to get the useful data for revision of the product. The data were taken from expert and teacher validation and materials tryout. The data from the experts were, indeed, used as consideration to developing the material till come to a better one, whereas the data from the teacher were also utilised to give some betterment. 3.3.1 The Result of Expert Validation The expert who validated the product was a lecturer of State University of Malang and she is a specialist in extensive reading and teaching English as a second language. To obtain feedback and comments for validation, the researcher gave a checklist, see Appendix 4, which enables the expert to give judgement and
  47. 47. 31 evaluation to the product based on several criteria. The results of the validation, moreover, were explicated as follows. The first point concerns on the presentations and variety of the product. This part features the attractiveness of the design and layout as well. This component is then segmented into 7 sub-components. ’Design’ is graded as “excellent” because it is attractive to the students. „Letter’ is excellently rated because the use of letters is already clear, appropriate, consistent, and readable. „Typing’ obtains “good” mark because it has clear, neat and regular pattern; even though some mistyping on the materials still existed. „Spacing’ also obtains “excellent” score because it is appropriate and consistent. „Layout’ constitutes “good” because it is clear and attractive to the students. „Pictures and Illustrations’ are good remarked. „Organization of the materials’ is judged to have “fair” quality. This is because the material is not really well-organized. Accordingly, the organization needs to be revised so that it looks more systematic and wellorganised. The second aspect to judge is the suitability of the content. This particular aspect is then classified into 3 sub-components. „Topics’ are judged in “good” quality since they constitute unique and enable to attract the students’ intention of reading and attention to read. Apart from that, the good thing about the texts used in this supplementary material is that they are not offensive in terms of racism, sexism, and taboo. „Language’ is scored “good” because it is suitable to the level of students and is understandable. „Answer Key’ is categorized into “excellent”
  48. 48. 32 because it is clear and readable. Besides, the answer key matches with the reading exercises. The third criterion to be evaluated is appertaining to exploitability. This category is then split into 2 subdivisions. „Directions’ are marked “poor” because there are many incorrect directions stated so that they bring ambiguity and confusion. Additionally, the sentence to express the direction constitute ineffective. The last subdivision is concerned with „Activities’ which are scored “good.” This is because the activities in each unit are sufficient to help students to learn independently. Since it is designed as extensive reading activity, the activities are not too many in terms of number but still various in terms of type of activities. From what the expert had already been determined, the product is categorised valid. Nevertheless, the product still needs some revision to come to better materials before the product is tried-out. 3.3.2 The Result of Teacher Validation Not solely gaining the feedback from the expert, the researcher also asked valuable judgement from the teacher to give some betterment to the product. The teacher who validated the product was an English teacher in SMP 1 Malang. She has been teaching English for 23 years and now she actively teaches in SMP 1 Malang. For the teacher validation, there were also three major points elucidated, those are, the content of the product; the level of difficulty of the text (the length, the language features, and the activity); and the layout and design, see Appendix 6.
  49. 49. 33 The first, for the content of the product, the teacher stated that generally it had adequately met the needs of the students. The content covered various text types and at the same time, it was able to expose students to a wide range of text types, since the content featured mythology, legend, science, geography, biography, report and other text-types. The second, the teacher further described the difficulty level of the texts. According to her, some of the texts were quite difficult for self-study in terms of vocabulary items. Therefore, it is going to be better if the researcher revise it. In addition, the length of the text has met adequate precision for the difficulty level of eighth graders. Then, she stated that actually there were not going to be matter about the length of the text, as long as the topic carried out at the text was worthreading. The third, the teacher gave some comments dealing with layout and design. She remarked that generally the layout was attractive. The relevant pictures to help students understand the texts were also well-placed. The choice of the fontstyle and font-size was readable. She further commented that the size of the product was also portable. However, it was going to be better if the researcher put more colour therein, for the sake of attractiveness. Regarding to the result of expert and teacher validation, revision was undertaken. The first revision was based on the comments and feedback from the expert and the teacher. In accordance with the result of validation, the product did not need holistic revision, only some parts of the product needed to be revised. Those parts would be elaborated as follows.
