Dr. Rama AzizDrugs containingAcids, Alcohols And Esters
Dr. Rama AzizTamarind pulp•Drug: the fruit (5-15 cm long, pulpymesocarp, leathery endocarp with fourto twelve chambers, in each of whichis a single seed.)of the tree.•Lain name: Tamarindus indica.•Family: Leguminosae
Dr. Rama AzizTamarind pulp•Tamarind pulp occurs as a reddish —brown moist, sticky mass, in whichthe yellowish- brown fibers are readilyseen.•Odour, pleasant and fruity, sweet andacid.•The pulp contains free organic acids,their salts.•Nicotinic acid, invert sugar.
Dr. Rama AzizTamarind pulp•Flavonoides (vitexin, isovitexin,orientin and iso orientin) occur in theleaves.•Fixed oil in the seed contains amixture of glycerides of saturated andunsaturated acids (oleic, linoleic).
Dr. Rama AzizTamarind pulp•Tamarind pulp is a mild laxative andwas formerly used in Confection ofSenna; it has traditional medicinaluses. The leaves have beensuggested as a commercial source oftartaric acid.
Dr. Rama AzizManna•The name manna’ is applied to anumber of different plant products.•The biblical manna was probably thelichen Lecanora esculenta, which canbe carried long distances by wind.
Dr. Rama AzizManna•The only manna of commercial importance isash manna, derived from Fraxinus ornus fromthe family Oleaceae.•The drug is collected in Sicily.•When the trees are about 10 years old,transverse cuts are made in the trunk.•A surgery exudation takes place and whensufficiently dried is picked off (flake manna) oris collected on leaves or tiles.
Dr. Rama AzizBenzoin•Of the two commercial varieties ofBenzoin-Siam and Sumatra Benzoin-only the latter is now included in the BP(1988).•Sumatra Benzoin (Gum Benjamin) is abalsamic resin obtained from the incisedstem of Styrax benzoin Dryand, andStyraxparalleloneurus Perkins from thefamily of Styracaceae.
Dr. Rama AzizBenzoin•It is produced almost exclusively fromcultivated trees grown in Sumatra.•Siam benzoin derived from Styraxtonkinensis, is produced in a relativelysmall area in Siamese province and ismainly used in perfumery.
Dr. Rama AzizConstituents of Benzoin1. Free balsamic acids (cinnamic andbenzoic) and esters derived from them.2. Triterpenoid acid (siaresinolic acid,sumaresinolic acid).3. The total balsamic acids 20%.4. The total tree acids 20%.
Dr. Rama AzizUses of BenzoinBenzoin, when taken internally, acts asan:• Expectorant.• Antiseptic.It is mainly used as an ingredient offriar’s balsam, or as a cosmetic lotionprepared from a simple tincture. It findsconsiderable use world-wide in the food,drinks, perfumery and toiletry industries;it is a component of incense.
Dr. Rama AzizTolu balsam• Tolu balsam is obtained by incisionfrom the trunk of Myroxylon balsamumfrom the family of Leguminosnae, alarge tree which differs but little fromthat yielding balsam of Peru.• Wild trees are abundant in Colombiaand Venezuala.• The trees are cultivated in the WestIndies.
Dr. Rama AzizConstituents of Tolu balsam1. About 80% resin derived from resinalcohols.2. Free aromatic acids (15% freecinnamic acid, 8% free benzoic acid).3. Numerous triterpenoids.4. Tolu contains about 50% of totalbalsamic acids.
Dr. Rama AzizUses of Tolu balsam• Tolu balsam has antiseptic properties.• It was a common ingredient of coughmixtures, to which it was added in theform of syrup or tincture.
Dr. Rama AzizPeru Balsam• Balsam of Peru is obtained from the trunk ofMyroxylon balsamum var.pereirae from thefamily of Leguminosae.• The drug is produced in Central America andis now included in the EP and in the BP.
Dr. Rama AzizConstituents of Peru Balsam• The official drug is required to contain not less than45% and not more than 70% of esters.• The chief balsamic esters present arebenzyl cinnamate.• The drug also contains about 28% of resin.• Small quantities of vanillin and free cinnamic acid.
Dr. Rama AzizUses of Peru Balsam• Balsam of Peru is used as an:1. Antiseptic dressing for wounds.2. Parasiticide.Peru Balsam is used internally to treatcatarrh and diarrhoea.Peru Balsam can produce allergicresponse.
