Modern latin america


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Modern latin america

  1. 1. WAR IN NINETEENTH-CENTURY LATIN AMERICA History 141 # 71154 Student: B Lukas Instructor: Dr. M Arguello
  2. 2. WHAT WERE THE CAUSES? By Robert L. Scheina <ul><li>RACE WAR   </li></ul><ul><li>IDEOLOGY OF INDEPENDENCE </li></ul><ul><li>SEPARATION VERSUS UNION </li></ul><ul><li>BOUNDARY DISPUTES </li></ul><ul><li>WARS OF TERRITORIAL CONQUEST </li></ul>
  3. 3. WHAT WERE THE CAUSES? <ul><li>RACE WAR </li></ul><ul><li>1791-1804 The  Haitian Revolution was a period of conflict in the French  colony  of  Saint- Domingue , which culminated in the elimination of  slavery  there and the founding of the  Haitian republic . </li></ul><ul><li>Rapidly became an all-out race war when the third and largest racial element, the pure blacks, ultimately dominated.  </li></ul><ul><li>In 1791 the affranchis sought the liberties given to all citizens by the French Revolution. During the early years of the bloody warfare, some wealthy plantation owners were able to escape from Haiti with their slaves, contributing to the spread of race as a cause for conflict, particularly in neighboring Cuba. Conflicts in other areas of Latin America have also had racial overtones, but none equaled the extremes of the Caribbean experience. </li></ul>
  4. 4. WHAT WERE THE CAUSES? <ul><li>RACE WAR </li></ul><ul><li>Although hundreds of rebellions occurred in the  New World during the centuries of slavery, only two, the  American Revolution  that began in 1776 and the Haitian revolution that began in 1791, were successful in achieving permanent independence. </li></ul><ul><li>The Haitian Revolution is regarded as a defining moment in the history of Africans in the New World. </li></ul>
  5. 5. WHAT WERE THE CAUSES? <ul><li>IDEOLOGY OF INDEPENDENCE </li></ul><ul><li>Latin American wars for independence were an outgrowth of deep-seated political, economic, and social frustrations.  </li></ul><ul><li>Events in Europe and North America were additional catalysts for independence, although not pervasive. </li></ul><ul><li>The American Revolution (1775-1783), which had had the support of Spain, and the French Revolution (1789-1799) provided models. These influenced some of the privileged of the New World, the two most important being Simon Bolivar of New Granada and Miguel Hidalgo of Mexico. </li></ul><ul><li>Not all wars for independence within Latin America were against the European monarch. Some were caused by the heterogeneity within the vast viceregal governments. For example, Asunci6n and its surroundings had evolved very differently from Buenos Aires, the viceregal capital.  </li></ul><ul><li>Another factor that caused regions within a viceregal colony to seek independence from the colonial seat of power was economic competition within that colony. </li></ul>
  6. 6. WHAT WERE THE CAUSES? <ul><li>SEPARATION VERSUS UNION </li></ul><ul><li>During the colonial era, many administrative entities within the Spanish colonial empire had been held together primarily through their loyalty to the King; he was the glue. Formidable geographical barriers of mountains, jungles, deserts, rivers, and vast distances created isolated pockets of population. Once this European monarch had been forced to abandon his Latin American supporters, a prime issue became whether these vast but sparsely populated colonial entities would become a single nation or whether they would break up-separation versus union. </li></ul><ul><li>The potential of the young nation breaking apart dominated Argentine politics and military operations for almost six decades (1816-61). Colombia was subjected to nearly eighty years of on-again, off-again civil wars between Centralists and Federalists; between 1828 and 1871 some fifty revolts occurred. Liberal Jose Antonio Gamboa argued at the 1857 constitutional convention that Mexico's second most important problem (the Roman Catholic Church being the first) was the potential of national disintegration because of a lack of identity. </li></ul>
  7. 7. WHAT WERE THE CAUSES? <ul><li>BOUNDARY DISPUTES </li></ul><ul><li>The poorly defined boundaries of the newly independent nations caused wars. The Spanish king's inadequate knowledge of the geography transferred vast areas from one administrative entity to another in attempts to improve political, social, and economic control. This gave almost every post-independence Spanish-speaking nation some basis to claim lands also cherished by a neighbor. The colonial boundaries in Spanish South America were particularly complex because the continent had been administratively reorganized in 1776, thus further confusing historical ties. Also, the kings of Spain and Portugal were occasionally at war during the colonial era and the same held true for their colonies. Not surprisingly, a golden rule of Latin America power politics became: Relations between nations which share a common border are cool and those which do not are warm. Boundary wars began immediately after the wars of independence and continued throughout the nineteenth century. </li></ul>