  50. 50. 34 Firstly, the expert suggested to reduce the length of the text and to harmonise the length of the text in each chapter. The idea of harmonising the length of the text is that the texts have similar words count. As the result, the texts provided in the product are approximately 200 words. Additionally, the expert further advised to select uncommonly known texts in order to raise students’ sense of curiosity. In terms of clarity of the instruction, the expert also criticised some of the instructions used in the exercises. Some of them were incorrectly instructed and brought ambiguity. For instance, the previous instruction was written as follows: “Give tick mark (√) in column ‘yes’ or ‘no’” then after being revised it became as follows “Give a tick mark (√) in the ‘yes’ or the ‘no’ column”. Another point that needs to be revised is the pictures. Due to the poor quality of printer, the pictures were not well-printed so that they need to be revised. However, generally, the pictures have already been well-placed so that they do not need to be revised. 3.3.3 The Result of Trying Out the Product As aforementioned in the second chapter, try-out was administered in order to investigate the suitability and acceptability of the product directly from the students’ viewpoint. In this study, try-out was applied to ten students of VIII C class in SMP 1 Malang. The ten students were chose randomly by the researcher using simple random sampling technique.
  51. 51. 35 To obtain data from the try-out, the instrument used was questionnaire which generally covers the following aspects: 1. Design and layout; 2. Content suitability and exploitability; 3. Variation of text-type and exercise; and 4. Level of difficulty. To see more clearly what are included in questionnaire, See Appendix 6. The first aspect that needed to be investigated from the students was design and layout. Most of them were interesting in the design of the book. They stated that the size of the book that is portable makes them easier to carry. In addition, most of the students were appealed by the illustrations provided. Some of their comments indicated that this product at least has already achieved one of the criteria of materials which have already determined at need assessment that is the materials should be attractively designed. The second point of the result of the try-out was concerning about suitability and exploitability of the content. Suitability of the content was still categorised into two points those are topic and language features. For topic suitability, 5 of 10 students argued that the topic was suitable, 4 of 10 students stated that it was suitable enough and only a student mentioned that the topic was less-suitable. For language features, moreover, most of the students argued that it has been adequately suitable for their reading competence. Furthermore, exploitability of the content here was relating to whether or not the texts provided are able to expand students’ knowledge as well as make students understand the target language fluently. Based on the try-out questionnaire, it showed that most of the students reasoned that the texts were eagerly able to expand their knowledge as well as trigger their willingness to read it.
  52. 52. 36 The third worth-elaborating aspect is about variation of text-types and exercises. The result showed that criterion of variation of text-types had already been fulfilled. In addition, the exercises provided to understand the texts were constituted various according to the students. Some of the exercises were interestingly and attractively trigger the students to do it. Accordingly, they came to enjoy reading the texts. The fourth point is dealing with the level of difficulty which covered three general points those are the length of the text, the diction, and the exercises. For length of the text matter, only a student who argued that some of the texts were too long so that he quite felt bored while reading. Move to diction used in the text, some of the students still faced difficulty dealing with the choice of words although at the end of chapter there are glossaries. Moreover, exercises provided in the text were still doable independently for the students. Furthermore, the second revision was done after administering try-out of the product. The result of questionnaire distribution at try-out phase was used as the consideration of revision. The revision after administering try-out was descriptively explained as follows. The first was about the choice of font-style. At first, there were only two kinds of font-style used in the product; those are Garamond and Feast of Flesh BB but then some students suggested to use other various font-styles. Accordingly, the researcher revised it and used other font-style such as Di Murphic, Bell MT, Segoe Print and Euphemia, see Appendix 7.