Dr. Rama AzizPrepared Storax• Prepared Storax BP is a balsamobtained from wounded trunk ofLiquidambar orientails from the familyof Hamamelidaceae and subsequentlypurified. This is known as Levantstorax and is obtained from a smalltree found in the south —west ofTurkey.
Dr. Rama AzizConstituents of Storax• Free and combined cinnamic acid.• 30-47% balsamic acids.• Resin
Dr. Rama AzizUses of Storax• Storax is chiefly used in the peparationof friars balsam benzoin inhalation.
Dr. Rama AzizAlmond Oil• Almond Oil is a fixed oil obtained byexpression from the seeds of Prunusamygdalus var.dulcis (sweet almonds),Prunus amygdalus var. amara (bitteralmonds) from the family of Rosaceae.• The oil is mainly produced from almondgrown in the countries bordering theMediterranean.
Dr. Rama AzizConstituents of Almond Oil• Both varieties of almond contain 40-55% of fixed oil. 20% proteins,mucilage, emulsin.The bitter almonds contain in addition2.5- 4% of the colourless, crystalline,cyanogenetic glycoside amygdalin.
Dr. Rama AzizUses of Almond Oil• Almond Oil is used in the preparationof many toilet articles and as a vehiclefor oily injections.• When taken internally, it has a mild,laxative action.• The volatile almond oils are used asflavouring agents.
Dr. Rama AzizArachis Oil• Arachis oil is obtained by expression fromthe seeds of Arachis hypogaea from thefamily of Leguminosae, (earth-nut, groundnut, peanut) a small annual plant cultivatedthroughout tropical Africa and in India..
Dr. Rama AzizConstituents of Arachis Oil• Arachis Oil consist of the glycerides ofoleic, linoleic, plamitic, arachidic,stearic, lignoceric and other acids.
Dr. Rama AzizUses of Arachis Oil• Arachis Oil has similar properties toolive oil.It is an ingredient of camphorated oil butis used mainly in the production ofmargarine, cooking fats and others.
Dr. Rama AzizSoya oil• Soya oil is derived from the seeds of Glycinemax from the family of Leguminosae.• The principal esterifying fatty acids arelinoleic (44-62%), oleic (19-30%), palmitic(7-14%), linolenic (4-11%) and stearic (1.4-55%).• The BP oil may contain a suitableantioxidant.
Dr. Rama AzizSesame Oil• Sesame oil (Gingelly oil, Teel oil) isobtained by refining the expressed orextracted oil from the seeds of Sesamumindicum from the family of Pedaliaceae, aherb which is widely cultivated in India,China and many tropical countries.• The oil is official in the EP and BP.
Dr. Rama AzizSesame Oil• The seeds contain about 50% of fixed oilwhich closely resembles olive oil in itsproperties and which it has, in somemeasure, replaced. It is pale yellow, bland oilwhich on cooling to about -40 solidifies to abuttery mass, it has a saponification value thesame as that for olive and a somewhat higheriodine value (104-120).
Dr. Rama AzizSesame Oil• Principal components of the oil are theglycerides of oleic and linoleic acids withsmall proportions of palmitic, stearic andarachidic acids.• It also contains about 1 % of the lignansesamin and the related sesamolin.• The characteristic phenolic component isthe basis of the BP test for identity and alsothe test for the detection of sesame oil inother oils.
Dr. Rama AzizOlive Oil• Olive oil (salad oil, sweet oil) is a fixed oilwhich is expressed from the ripe fruits ofOlea europea from the family of Oleaceae.The olive is an evergreen tree, which livesto a great age but seldom exceeds 12 m inheight.• The oil id expressed in all theMediterranean countries and in California.
Dr. Rama AzizConstituents of Olive OilOlive oils from different sources differsomewhat in composition. This may bedue either to the use of the differentvarieties of olive or to climaticdifferences.All Types contain Oleic acid(56-86%), linoleic acid (0-20%), Palmiticacid (7.5-20%) and stearic acid (0.5-15%).
Dr. Rama AzizUses of Olive Oil• Olive oil is used in the preparation ofsoaps, plasters, etc., and is widelyemployed as salad oil.• Oil for use in the manufacture ofparenteral preparations is required tohave a lower acid value and peroxidevalue than the normally required, andto be almost free of water asdetermined by Karl fisher.
Dr. Rama AzizCastor Oil• Castor oil (cold-drawn castor oil) is a fixed oilobtained from the seeds of Ricinus communisfrom the family of Euphorbiaceae.• The fruit is a three - celled thorny capsule.• The castor is a native of India; the principalproducing countries are Brazil, India.