  8. 8. WHAT WERE THE CAUSES? <ul><li>WARS OF TERRITORIAL CONQUEST </li></ul><ul><li>The post-independence wars of territorial conquest against the native Americans (the Indians) were an extension of the colonial experience. Unassimilated tribes inhabited the more inhospitable regions throughout Latin America, and the new nations conducted campaigns against these Indians which continue in some places today. </li></ul><ul><li>Only a few wars for territorial conquest were initiated within Latin America in the years following independence. True, a border dispute may have been the excuse to begin the conflict, but in a war for territorial conquest, the aggressor had aspirations from the beginning of winning land well beyond any of those in dispute. The clearest example of wars for territorial conquest were the United States confrontations with Mexico (1835-48) and British expansion in Central America (1821-56). </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Second World, by Dr. Parag Khanna <ul><li>What is the “Second World” according to Dr. Parag Khanna? </li></ul><ul><li>The term “The Second World” has fallen out. </li></ul><ul><li>It used to mean countries of the socialist refer to those countries in eastern Europe and central Asia, Latin America, the middle east and southeast Asia which are both rich and poor, developed and underdeveloped, postmodern, and cosmopolitan and tribal, all at the same time. </li></ul><ul><li>Not temporary state between third world and first, but a permanent condition in which winner and loser are chosen by collectives likes cities and corporations rather than entire states. </li></ul>Introduction
  10. 10. The second world, by Dr. Parag Khanna <ul><li>The  North American Free Trade Agreement  or  NAFTA </li></ul><ul><li>It’s an agreement signed by the governments of  Canada ,  Mexico , and the  United States , creating a trilateral  trade bloc  in North America. The agreement came into force on January 1, 1994. </li></ul><ul><li>It superseded the  Canada – United States Free Trade Agreement  between the U.S. and Canada. </li></ul>Part III, Chapter 15 Mexico: The Umbilical Cord
  11. 11. The second world, by Dr. Parag Khanna <ul><li>NAFTA meant to propel Mexico into the first world but Jan 1, 1994 The Zapatista national Liberation Army (EZLN) seized four southern municipalities and assassinated two top leaders of the PRI party </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico is drifting away from dependency on one commodity. </li></ul><ul><li>Once mainly an oil exporter but now manufactured products account for 80% of its exports. </li></ul><ul><li>Public investment in hospitals and schools is an afterthought. </li></ul>Part III, Chapter 15 Mexico: The Umbilical Cord
  12. 12. The second world, by Dr. Parag Khanna <ul><li>Former Mayor of Mexico City, Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador built his reputation by creating social and food support programs for elderly which lead to him running for the Mexican presidency but lost by narrow margins. </li></ul><ul><li>Mexicans have been continuously and regularly protesting against the ridiculous high food prices for simple foods such as tortillas and other basic foods. </li></ul>Part III, Chapter 15 Mexico: The Umbilical Cord
  13. 13. The second world, by Dr. Parag Khanna <ul><li>2006 Mexican state of Oaxaca suffered months of brutal conflict which involved armed gangs, police squads, and indigenous activists which ultimately destroyed its tourism industry. </li></ul><ul><li>Mexican Immigrants become a double-edged sword for United States, they take jobs that they don’t want and work harder for longer hours, and also will do it for much cheaper. But also strain underfunded education and health systems. </li></ul><ul><li>$16 Billion in Revenue from all 50 states is Mexico’s primary source of national income. </li></ul>Part III, Chapter 15 Mexico: The Umbilical Cord
  14. 14. Andrés Manuel López Obrador <ul><li>Andrés Manuel López Obrador  was born on November 13 1952 in the southern state of  Tabasco . </li></ul><ul><li>He ,known as  AMLO or  El Peje , is a  Mexican  politician who held the position of  Head of Government of the Federal District  (roughly, Mayor of Mexico City) from 2000 to 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>He joined the PRI in 1976 to actively collaborate in  Carlos Pellicer 's campaign for a  senate seat  for Tabasco. A year later, he headed the  Instituto Indigenista  (Indigenous People's Institute) of his state. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1984, he relocated to Mexico City to work at the  Instituto Nacional del Consumidor  (National Consumers' Institute), a Government agency. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Andrés Manuel López Obrador <ul><li>López Obrador is rumored to be an  Evangelical Christian  or  Presbyterian , which would be consistent with other natives from his home state but at odds with his image as a center-left politician. López publicly denied being a Protestant, and in a television interview he called himself a  Roman Catholic . </li></ul><ul><li>López Obrador was president of the  Institutional Revolutionary Party  (PRI) in his home state. He resigned his post working for the government of this state in 1988 to join the new dissenting left wing of the  PRI , then called the Democratic Current, led by  Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas . This movement formed the  National Democratic Front  and later became the  Party of the Democratic Revolution  (PRD). </li></ul><ul><li>López Obrador was president of the  PRD  from 2 August 1996 to 10 April 1999. </li></ul>
  16. 16. SOURCES <ul><li>WHAT WERE THE CAUSES FOR WAR IN NINETEENTH-CENTURY LATIN AMERICA? By Robert L. Scheina </li></ul><ul><li>The second world by Dr. Parag Khanna </li></ul><ul><li>WIKIPEDIA the Free Encyclopedia </li></ul><ul><li>Google Image Search </li></ul>