Federation

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Federation

  1. 1. Australian FederationOr “How the States Learned to StopWorrying and Love Being a Nation”
  2. 2. Australian FederationOr “How the States Learned to StopWorrying and Love Being a Nation” I’m not worried!
  3. 3. What was Australia Like Before Federation? Why did people start to become interested in what it meant to be Australian?What was the first state to be created?
  4. 4. What was Australia Like Before Federation? Before 1901, Australia was just anumber of separate British Colonies,who were more or less like separate countries. Australia as one nation, under one government, didn’t exist.
  5. 5. We don’t actually exist yet. A Divided Country We have nice weather, So we’re fine. We have all the bestResources and we’re keeping them To ourselves. We don’t have to listen to anything those Victorians say Where is Tasmania? We look after ourselves No-one on the mainland Cares about us
  6. 6. The Changing States
  7. 7. So who wanted Federation then? In 1901 Australia’s population numbered 3,788,123, but these people were split over 6 states. (The NT and ACT didn’t exist yet.) Australia had been settled over 100 years earlier, whichmeant that a lot of people (that is, people from Europeanbackgrounds) in the country had actually been born there, rather than being shipped in from overseas. Understandably, these people were interested in what it actually meant to be Australian.
  8. 8. The Rise of Nationalism The idea of being "Australian" began to becelebrated in songs and poems. It was also helped by improvements in transport and communications, such as the establishment of a telegraph between the colonies in 1872. This surge of interest in what it meant to be Australian led to a movement called “Nationalism”. Nationalists wanted to define Australia as a country, instead of just a group of separate states.
  9. 9. What was Australia Like Before Federation? Why did people start to become interested in what it meant to be Australian?What was the first state to be created?
  10. 10. The United States Why were some Australians so inspired by the USA?What was the cause of some concern, given what had happened in the USA?
  11. 11. The United States Nationalists were very inspired by what had recently happened in the USA.Like Australia, the USA had started out as a mostly British Colony. However, tensions had broken out between the British and American Colonists, mostly to do with having to pay tax to the British. These tensions led to open warfare in 1775. To combat the British, the Americans formed a government to co-ordinate the states in their military effort. It was the first time the states had functioned as one country.
  12. 12. Civil WarHowever, it wasn’t all clear sailing for theAmericans. After winning the war with theBritish, more and states became part of the Union, which led to more tensions! Arguments over the rights and powers of individual states (mostly to do with slavery and how much control the federal government would have) ended up in the States going to war with each other in 1861. Lots of people died.You can understand why some Australians would be worried about forming such a Union…
  13. 13. The United States Why were some Australians so inspired by the USA?What was the cause of some concern, given what had happened in the USA?
  14. 14. The Road to FederationWho was Henry Parkes? When did he first suggest Australia should become one nation? What were the states starting to worry about? When did most states meet and agree that Federation sounded like a good idea? What did they then spend 10 years deciding?
  15. 15. The People of FederationHenry Parkes, then the Colonial Secretary of New SouthWales, first proposed a Federal Council body in 1867. Born in 1816, Henry had no formal education. He first worked as a brickie before starting his own business which quickly failed. He actually left Australia in 1838 with his wife (the daughter of a butcher) to find work in the UK. 6 months later, after working as a labourer, he and his family returned to Sydney, where he found work as an Ironmonger.
  16. 16. Henry ParkesHenry then opened an Ivory Tunerbusiness, which failed, leaving him indeep financial trouble. By this time though, Henry had started becoming involved in local politics and had taken up writing. For a lousy businessman with no formal education, it seems Henry could actually write really well. He had several books of poetry published that were very well received.
  17. 17. The Road to Federation Henry quickly rose through the political world and was soon the Colonial Secretary of NSW. In 1867, he put forward the idea for a National Union to the NSW government. Unfortunately, the British Representative for NO!! the Colonies said no.
  18. 18. The Road to Federation continues…Luckily, Henry didn’t give up. Even if he was getting older andhis beard was getting longer. (check out the picture to the left) Henry ended up being the Premier of NSW 5 times between 1872 and 1891. In 1880, as Premier, he brought up the idea of Federation again at a meeting of all of the Australian Premiers. I still think we should have a national government. What do you guys reckon?
  19. 19. Worries… The heads of the individual states were starting to worry about quite a few things. Communication… a telegraph system was already established in most parts of the country but needed more expansion. Who was going to pay for it and organise it?People were also worried about the number ofChinese workers coming to Australia. Theywanted to set up some form of ImmigrationControl.
  20. 20. More Worries… They also worried about the workers bandying together and forming unions, which would make them harder to control.People also wanted to make sure taxes would bemore or less the same across the country. Toomany takes would be bad for business and tradewith other countries. Also, people were a bit nervous about the large number of Germans and French who were gathering in Papua New Guinea. Australia needed a military force of its own…
  21. 21. The First Federation Because of these fears, a Federal Council ofAustralasia was formed in 1888, to represent theaffairs of the colonies in their relations with the South Pacific islands. New South Wales and New Zealand didn’t join. Without NSW, the Federation wasn’t as strong as it should have been. NSW was one of the strongest, wealthiest states. All the same, it was a good start.
  22. 22. Getting Closer…Henry Parkes was still keen to establish a FederalGovernment involving all of the states. Not manypeople thought he would be able to do it though.At a conference in 1889, he claimed: ”I could confederate these colonies in twelve months" To which someone replied that he should, as it would be a great finish to his life. In other words, doing so would kill him.
  23. 23. Conferences and CongressesBy the end of a conference in 1890 (which tookplace in February in a blistering 39 degrees), mostpeople seemed to think a Federal Governmentwas a good idea.However, first off they had to decide whatsort of government they wanted. A lot ofarguments went on about this over thenext few years. Some people thought it was a goodidea to have an American System of Government. (The Americans wereseen as being a good example to the young Australian nation.)
  24. 24. Which Government?  British Government was split between two houses, an upper house and lower house. It also provided a good model for government beneath a Monarch, unlike the US.Ultimately the American model was mixed with the Britishsystem. Members of the upper house would be chosen byMinisters appointed by the government. These Ministerswould come from whichever party had the majority in thelower house.Everything was sorted, now they just needed to get theAustralian people (the white Australians anyway) to agree tojoin a federation.
  25. 25. The Road to FederationWho was Henry Parkes? When did he first suggest Australia should become one nation? What were the states starting to worry about? When did most states meet and agree that Federation sounded like a good idea? What did they then spend 10 years deciding?
  26. 26. FederationWhat is a referendum? Who was the last state to join? Why do you think they took so long to join?What happened to Henry Parkes?
  27. 27. Referendums  A referendum is a poll in which citizens of a state or a country vote on whether to make a major change.  In 1898, NSW, Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia voted to become part of the federation.  In 1899, they voted again and even more people thought it was a good idea. Queensland also agreed to join the Federation.  In 1900, Western Australia finally voted to join.In 1901, the first Australian Federal Governmentwas created.
  28. 28. The Death of Henry Parkes The last few years of Henry’s life were pretty rough. He went through immense personal turmoilfollowing the death of his first wife. He remarried quickly to Eleanor Dixon and they had two more children. Dixon soon died. Parkes remarried yet again, this time to Julia Lynch, but died of pneumonia on April 27, 1896, four years before Australia became a federation.
  29. 29. FederationWhat is a referendum? Who was the last state to join? Why do you think they took so long to join?What happened to Henry Parkes?

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