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ÖGLB Bildungskongress Vienna July 2013
 

ÖGLB Bildungskongress Vienna July 2013

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ÖGLB Bildungskongress Vienna July 2013 ÖGLB Bildungskongress Vienna July 2013 Presentation Transcript

  • What is common between bilingual education and inclusive education in the light of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities? Bildungskongress 2013 – ÖGLB Vienna, July 12-13, 2013 Dr Markku Jokinen Executive director, Finnish Association of the Deaf President of the European Union of the Deaf Honorary President of the World Federation of the Deaf
  • *Looking and fighting for a status and a place of bilingual education among different discourses, theoretical and practical frameworks, contexts, terminologies, approaches, disciplines, methodologies etc. ● Medicine, audiology, phoniatrics, pedaudiology, speechlanguage pathology, rehabilitation/habilitation, general education, special education, bilingual education, multilingualism, pedagogy, didactics, psychology, developmental psychology, psycho-pedagogy, defectology, surdopedagogy, linguistics, psycholinguistics, sociolinguistics, sociology, language of sociology, Sign Language linguistics, anthropology, Deaf Studies, minority studies and many many more… *And human rights framework? *Where are we?
  • *International human rights instruments and standards provide a broad framework for the protection of fundamental human rights and freedoms of all human beings.
  • *Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD)? – How the CRPD sees a group of deaf people? – What elements of Deaf Culture are found in CRPD? – Idea of inclusive education and its relationship to bilingual education? – Reasonable accommodation and accessibility? *Relationship between inclusive and bilingual education? *Several questions…
  • *New challenges to merge/combine previously used constructs and concepts with human rights language…
  • *Austria ratified both the convention and the protocol July 9, 2008.
  • General articles - purpose, definitions, principles, obligations, equality, nondiscrimination Women and children with disabilities (6 and 7) Situations of risk + humanitarian emergencies (11) Civil and political rights Economic, social and cultural rights IMPLEMENTATION MONITORING : Awarenessraising (8) and Accessibility (9)
  • *Non-discrimination because of language and linguistic rights mentioned in many items of the convention starting from the preamble *Sign language mentioned 7 times in 5 different articles: Article 2: Definition Article 9: Accessibility Article 21: Freedom of expression and opinion, and access to information Article 24: Education Article 30: Participation in cultural life, recreation leisure and sport *Most important articles for deaf people
  • *“Language” includes spoken and signed languages and other forms of non spoken languages. (Article 2) *States Parties shall take appropriate measures to provide professional sign language interpreters (Article 9) *Accepting and facilitating the use of sign languages in official interactions + recognizing and promoting the use of sign languages. (Article 21) *Summary of the main articles
  • *Facilitating the learning of sign language and the promotion of the linguistic identity of the deaf community (Article 24) *States Parties shall take appropriate measures to employ teachers, including teachers with disabilities, who are qualified in sign language. (Article 24) *Recognition and support of their specific cultural and linguistic identity, including sign languages and deaf culture. (Article 30)
  • CULTURE DEAF COMMUNITY LANGUAGE IDENTITY
  • CRP D Group of deaf people As a part of disability movement As a linguistic and cultural group
  • *Article 24 requires that States “shall ensure an inclusive education system at all levels.” *However, no definition of inclusive education in the CRPD *Inclusion requires: – – – – – Accessibility Universal design Non-discriminatory Meeting students’ needs Reasonable accommodation – often mistakenly assumed this is same as inclusive education *Inclusion is likely to be obtainable if learning environments fulfill all these factors for each student. *Inclusive education? Richler & Jokinen, 2012
  • Learning environment - accessible (physical, social, linguistic, cultural) - designed for the students (curriculum, - - learning materials, school settings) non-discriminatory (disability, gender, - language, ethnicity) - reasonable accommodation - individual support Student’s needs
  • *Where? – – – – – – Physical environment Transportation Information Communication ● Information and communication technologies Facilities (indoor and outdoor) Services ● Electronic ● Emergency *Accessibility (Article 9)?
  • *How? – – – – – – Standards + guidelines Training for stakeholders Professional sign language interpreter service, other assistants Other forms of assistance Signage in Braille + easy to read and understand format Accessible information and communication technologies and systems ● Design, development, production and distribution (early stage -> minimum cost) *Accessibility
  • *Sign language is a fully accessible language – -> “to facilitate their participation full and equal in education and as members of the community” (Article 24) *This requires following: – – – – – – sign language as a language of instruction sign language as a school subject bilingual learning materials including elements of deaf culture qualified teachers and students using sign language deaf adult cultural models and peer support development of legislation *Needs of deaf learners?
