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Linked Open Data for Libraries



Presented at Dutch National Librarian/Information Professianal Association annual conference 2011 - NVB2011

Presented at Dutch National Librarian/Information Professianal Association annual conference 2011 - NVB2011
November 17, 2011



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  • Nice slides on holdings, slide 39-42

    Slide 50-62: linking library catalogue data to theatre performance data--might be of interest for the upcoming NUIG/Abbey Theatre collaboration!
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    Linked Open Data for Libraries Linked Open Data for Libraries Presentation Transcript

    • Linked Open Data for libraries Lukas Koster Library Systems Coordinator Library of the University of Amsterdam http://www.uba.uva.nl @lukask NVB 2011, 17 november 2011
    • http://www.loc.gov/marc/transition/news/framework-103111.html
    • Agenda
      • Open data
      • Linked data
      • Linked Open Data and Libraries
      • Options for libraries
      • Recommendations
    • Open data: 5 stars (Tim Berners-Lee) Data: no stars Open Data: 1 star - O pen L icence Open Data: 2 stars - Re usable Open Data: 3 stars - O pen F ormat Linked Open Data: 4 stars - URI 's Linked Open Data: 5 stars - L inked D ata
    • Linked data: 4 rules (Tim Berners-Lee)
      • Use URIs as names for things
      • Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names.
      • When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (RDF, SPARQL)
      • Include links to other URIs, so that they can discover more things.
    • RDF URI Triple Ontology Vocabulary
    • URIs
      • Unique identifiers on the web
      • Instead of internal database primary key
      • http://viaf.org/viaf/102403515 (Dan Brown)
      • http://openlibrary.org/works/OL76837W (The Da Vinci Code)
    • Relational databases: primary keys Primary key Primary key Foreign key Books Title Author Year ID Authors Name Year ID Authors record Dan Brown 1964 456 ID Name Year The Da Vinci Code Books record 456 2003 1289 Title ID Author Year
    • Relational databases and applications Select title, year from books Select name, year from authors where books.author=authors.id Database Application User interface SQL Title : The Da Vinci Code Author : Dan Brown, 1964 Year : 2003 Authors record Dan Brown 1964 456 ID Name Year The Da Vinci Code Books record 456 2003 1289 Title ID Author Year
    • URIs Primary key Primary key Foreign key OpenLibrary Title Author Year URI VIAF Name Year URI Authors record Dan Brown 1964 http://viaf.org/viaf/102403515 URI Name Year The Da Vinci Code Books record http://viaf.org/viaf/102403515 2003 http://openlibrary.org/works/OL76837W Title URI Author Year
    • Linked data and applications Select ?title ?year … Select ?name ?year WHERE ….. Database Application User interface SPARQL Title : The Da Vinci Code Author : Dan Brown, 1964 Year : 2003 Authors record Dan Brown 1964 http://viaf.org/viaf/102403515 URI Name Year The Da Vinci Code Books record http://viaf.org/viaf/102403515 2003 http://openlibrary.org/works/OL76837W Title URI Author Year
    • Triples
      • Subject - Predicate – Object
      • Thing – Relation - Thing
      written by painted by is about author of painter of is subject of uri uri uri uri uri uri
    • Triples and URIs
      • URIs for:
      • Subject
      • Object
      • Relation
      uri uri uri http://viaf.org/viaf/102403515 http://openlibrary.org/works/OL76837W http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator
    • RDF – Resource Description Framework
      • Used for defining ontologies/vocabularies
      • Data model ( what can be described )
        • Classes (types), attributes, relations
      • Used for describing triples
      • Data ( what is described )
        • Objects, attribute values, relations
      • Description: http://bibliontology.com
      • Namespace: http:// purl.org/ontology/bibo/
    • BIBO - Bibliographic Ontology
      • xml:base="http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/"
      • xmlns:owl2xml="http://www.w3.org/2006/12/owl2-xml#"
      • xmlns:terms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/"
      • xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#"
      • xmlns:status="&bibo;status/"
      • xmlns:vann="http://purl.org/vocab/vann/"
      • xmlns:schema="http://schemas.talis.com/2005/address/schema#"
      • xmlns:rdfs="http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#"
      • xmlns:foaf="http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"
      • xmlns:prism="http://prismstandard.org/namespaces/1.2/basic/"
      • xmlns:owl="http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#"
      • xmlns:skos="http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#"
      • xmlns:event="http://purl.org/NET/c4dm/event.owl#"
      • xmlns:ns="http://www.w3.org/2003/06/sw-vocab-status/ns#"
      • xmlns:degrees="&bibo;degrees/"
      • xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"
      • xmlns:bibo="http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/">
      Ontologies used Dublin Core - Metadata FOAF - People SKOS – Thesaurus, Subjects
    • BIBO - Bibliographic Ontology
      • <!-- http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/Book -->
      • <owl:Class rdf:about=&quot;Book&quot;>
      • <rdfs:label xml:lang=&quot;en&quot;>Book</rdfs:label>
      • <rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource=&quot;Document&quot;/>
      • <rdfs:isDefinedBy rdf:datatype=&quot;&xsd;anyURI&quot;
      • >http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/</rdfs:isDefinedBy>
      • <ns:term_status>stable</ns:term_status>
      • <rdfs:comment xml:lang=&quot;en&quot;>A written or printed work of fiction or nonfiction, usually on sheets of paper fastened or bound together within covers.
