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CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (RULES AND EXERCISES)

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CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (RULES AND EXERCISES)Document Transcript

• Object 1Object 2
• CONDITIONAL SENTENCES ATC-IBARRA CONDITIONAL SENTENCESWe have 4 conditional cases: zero conditional First conditional Second conditional and Third conditional Zero conditional2
• CONDITIONAL SENTENCES ATC-IBARRA GRAMMAR RULES WITH EXAMPLESThere are four basic types of conditional sentences in the English language.Examples:The zero conditional: I take my umbrella if it rains.The first conditional: Ill call you if I work late.The second conditional: If the bus didnt arrive on time, I would drive you to theairport.The third conditional: She wouldnt have come if I hadnt invited her.  The zero conditionalThe zero conditional describes situations that are always true. If has thesame meaning as when or whenever.Example:If I go to school, I get up at seven. (Whenever I go to school I get up at thesame time.)If you park your car on double yellow lines, you pay a fine. (Whenever youpark illegally, you pay a fine.)We use the present simple tense in both the main clauses and the ifclauses.  The first conditionalThe first conditional sentences are usedto speculate about possible situations thatcan really happen at present or in future.We do not use will in an if clause todescribe future activities (compare it to time clauses).Examples:If he studies hard, hell pass the exams. If we catch the 10.15 train, we will arrive on time. If you dont get the ticket, what will you do?3
• CONDITIONAL SENTENCES ATC-IBARRAWe make if clauses with if + present tense and main clauses with will +bare infinitive.  The second conditionalIn the second conditional sentences we speculate about situations that willprobably never happen at present or in future.Example:If I had more time, I would help you. (But I am not free at the moment. I canthelp you).If I won a million dollars, I would start a business of my own. (But I know that itis not realistic.)We make if clauses with if + past tense and main clauses with would +bare infinitive.Note: the verb to be can be specific in the if clause.If I were rich, I wouldnt work.If he were younger, he would marry her.(But was is also possible: If I was rich, I wouldnt work.If he was younger, he would marry her.)But: If I were you, I wouldnt do it. (In this expression, were is much more usualthan was.)  Compare the first conditional with the secondThe main difference between the first conditional and the second conditional isabout probability: the first conditional is realistic, the second conditional isunrealistic.Sometimes we can use both with the following difference in meaning.If I see him, I will tell him. (I suppose I will see him, because we go to thesame school.)If I saw him, I would tell him. (I dont think I will see him, because he is ill.)If I need your help, Ill call you. (It is probable that I will need your help.)If I needed your help, Id call you. (It is not very probable that I will need yourhelp.)Sometimes we must use either the first conditional or the second conditional4
• CONDITIONAL SENTENCES ATC-IBARRAto make it clear that the situation is real or unreal.If you get up late, you will miss your bus. (a real situation)If I came from your country, I would understand your problems. (an unrealsituation - I am not from your country.)  Other formsApart from the basic structures (if+ the present simple + will and if + the pastsimple + would), we can also make different combinations.Examples - type 1:If you have finished your dinner, you can ask for the bill.If you are feeling tired, take a rest:If he is a good skier, he might make it.If you want to be slim, you should eat less.If you meet her, could you let me know?Examples - type 2:If I knew his address, I might go and see him.If we were on holiday, we would be lying on a beach now.Why are we watching this film? If we were watching the news, it would bemore interesting.  The third conditionalThe third conditional sentences always refer to the past. We speculate aboutsituations that happened or did not happen in the past.Examples:If I had won a million, I would have started a business of my own. (But I didntwin anything.)If he had met her, he would have told her. (Unfortunately, he didnt meet her.)If we hadnt practised, we wouldnt have won the match. (But we practised andwon.)We make if clauses with if+ past perfect and main clauses with would + perfectinfinitive (have + past participle).But we can also combine other verb structures in third conditional sentences.We didnt save any money. If we had saved some money, we might havebought the house.5
• CONDITIONAL SENTENCES ATC-IBARRAShe wasnt there and I wasnt sitting next to her. But if she had been there, Iwould have been sitting next to herI was looking at the trees when I fell off the bike. If I hadnt been looking at thetrees, I wouldn t have fallen off the bike.  The mixed conditionalsIn the mixed conditional sentences we can combine the second and thirdconditional.If he had left immediately, he would be here now. (He didnt leave immediatelyand isnt here.)If I had studied hard when I was young, I wouldnt be a porter now. (I didntstudy and I am a porter.)If we hadnt told him the way while he was preparing for his journey, he wouldget lost now. (We told him and he isnt lost.)  The inverted conditionalsWe can also make conditional sentences by changing the word order in the ifclause.Had he booked the hotel room, he woulnt have slept at the camp. (If he hadbooked ... )Were I in your position, I would accept it. (If I were ... )This is less common, quite formal and is mostly used in writing.NoteIf is the most frequent expression in the if clauses, but other expressions arealso possible.even if, provided (that), unless, on condition (that), in caseExamplesYou will leave tonight even if you dont want to.You can have your birthday party provided that you arent noisy.Well sell you the ranch on condition you pay in cash.You should take a dictionary with you in case you forgot some words.Unless you do something, she wont come back. (If you dont do anything, ... )6
• CONDITIONAL SENTENCES ATC-IBARRA Exercise 1Put the verbs in brackets into the gaps. Form aConditional sentence - type I. Only use the will-futurein the main clauses.Example: If I __ (to go) to the cinema, I ________ (to watch) an interestingfilm.Answer: If I go to the cinema, I will watch an interesting film.7
• CONDITIONAL SENTENCES ATC-IBARRA1) If I (to study), I (to pass) the exams.2) If the sun (to shine), we (to walk) to the town.3) If he (to have) a temperature, he (to see) thedoctor.4) If my friends (to come), I (to be) very happy.5) If she (to earn) a lot of money, she (to fly) toNew York.6) If we (to travel) to London, we (to visit) themuseums.7) If you (to wear) sandals in the mountains, you(to slip) on the rocks.8) If Rita (to forget) her homework, the teacher(to give) her a low mark.9) If they (to go) to the disco, they (to listen) toloud music.10) If you (to wait) a minute, I (to ask) myparents. EXERCISE 2Put the verbs in brackets into the gaps. Form aConditional sentence - type II.Example: If I __ (to go) to the cinema, I ________ (to watch) aninteresting film.Answer: If I went to the cinema, I would watch an interesting film.8