  53. 53. 37 Next, some of the students were still faced difficulty in understanding some dictions or vocabulary items. Therefore, the researcher still changed some words which were considered difficult. In addition, to help students to understand some vocabulary items, eventually, the product has already been fulfilled by glossaries at the end of each chapter. However, the glossary was still monolingual and it made students still felt confused. Accordingly, the glossary was then revised into bilingual one that is English-Indonesian, see Appendix 7. 3.4 Discussion The upshot of this study was a product for Extensive Reading activity. Based on the result of findings, this product has some strengths and weaknesses. The strength points of this product are explicated as follows. Firstly, this product is exclusively designed for Extensive Reading activity. It is supported by (Bamford and Day, 1998 in ER Foundation), they asserted that when the students read extensively, they actually read very easy and enjoyable books to build their reading speed and fluency. Secondly, this product provides various text-types with various topics as well such as narrative, descriptive and expository. The texts not only provide with various topics but also unique information. The researcher provides an example of a text in the product which has the unique information. This example appears in Chapter World of Curiosity page 22. The text gives explanation whether or not fish actually sleep. The sample unit is presented as follows:
  54. 54. 38 From the text above, it is expected to be able to motivate them to read. Additionally, the texts about “Do Fish Sleep?” is not too long, the words only consists of 164 words. The activities are not considered as burdensome. This product promotes an edutainment activity. It means that any contents of this product focus on educating students as well as entertaining them. It is in line with Krashen (1984) that reading should be done enjoyably and students feel motivated to read more if they fell they read well. This edutainment activity, for instance, appears in Chapter World of Fantasy activity 5 which deals with crossword puzzle. In doing the crossword puzzle the students answer the comprehensive
  55. 55. 39 questions which represent educating activity and at the same time they are also doing game as entertainment activity. The crossword puzzle consists of ten questions which are 5 questions for cross and 5 questions for down. The crossword puzzle can be seen as follows: Cross 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The twin brothers were sent to the … house The twin brothers were good at … At the end, one of twin brothers became… Lords of … were trying to kill the twin brothers Kill (synonym) Down 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Gods of Heavens honoured the twin brothers because of their … and cleverness One of the rivers that the twin brothers safely crossed The twin brothers escaped as a … The twin brothers were invited to play ballgame in … Proud (antonym) 4 1 3 2 1 3 4 5 5 Thirdly, in terms of layout and design, this product is attractive. The size of the product is 14.5 cm x 21 cm; it means that this product is so much portable. In addition, colours and pictures make this product more attractive and importantly help the students easier to understand the texts. It is proven by some comments mentioned by the students at the try-out process. One of them clarified this
  56. 56. 40 product brings pleasure and is able to broaden their knowledge. The sample unit was taken from activity 4 in chapter World of Fantasy as follows. Those pictures illustrated some events happened in the story entitled “You Can’t Please Anyone”. In this particular activity the students do the task by determining the event based on the given picture. The pictures can help the students determine the correct events at the same time attract them to read. Nonetheless, several weaknesses may appear in this product of study. In terms of the number of texts, the product consists of 16 texts. It is not adequate
  57. 57. 41 since the students are expected to read more. However, this condition is because of time limitation and production cost. Another weakness is that this product is in the form of printed-media. To some extent, the printer device affects the quality of printing. It makes some of the pictures or illustration unclear. However, this product is an alternative medium for the ones who do not like reading on the computer screen. In addition, not all students have computer device as their learning medium. The researcher believes that this product still needs improvement in terms of many aspects. However, this product can be used as reference for the ones who are going to conduct similar study so that in the future a better breakthrough for this product looks assured.