      • </rdfs:comment>
      • </owl:Class>
      Class/Object type
    • BIBO - Bibliographic Ontology
      • <urn:isbn:0385504209> a bibo:Book ; dc:creator <http://viaf.org/viaf/102403515> ; dc:title “The Da Vinci Code&quot;@en ; dc:date &quot;2003“
      Book example
    • OpenLibrary.org: RDF Subjects as string values
      • <dcterms:subject>Fiction</dcterms:subject>
      • <dcterms:subject>Cryptographers</dcterms:subject>
      • <dcterms:subject>Grail</dcterms:subject>
      • <dcterms:subject>Secret societies</dcterms:subject>
      • <dcterms:subject>Art museum curators</dcterms:subject>
      • <dcterms:subject>Manuscripts</dcterms:subject>
      • <dcterms:subject>Appreciation</dcterms:subject>
      • <dcterms:subject>Crimes against</dcterms:subject>
      • <dcterms:subject>Romans</dcterms:subject>
      • <dcterms:subject>Aventures</dcterms:subject>
      • <dcterms:subject>Suspense fiction</dcterms:subject>
      • <dcterms:subject>Religious articles</dcterms:subject>
      • <dcterms:subject>Occultisme</dcterms:subject>
      • <dcterms:subject>Accessible book</dcterms:subject>
      • <dcterms:subject>Protected DAISY</dcterms:subject>
    • Subjects as URIs
      • <dcterms:subject>
      • http://dbpedia.org/resource/The_Last_Supper_%28Leonardo_da_Vinci%29
      • </dcterms:subject>
      • <dcterms:subject>
      • http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n98088614
      • </dcterms:subject>
    • DBPedia (WikiPedia)
    • LoC
    • Two sides Publish Consume
    • Summary: Linked Open Data The web as global database/web of data RDF as universal API Applications using global data via RDF WWW
    • Original objective of libraries
      • Gateways to information
      • Printed material
      • Physical objects
      • On location
      Bibliotheken en leeszalen in beeld, 1990
    • Changing information world WWW http://www.flickr.com/photos/elenaromera/353826561/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/simona_/4068354970/
    • Changing role for libraries Reference desk Content curation Information gateway
    • Linked data options for libraries
      • Consume
        • Traditional cataloguing
        • Enrichment of existing catalogue data
        • Create new information aggregates (new!)