• CONDITIONAL SENTENCES ATC-IBARRA1) If I (to come) home earlier, I (to prepare) dinner............................................................................................................2) If we (to live) in Rome, Francesco (to visit) us.............................................................................................................3) If Tim and Tom (to be) older, they (to play) in our hockey team............................................................................................................4) If he (to be) my friend, I (to invite) him to my birthday party...........................................................................................................5) If Susan (to study) harder, she (to be) better at school...........................................................................................................6) If they (to have) enough money, they (to buy) a new car...........................................................................................................7) If you (to do) a paper round, you (to earn) a little extra money...........................................................................................................8) If Michael (to get) more pocket money, he (to ask) Doris out for dinner..........................................................................................................9) If we (to hurry), we (to catch) the bus...........................................................................................................10) If it (to rain), Nina (to take) an umbrella with her............................................................................................................ EXERCISE 3Put the verbs in brackets into the gaps. Form aConditional sentence - type III.Example: If I _______ (to go) to the cinema, I ________ (to watch) aninteresting film.Answer: If I had gone to the cinema, I would have watched an interestingfilm.1) If the weather (to be) nice, they (to play) football...................................................................................................2) If we (to go) to a good restaurant, we (to have) a betterdinner.9
• CONDITIONAL SENTENCES ATC-IBARRA.................................................................................................3) If John (to learn) more words, he (to write) a good report...................................................................................................4) If the boys (to take) the bus to school, they (to arrive) ontime..................................................................................................5) If the teacher (to explain) the homework, I (to do) it...................................................................................................6) If they (to wait) for another 10 minutes, they (to see) thepop star...................................................................................................7) If the police (to come) earlier, they (to arrest) the burglar...................................................................................................8) If you (to buy) fresh green vegetable, your salad (to taste)better...................................................................................................9) If Alex (to ask) me, I (to email) the documents...................................................................................................10) If he (to speak) more slowy, Peggy (to understand) him...................................................................................................SUMMARYZero conditional First conditional Second conditional Third conditionalIf clause Result If clause Result If clause Result If clause Result clause clause clause clauseSimple Simple Simple Will + V Past Would+ Past Would +Present Present present simple verb perfect have+ VppIf I dont water the If I study hard , I If I had time , I If I had had money,plants, they die. will have good would do exercises I would have grades travelled around the world.If I take out the fish If I eat well. I will If I obveyed my If I had studied, Ifrom the water . have good health parents, I wouldnt wouldnt have lostThey die. have problems. the year10
• CONDITIONAL SENTENCES ATC-IBARRAhttp://www.e-grammar.org/if-clauses/test1-exercise4/C o n ditio n al s Q uizFill in the blanks using the mostappropriate conditional type. 1. If he (have) more time, he (finish) decorating the babys room before she was born. 2. Both parents and teachers (feel) pleased if students studied harder and got higher grades. 3. Even if I (do) well on the test tomorrow, I dont think I (pass) , for the teacher underevaluates my papers. 4. If the United Nations (stop) the war between the two countries beforehand, today, so many children and the old (suffer) from hunger and cold. 5. I overate last night, so I couldnt sleep well. If I (eat) so much, I (have) a sweet sleep. 6. (Be) I in your shoes now, I (choose) to decline this offer. 7. But for Kevins assistance, we (complete) our term paper in time. 8. No one can succeed anything unless s/he really (resolve)11
• CONDITIONAL SENTENCES ATC-IBARRA to do it. 9. If you (forget) to take the compass, we (be) lost now. 10. As long as your company (assure) our success in marketing, we (continue) doing business with you. 11. I wouldnt be so upset if you (invite) me to your birthday party last Wednesday. 12. You can use my dictionary on condition that you (promise) to bring it back tonight. 13. All this calamity (happen) if they (cut) most of the trees in that area. 14. I (take) some cash with me in case I exceeded my credit card limit. 15. Only if George apologizes to Mary, forgive him.12
• CONDITIONAL SENTENCES ATC-IBARRAÍndice de contenido CONDITIONAL SENTENCES.....................................................................................2GRAMMAR RULES WITH EXAMPLES....................................................................3The zero conditional........................................................................................................3 The first conditional.......................................................................................................3 The second conditional..................................................................................................4Compare the first conditional with the second ...............................................................4Other forms.....................................................................................................................5The third conditional.......................................................................................................5The mixed conditionals...................................................................................................6The inverted conditionals................................................................................................6Note.................................................................................................................................6Exercise 1........................................................................................................................7EXERCISE 2...................................................................................................................8EXERCISE 3..................................................................................................................9SUMMARY..................................................................................................................10Conditionals Quiz.......................................................................................................................................1113
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