  58. 58. CHAPTER IV CONCLUSION & SUGGESTION This last chapter features the conclusion and several suggestions for other educational practices related to the result of the study. 4.1 Conclusion This study appertained to developing educational product which was reading supplementary materials for extensive reading activity for the eighth graders of SMP 1 Malang. The final product of the development was a module entitled “CHESEE” for reading activity. It contains various simple text-types, relevant illustrations, exercises, and key answers of the exercise for independent study. At the need assessment step, the researcher found out that most of the students in VIII-C class in SMP 1 Malang faced difficulty in vocabulary items. That such difficulty was worsened by the texts which were too lengthy and some uninteresting topics laid in the commonly published coursebook. In addition, the English teacher who was the interviewee also stated that most of her students had problem with vocabulary. However, it can be overcome as long as the materials provided were able to bring attraction and curiosity to them. After administering need assessment and followed by materials development, the materials were validated by the expert and the teacher. Both expert and teacher generally stated that the product is worth using. It was because 42
  59. 59. 43 most of the texts included are able to expand students’ knowledge as well as the activities provided are not quite burdensome. The teacher, moreover, stated that it was great to motivate the students to learn English through extensive reading activity by providing such product. Most importantly, she further asserted that the language used is below the students’ level of difficulty since they have to read it independently. At the try-out of the product phase, most of the students came to their comfort-zone whilst reading. Most of the students were fascinated and felt curious about the text. Once, a student mentioned that he had already been attracted only by reading the title of the text. Another student also commented that the texts were fun and interesting so that at the moment of reading, she did it seriously at the same time felt comfortable. Additionally, this product promotes edutainment activities. It means that any contents of this product focus on educating students as well as entertaining them. 4.2 Suggestion Based on the findings of the study, several constructive suggestions are given to the English teacher and future researcher as follows: Based on the strength aforementioned, the students are expected to use this product as additional materials for extensive reading activity since the availability of such material cannot be found either in their school library or in the market. In addition, teachers are suggested to implement Extensive Reading activity by utilising this product since it can help the student to read more fluent and to expand their knowledge. In addition, referring to the weaknesses of the product
  60. 60. 44 the teacher is highly recommended to add some texts. With advancement of the technology nowadays, some students tend to do their reading activity in front of their PC or notebook, hence the teachers who are able to use macromedia flash; they may convert this product into the form of macromedia so that it can be more attractive. A suggestion for future researcher is that this module still needs expansion. It is going to be much better to increase the number of the texts. This particular product contains 16 texts with rough assumption the students are going to read extensively once in a week. Hence, increasing the number of texts is highly recommended so that the students can be more skilful particularly in reading. Furthermore, this product is in the form of printed book. It may be better if the future research can be upgraded into the form of e-book or even sort of Macromedia Flash to attract students’ motivation in reading as well as to reduce the production cost. With all those possibilities, extensive reading activity can be enjoyably conducted. In this study, the researcher implemented try-out of the product once and it was administered to only ten students due to the limitation of time and production cost. In order to achieve more valid qualification of the acceptability of the product, it is worthy to try-out the product more than once and also to expand the numbers of population in following studies.
  61. 61. REFERENCES Alderson, J.C. 2000. Assessing Reading. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Bamford, J and Day, R.R. 1998. Extensive Reading in the Second Language Classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Bamford, J and Day, R.R. 2004. Extensive Reading Activities for Teaching Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Cline, F., Johnstone, C., & King, T. 2006. Focus group reactions to three definitions of reading (as originally developed in support of NARAP goal 1). Minneapolis, MN: National Accessible Reading Assessment Projects. Davis, C., Jacobs, G.M., Renandy, W.A. 1997. Successful Strategies for Extensive Reading. Singapore: SEAMEO Regional Language Centre Goodman, K. 1970. Reading: A Psycholinguistic Guessing Game. Retrieved on January 19th 2013 from www.cambridgejournal.org Grellet, F. 1983. Developing Reading Skills: A Practical Guide to Reading Comprehension Exercises. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Hyland, K. 2003. Second Language Writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Krashen, S.D. 1982. Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Pergamon Press. Krashen, S.D. 1984. Inquiries and insights. California: Alemany Press Krashen, S.D. 1993. The Power of Reading. Oxford: Pergamon Press. Latief, M.A. 2009. Penelitian Pengembangan. Malang: State University of Malang Press McKillip, J. 1987. Need Analysis: Tools for the Human Service and Education. Applied Social Research Methods Series, Volume 10. California: Sage Publications 45