  • *3. States Parties shall enable persons with disabilities to learn life and social development skills to facilitate their full and equal participation in education and as members of the community. To this end, States Parties shall take appropriate measures, including: – – (b) Facilitating the learning of sign language and the promotion of the linguistic identity of the deaf community; (c) Ensuring that the education of persons, and in particular children, who are blind, deaf or deafblind, is delivered in the most appropriate languages and modes and means of communication for the individual, and in environments which maximize academic and social development. *4. In order to help ensure the realization of this right, States Parties shall take appropriate measures to employ teachers, including teachers with disabilities, who are qualified in sign language and/or Braille
  • FULL AND EQUAL PARTICIPATION Life and social development skills FACILITATING LEARNING OF SIGN LANGUAGE PROMOTING IDENTITY MOST APPROPRIATE LANGUAGES TEACHERS QUALIFIED IN SIGN LANGUAGE ENVIRONMENTS MAXIMIZING ACADEMIC + SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
  • *“… the education of persons, and in particular children, who are blind, deaf or deafblind, is delivered in the most appropriate languages and modes and means of communication for the individual, and in environments which maximize academic and social development. *for deaf learners this means bilingual or multilingual learning environment (bilingual teachers and learning materials, students and school who know sign language etc.) *Needs of deaf learners?
  • *Monolingual learning in an inaccessible language and in an inaccessible learning environment does not maximize academic and social development + does not guarantee full participation!
  • * * * No. The ideal is for students to be able to choose – a school for the deaf, a bilingual school, a regular school with sign language interpretation services. The choice is based on the student’s needs. In the development context it is important to guarantee that investments are made in building up the learning environments for students who are deaf, blind or deafblind. For the deaf student this means starting for example with developing language policy and planning strategy for the national sign language (attitude, status, acquisition and corpus planning), preparing and training teachers for bilingual education and developing bilingual learning materials. * Does the CRPD say that children that are must go in special education settings? (Richler & Jokinen, 2012)
  • *Deaf children are: part of human diversity – entitled to respect for their evolving capacities and respect for their right to preserve their identities *These principles shall include in all spheres of education of deaf children: school legislation, curriculum, learning materials, teacher teaching, school subjects and school practices –
  • full and equal participation respect of diversity inclusion accessibility Inclusive education maximizing academic and social development universal design reasonable acommodation individual support
  • full and equal participation respect of diversity inclusion accessibility Bilingual education maximizing academic and social development universal design reasonable acommodation individual support
  • Full and equal participation Accessibility Universal design Trained professionals Inclusive education Reasonable accommodation Identity development and support Individual support
  • *Learning environment – physical, social and attitudinal *Language and communication *Curriculum *Qualification of teachers, assistants and staff *Learning material *School timetable *School meals *Student support team *Health care *Evaluation *Needs of a student
  • * Full partici pation Learning environment Language and communication Curriculum Teachers and staff Learning material School timetable School meals Student support team Health care Evaluation Matrix/check list of inclusive education Accessibility Universal design Reasonable Individual Identity accommodation support development and support
  • * Full participation Learning environment Language and communication Curriculum Teachers and staff Learning material School timetable School meals Student support team Health care Evaluation Matrix/check list of inclusive education Design of learning Student’s needs: - reasonable environment: - accessibility accommodation - universal design - individual support Empowerment
  • *2050? Perspectives of international experts
  • *With full recognition and understanding of how sign language works we can be sure that barriers will crumble. *No more grief or fear among parents if sign language is part of universal design. Sign language can be passed on easily across generations once it is considered essential part of humanities (human ecology for language, culture and literature). *Diversity of sign language will be respected and preserved when effective resources and networking efforts ensure support for indigenous sls becoming strong national sls. *With better telecommunication technology we can even expand deaf community into a global village. *Professor Ted Supalla, USA
  • *No more schools, no concept of a teacher *Education will be more global: ● ● deaf people in all parts of the world can learn together using a universal design accessible to all -> learning collectives where we teach each other instead of schools No more education without sign language! *Dr Tom Humphries, USA
  • *"My wish for the future is that the Deaf Community by 2050 is still a vital and vivid community open not only to any Deaf person but also to Hard-ofhearing persons that want to share its basic values as encoded in its language, its culture and in its caring for the members world wide. *By then, the fight for Human Rights for the Deaf has won a complete victory. What is left from these struggles is the driving force behind them: respect and consideration towards other human beings." *Professor Kristina Svartholm, Sweden