      • Publish (unique stuff)
        • Holdings/usage data
        • Special collections
    • Linked data options for libraries
        • Traditional cataloguing
    • Links as text strings Links to internal records
    • RDA
      • Resource Description and Access
    • FRBR F unctional R equirements for B ibliographic R ecords Defined in relation to tasks performed by users when searching and making use of national bibliographies and library catalogues http://archive.ifla.org/VII/s13/frbr/frbr_current2.htm#2.2
    • FRBR User Tasks
      • Find
      • Identify
      • Select
      • Obtain
      • Navigate
    • FRBR
      • Group 1: What? W ork E xpression M anifestation I tem
      • Group 2: By who? P erson C orporate Body
        • FRAD Functional Requirements for Authority Data
      • Group 3: About what? C oncept O bject E vent P lace
        • FRSAD Functional Requirements for Subject Authority Data
        • Title – Author - Subject
    • http://www.loc.gov/cds/downloads/FRBR.PDF © Library of Congress/Barbara Tillett
    • FRBR for books Editions Copies Original Adaptation Translation
    • FRBR Group 1 Entities - WEMI Manifestation Item Work Expression Catalogue Missing links
    • Triples written by painted by is about author of painter of is subject of uri uri uri uri uri uri
    • LOD, FRBR and cataloguing written by painted by author of painter of is subject of http://permalink.opc.uva.nl/item/001665446 is about Manifestation Item Work Expression http://viaf.org/viaf/102403515 Dan Brown http://openlibrary.org/works/OL76837W The Da Vinci Code http://viaf.org/viaf/24604287 Leonardo da Vinci http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n98088614 The Last Supper Dutch translation De Da Vinci Code Holding OBA http://www.worldcat.org/libraries/57394 http://<expression-uri> http://<manifestation-uri> Library
    • Work Expression Manifestation http://openlibrary.org/works/OL76837W URI 650 $a 100 $a 245 $a http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Last_Supper_(Leonardo_da_Vinci) Subject http ://viaf.org/viaf/102403515 Author The Da Vinci Code Original Title http://<expression-uri> URI 245 $a De Da Vinci Code Title 546 $a dut (or: URI to language code) Language http://openlibrary.org/works/OL76837W Work 260 $c 2006 Date 260 $b http://isbndb.com/d/publisher/anchor_books.html Publisher http://<expression-uri> Expression http://<manifestation-uri> URI
    • Work Expression Manifestation Holding Item(s) Global shared bibliographic data Local holdings data http://openlibrary.org/works/OL76837W URI http://<expression-uri> URI http://openlibrary.org/works/OL76837W Work http://<expression-uri> Expression http://<manifestation-uri> URI http://<holding-uri> URI http://<manifestation-uri> Manifestation http://www.worldcat.org/libraries/57394 Library Availability http://<holding-uri> Holding http://<item-uri> URI WWW
    • Manifestation Item Work Expression FRBR Group 1 FRBR Group 2 FRAD FRBR Group 3 FRSAD Holding Publishers Libraries
    • Problems - challenges
      • Existing circumstances not suited for moving to Linked Cataloguing - RDA/FRBR/LOD:
      • Database - Bibliographic formats (MARC)
      • Applications - Local library systems
    • Linked Cataloguing - What’s needed
      • Global Shared Bibliographic Metadata Store(s)
      • Global Shared Authority Files
      • Open Cataloguing systems
      • Supporting for linking with URIs
    • Linked data options for libraries
        • Enrichment of existing data
    • FRBR Links
    • http://search.obvsg.at/OBV FRBR
    • http://search.obvsg.at/OBV Text about author Embedded from DBPedia (Wikipedia Linked Data engine) Uses German National Library Author ID’s
    • Enrichment - Discovery front ends
      • Examples use Discovery front ends
      • Extra layer on top of processed catalogue metadata
      • Metadata are FRBRised, based on string matching
      • Linked data embedded using scripts/programming, manipulating HTML front end
    • Example: Pilot project Linking library catalogue data to theatre performance data Dutch Digital Cultural Heritage Foundation DEN as instigator http://den.nl/ Library of the University of Amsterdam Theatre Institute of The Netherlands http://tin.nl/ http://www.uba.uva.nl/
    • Library catalogue results No FRBR here ( yet )
    • Library catalogue results
    • TIN theatre production database
    • TIN theatre production database
    • What we made
    • How we did it - URIs < base-url >/person/Beckett, Samuel < base-url >/title/Beckett, Samuel/Waiting for Godot JavaScript/JQuery HTML