  62. 62. 46 McKillip, J. 1998. Need Analysis. In Bickman, L and Rog, D.J. (Eds). Handbook of Applied Social Research Methods. California: Sage Publications Nuttall, C. 1996. Teaching Reading Skills in a Foreign Language. Oxford: Heinemann. Snow, C.E. 2002. Reading for Understanding: toward a research and development program in reading comprehension.Pittsburgh: RAND Sweeney, S. 1993. An article entitled: The importance of reading in foreign language teaching. Originally published in Authentically English 2, 1993. Retrieved on February 28, 2012. The extensive foundation’s: Guide to Extensive Reading. Taken from www.erfoundation.org. Retrieved on March 13, 2012 Tomlinson, B. 1998. Materials Development in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Tomlinson, B. 2012. Materials Development for Language Learning and Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Weaver, C. 2009. Reading Process: Brief edition of reading process and practice / Constance Weaver. ---3rd ed. Portsmouth: Heinemann
  63. 63. 47 Appendix 1 Reccomendation Letter
  64. 64. 48 Appendix 2: Questionnaire for Needs Assessment KUESIONER/ANGKET PENELITIAN UNTUK SISWA Petunjuk Pengisian Kuesioner: Kuesioner ini diberikan untuk pengambilan data penelitian skripsi mahasiswa Jurusan Sastra Inggris Universitas Negeri Malang (UM) dan bertujuan untuk mengetahui kompetensi Bahasa Inggris peserta didik SMP kelas VIII. Oleh karena itu, harap kalian mengisi instrumen ini DENGAN JUJUR berdasarkan apa yang kalian rasakan dengan cara melingkari pilihan yang sesuai. Identitas Peserta Didik Nama Jenis Kelamin L/P Umur …… Tahun Kelas 1. Berapa lama kalian menghabiskan waktu untuk belajar Bahasa Inggris di rumah? a. <30 menit b. 30 menit c. 1 jam d. > 1 jam 2. Apakah kesulitan yang kalian hadapi saat membaca teks Bahasa Inggris? (pilihan bisa lebih dari satu) a. Kosakata yang sulit dimengerti b. Teks yang terlalu panjang c. Teks kurang menarik d. Lainnya… 3. Gambarkan kemampuan membaca kalian dalam memahami jenis-jenis teks Bahasa Inggris a. Sangat baik b. Baik c. Sedang d. Buruk e. Sangat buruk 4. Jika kalian ingin membaca bacaan Bahasa Inggris, seperti legenda, mitos, fable, orang-orang terkenal, perkembangan teknologi, serta bahasan yang unik, apakah perpustakaan sekolah menyediakan? a. Ya b. Tidak
  65. 65. 49 5. Apakah yang kalian lakukan untuk mengatasi kesulitan dalam memahami teks Bahasa Inggris? (pilihan bisa lebih dari satu) a. Sering membaca teks Bahasa Inggris d. Bertanya pada Guru b. Sering berlatih soal-soal reading e. Lainnya (sebutkan) c. Berdiskusi dengan teman ___________________ 6. Bagaimana menurut kalian tentang materi reading yang sesuai untuk membantu kalian dalam belajar Bahasa Inggris? a. Teks bervariasi dan tidak terlalu panjang b. Bahasa yang digunakan sesuai dengan kemampuan peserta didik c. Latihan soal-soal yang beragam dan cukup d. Desain yang menarik e. Lainnya. (sebutkan) _________________________ 7. Lingkari tema yang kalian sukai dari tipe/jenis teks di bawah ini. (pilihan bisa lebih dari satu) a. Deskripsi orang/idola: One Direction, Carly Rae Jepsen, Leo Messi, dll b. Deskripsi hewan: keunikan bunglon, fakta menarik seputar Gajah, dll c. Deskripsi tempat/bangunan: tembagapura kota yang tidak diliputi matahari, dll d. Legenda: Timun Mas, Kaguya Hime,dll e. Mitos: Perseus, Achilles, Thor,dll f. Dongeng: Aladdin, Cinderella, Hansel and Gretel, The Crying Stone, dll g. Fabel: Cat and Mouse, Dove and Ant, Si Kancil, dll h. Lainnya. (sebutkan)____________________________ 8. Menurut kalian apakah teks di bawah ini a. b. c. d. e. Sangat sulit dimengerti Sulit dimengerti Biasa-biasa saja Mudah dimengerti Sangat mudah dimengerti
  66. 66. 50 Long ago, there lived a little boy named Sammy. He was obedient to his parents, more intelligent than many other boys in his class and kind to everyone. But that aroused jealousy in many other boys who wanted to be as loved as Sammy. Now there was another boy named Timmy who studied in the same class as Sammy. Unlike Sammy, he was bad at studies and always liked to play during school hours. He liked to bully his classmates including Sammy. He always tried to put Sammy down. But no matter what he did, Sammy was always good to Timmy. On his eighth birthday, Sammy got a nice pen as a gift from his parents. He brought it to school. This was a very beautiful pen and it could help Sammy write very fast. When Timmy saw it, he was very jealous of Sammy. He asked Sammy, "Hey, where did you get that? Did you buy it?" "My parents gave it as a birthday gift to me." replied Sammy. Timmy was angry and jealous because he rarely got any present from his parents. He decided to steal Sammy's pen. During break, when everyone had gone out from the class, Timmy opened Sammy's bag and took out his pen. Then he hid it inside his bag. When Sammy came back and could not find his pen, he told his class teacher about it. After that, every student’s bag was checked. The missing pen was soon found out of Timmy's bag and the furious teacher asked the badly behave boy. "Now Timmy, what do you have to say about it?" Timmy was in tears. He had nothing to say. When Sammy saw Timmy cry, he felt pity on the boy. Sammy was not angry to Timmy. Sammy forgave Timmy for what Timmy had already done. This opened Timmy's eyes. He asked for forgiveness from his teacher and Sammy. From that day, he became friends with Sammy and gradually changed himself to be as good as Sammy. Everyone began to love Timmy and Sammy was proud of his new friend.