    • How we did it – JavaScript/JQuery < base-url >/person/Beckett, Samuel < base-url >/title/Beckett, Samuel/Waiting for Godot <base-url>/ production/Beckett, Samuel/Waiting for Godot/1988-11-22/6750
    • Problems/challenges
      • No common identifiers
        • Aleph key ≠ key
      • No internal links to common entity
        • No central “ Work ”
      • String matching
        • Author: ‘ Samuel Beckett ’- ‘ Beckett, Samuel ’
        • Title: ‘ Waiting for Godot ’ – ’En attendant Godot ’
      • Copyright
        • Photos, videos, audio, artwork
    • Identifiers/URIs/String matching /title/Beckett, Samuel/Waiting for Godot /title/Beckett, Samuel/Waiting for Godot : a tragicomedy in two acts /title/Beckett, Samuel/En attendant Godot : pièce en deux actes /title/Beckett, Samuel/Wachten op Godot /title/Beckett, Samuel/Waiting for Godot /title/Beckett, Samuel/Waiting For Godot /title/Beckett, Samuel/Wachten op Godot /title/Beckett, Samuel/Wachtend op Godot /title/Beckett, Samuel/Wachten op Godot (De favorieten) /title/Beckett, Samuel/Wachten op Godot (eerste bedrijf) /title/Beckett, Samuel/En attendant Godot /title/Beckett, Samuel/Warten auf Godot
    • Ideally…. FRBR
    • Current situation Implicit relations
    • Enrichment - What’s needed
      • New search type: linked data search
      • Mechanisms for consuming external linked data sources
      • Options to identify trustworthy LOD sources
      • Automatic retrieval and processing of RDF vocabularies
    • Linked data options for libraries
        • Create new information aggregates
    • Subject: Anne Frank The girl The war The house The diary The book The movie The play About Library catalogue FRBR
    • New aggregations http://www.annefrank.org/en/Subsites/Timeline/#
    • LOCAH – Linking Lives Linked Open Copac Archives Hub http://blogs.ukoln.ac.uk/locah/ http://data.archiveshub.ac.uk/ Publish linked data Archives+libraries Using Linked Data to create biographical resources http://archiveshub.ac.uk/linkinglives
    • New Aggregates - What’s needed
      • Content curation
      • Cooperation
      • Technology
      • Expertise
      • New systems
    • Linked data options for libraries
        • Publishing
    • Publishing linked data
      • RDF :
      • Ontology
        • Ontologies (re)used (namespaces)
        • Object types, attributes, relations
      • Triples
        • On the fly
        • Triple store
    • Publishing library data as linked data
      • Bibliographic information:
        • FRBR Work/Expression/Manifestation
        • FRAD Authors/Creators
        • FRSAD Subjects
      Ideally only once, no redundancy LoC New Bibliographic Framework Not unique Publishers
    • Publishing library data as linked data
      • Holdings information:
        • Holdings per library
        • FRBR Items
      • Usage data
      Unique Approved
    • Publishing library data as linked data
      • Special collections
      • =
      • Cultural heritage
      • Archives
      • Museums
      Unique Approved
    • Publishing - What’s needed
      • System development skills/staff
      • Linked Data features added to existing library systems
      • New generic linked data information systems, tools, online services
    • Recommendations
      • Cooperate!
        • Libraries, Archives, Museums
        • Consortia
      • Ask library systems vendors to adapt (next gen) systems:
        • FRBR/RDA/Linking architecture/infrastructure
        • LOD/RDF/URI Publishing options
        • LOD/RDF/URI Consuming options
    • Existing library system vendors adding publishing options authority files - VIAF working with user group http://igelu.org/special-interests/lod
    • Linked Open Data: Systems and tools
      • Develop your own systems/open source
      • Use existing commercial systems
      • Consortia infrastructures
      • National platforms
      • Use free tools
    • http://kasabi.com/
    • http://dydra.com/
    • http://revyu.com/
    • http://virtuoso.openlinksw.com/
    • http://metadataregistry.org/
    • http://thedatahub.org/
    • Library Linked Data documentation
      • W3C Library Linked Data Incubator Group,
        • Report: http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/lld/XGR-lld-20111025/
      • IGeLU 2011 session Linked Data and Ex Libris products,
        • Summary slides: http://igelu.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/Linked-data-and-Ex-Libris-products-Summary.pdf
      • Tutorial publishing linked open data by DEN:
        • http://www.den.nl/pagina/334/den-lab/