  67. 67. 51 Appendix 3: Interview Guidelines for the English Teacher INTERVIEW GUIDELINES FOR THE ENGLISH TEACHER 1. Menurut Ibu, bagaimanakah kompetensi reading siswa kelas VIII SMP Negeri 1 malang? 2. Kesulitan-kesulitan apakah yang dihadapi siswa dalam reading? 3. Apakah ibu pernah mengimplementasikan Extensive Reading? 4. Bagaimakah pendapat ibu mengenai Extensive Reading? 5. Bagaimanakah tingkat minat baca peserta didik kelas VIII SMP Negeri 1 Malang? 6. Hal-hal apakah yang mempengaruhi minat baca peserta didik? a. Tingkat kesulitan text type b. Bahasan yang diulas dalam text type c. Aktivitas yang dilakukan saat reading d. Lainnya… 7. Bagaimanakah ketersediaan materi di perpustakaan SMPN 1 Malang? 8. Menurut Ibu, apakah teks di bawah ini bisa dimengerti oleh peserta didik kelas VIII secara mandiri? Long ago, there lived a little boy named Sammy. He was obedient to his parents, more intelligent than many other boys in his class and kind to everyone. But that aroused jealousy in many other boys who wanted to be as loved as Sammy. Now there was another boy named Timmy who studied in the same class as Sammy. Unlike Sammy, he was bad at studies and always liked to play during school hours. He liked to bully his classmates including Sammy. He always tried to put Sammy down. But no matter what he did, Sammy is always good to Timmy. On his eighth birthday, Sammy got a nice pen as a gift from his parents. He brought it to school. This was a very beautiful pen and it could help Sammy write very fast. When Timmy saw it, he was very jealous of Sammy. He asked Sammy, "Hey, where did you get that? Did you buy it?" "My parents gave it as a birthday gift to me." replied Sammy. Timmy was angry and jealous because he rarely got any present from his parents. He decided to steal Sammy's pen. During break, when everyone had gone out
  68. 68. 52 from the class, Timmy opened Sammy's bag and took out his pen. Then he hid it inside his bag. When Sammy came back and could not find his pen, he told his class teacher about it. After that, every student’s bag was checked. The missing pen was soon found out of Timmy's bag and the furious teacher asked the badly behave boy. "Now Timmy, what do you have to say about it?" Timmy was in tears. He had nothing to say. When Sammy saw Timmy cry, he felt pity on the boy. Sammy was not angry to Timmy. Sammy forgave Timmy for what Timmy had already done. This opened Timmy's eyes. He asked for forgiveness from his teacher and Sammy. From that day, he became friends with Sammy and gradually changed himself to be as good as Sammy. Everyone began to love Timmy and Sammy was proud of his new friend.
  69. 69. 53 Appendix 4: Expert Validation Checklist Expert Validation Checklist 1. Cover Design 2. Typing and Font 3. Spacing 4. Layout 5. Organization of the Materials 6. Instructional Objectives 7. Text 8. 9. Vocabulary Comprehension The cover of each chapter is interesting a. The typing is well-typed, neat, and regular. b. The font is readable in terms of the choice and size. The spacing is appropriate and consistent. The layout is clear and attractive The organization of the materials in the form of texts and activities are appropriate. a. The instructional objectives are clear. b. The instructional objectives are stated appropriately. c. The instructional objectives are ordered appropriately. a. The texts can develop the reading skill. b. The texts can be exploited into communicative tasks. c. The number of texts in each chapter is sufficient. a. The selection of vocabulary is appropriate for the target learners b. The chapters cover sufficient activities related to the vocabulary use. a. The questions are appropriate to the Poor Adequate Good Excellent Instructions:  Give tick mark (√) at the alternative answers which you think the best one for the following criteria.  The space for general comment and suggestions are provided at the last part of this form. No Components Criteria Grading
  70. 70. 54 Question 10. Grammar review 11. Activities 12. Directions 13. Answer key 14. Coverage of given context. b. The questions are helpful to develop students’ reading skill. c. The questions provide valuable support to the comprehension of the texts d. The questions are suitable for enjoyment activity a. The grammar review is relevant to the text. b. The grammar review is appropriate to the given context. c. The grammar review is representative of the underlying grammar value. d. The grammar review has sufficient exercise. e. The grammar review gives clear and appropriate examples. f. The examples in the grammar review can define the concepts clearly and adequately. g. The language can be used as a model of correct and meaningful grammatical structure. a. The activities are appropriate to the given context. b. The activities mirror communicative purpose. c. The activities integrate knowledge and the target language. d. The number of activities in each chapter is sufficient. e. The activities can interestingly trigger the students’ motivation. The content of the directions is clear, understandable, and appropriate. a. The answer keys have clear explanation. b. The answer keys match with the activities. a. The coverage of the materials is
  71. 71. 55 materials 15. Content of materials 16. Amount of materials relevant to the needs of students. b. The coverage of the materials represents the aspect of reading skills. a. The content of the materials relates directly to the instructional objective. b. The content of the materials is not offensive in term of racism and sexism. c. The content of the materials is appropriate for enjoyment activity. Each package has the same amount of the content of the materials. Comment/Suggestions: March…, 2013 Validator Dr. Arwijati Murdibjono, M.Pd., Dip. TESL NIP. 19501104 197603 2 001
  72. 72. 56 Appendix 5: Teacher Validation Checklist Teacher Validation Checklist 1. Cover Design 2. Typing and Font 3. Spacing 4. Layout 5. Organization of the Materials 6. Instructional Objectives 7. Text 8. 9. Vocabulary Comprehension The cover of each chapter is interesting a. The typing is well-typed, neat, and regular. b. The font is readable in terms of the choice and size. The spacing is appropriate and consistent. The layout is clear and attractive The organization of the materials in the form of texts and activities are appropriate. a. The instructional objectives are clear. b. The instructional objectives are stated appropriately. c. The instructional objectives are ordered appropriately. a. The texts can develop the reading skill. b. The texts can be exploited into communicative tasks. c. The number of texts in each chapter is sufficient. a. The selection of vocabulary is appropriate for the target learners b. The chapters cover sufficient activities related to the vocabulary use. a. The questions are appropriate to the Poor Adequate Good Excellent Instructions:  Give tick mark (√) at the alternative answers which you think the best one for the following criteria.  The space for general comment and suggestions are provided at the last part of this form. No Components Criteria Grading
  73. 73. 57 Question 10. Grammar review 11. Activities 12. Directions 13. Answer key 14. Coverage of given context. b. The questions are helpful to develop students’ reading skill. c. The questions provide valuable support to the comprehension of the texts d. The questions are suitable for enjoyment activity a. The grammar review is relevant to the text. b. The grammar review is appropriate to the given context. c. The grammar review is representative of the underlying grammar value. d. The grammar review has sufficient exercise. e. The grammar review gives clear and appropriate examples. f. The examples in the grammar review can define the concepts clearly and adequately. g. The language can be used as a model of correct and meaningful grammatical structure. a. The activities are appropriate to the given context. b. The activities mirror communicative purpose. c. The activities integrate knowledge and the target language. d. The number of activities in each chapter is sufficient. e. The activities can interestingly trigger the students’ motivation. The content of the directions is clear, understandable, and appropriate. a. The answer keys have clear explanation. b. The answer keys match with the activities. a. The coverage of the materials is
  74. 74. 58 materials 15. Content of materials 16. Amount of materials relevant to the needs of students. b. The coverage of the materials represents the aspect of reading skills. a. The content of the materials relates directly to the instructional objective. b. The content of the materials is not offensive in term of racism and sexism. c. The content of the materials is appropriate for enjoyment activity. Each package has the same amount of the content of the materials. Comment/Suggestions: ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ March…, 2013 Validator Dra. Ida Kadarwati NIP. 19620908 199003 2 006

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