Dr. Rama AzizConstituents of Castor Oil• Castor seeds contain 46-53% of fixed oil,which consist of the glycosides of ricinoleic,isoricinoleic, stearic and dihydroxystearicacids.• The purgative action of the oil is said tobe due to free ricinoleic acid and itsstereolsomer, which are produced byhydrolysis in the duodenum.• CH3(CH2)5CH(OH)CH2CH=CH(CH2)7COOH
Dr. Rama AzizUses of Castor Oil• Castor oil is used as:1- a domestic purgative.2- Now is used after food poisoning3- and as a preliminary to intestinalexamination.•Owing(due) to the presence of resin, theseeds have a much more violent action thanthe oil and are not used as a purgative in thiscountry.
Dr. Rama AzizHydnocarpus Oil• Hydnocarpus oil is the fixed oil obtained by coldexpression from the fresh ripe seeds of- Hydnocarpus weighting,- H. anthelmintica,- H. heterophylla and other species of Hydnocarpus,- and also of Taracogenos kurzii• These plants are found in India, Burma, Siam andIndo-China and belong to the Flacourtiaceae.
Dr. Rama AzizConstituents of Hydnocarpus Oil• Hydnocarpus oil contains hydnocarpic acid,chaulmoogric acid, gorlic and other acids.• They are strongly bactericidal towards the leprosymicrococcus, but the oil has now replaced by the ethylesters and salts of hydnocarpic and chaulmoogric acid.
Dr. Rama AzizCoconut Oil• Coconut oil is the expressed oil of the dried solid partof the endosperm of the coconut, Cocos nucifera L.from the family of Palmae, which is official in the BP.• The plant is widely distributed throughout the tropics.• Coconut oil is a semisolid, melting at about 24 C andconsisting of the triglycerides of mainly lauric andmyristic acids.
Dr. Rama AzizUses of Coconut• Coconut is used in the nutrition.
Dr. Rama AzizPalm Oil• Palm oil is obtained by steaming andexpression of the mesocarp of the fruits ofEIaeis guinensis from the family ofPalmae.• Palm oil is yellowish- brown in colour, of abuttery consistency and of agreeableodour. Palmitic and oleic acids are theprincipal esterifying acids.
Dr. Rama AzizCottonSeed Oil• Cottonseed oil is expressed from the seeds ofvarious species of Gossypium from the family ofMalvaceae.• Cottonseed oil is used in the nutrition butonly after refining (deleting of Gossypol) or only bycooking (heating to more than 60C).• Cottonseed is also used in the isolation of Gossypol.
Dr. Rama AzizLinseed and Linseed Oil• Linseed (flaxseed) is the dried ripeseed of Linum usitatissimum from thefamily of Linaceae, an annual herbabout 0.7 m high with blue flowers anda globular capsule. The flax has longbeen cultivated for its pericyclic fibresand seed.
Dr. Rama AzizConstituents of Linseed• Linseed contains about 30-40% offixed oil,• 6% of mucilage.• 25% of protein.• Cyanogenetic glucosides linamarin andlotaustralin.
Dr. Rama AzizLinseed Oil• Linseed oil is the extraction of linseed.• The process is one of hot expression of alinseed meal.• Linseed oil of BP quality is a yellowish - browndrying oil with a characteristic odour and blandtaste.• On exposure to air it gradually thickens andforms a hard varnish.
Dr. Rama AzizUses of Linseed Oil• Crushed linseed is used in the form of a poulticeand whole seeds are employed to makedemulcent preparations.• The oil is used in liniments, andhydrolyzed linseed oil has potentially usefulantibacterial properties as a topical preparation inthat it is effective against Staphylococcus aureusstrains resistant to antibiotics.
Dr. Rama AzizEvening primrose Oil• Evening primrose oil is the fixed oil fromthe seeds of Oenothera spp. from thefamily of Onagraceae. It is containsesterified y-linoleic acid (GLA).• The beneficial effects of evening primroseoil may well be related to affording aprecursor of the prostaglandins for thoseindividuals whose enzymic conversion oflinoleic acid to GLA is deficient.
Dr. Rama AzizTheobroma Oil• Theobroma oil or cocoa butter may be obtainedfrom the ground kernels of Theobroma cacaofrom the family of Sterculiaceae, by hotexpression.• Cocoa butter consist of the glycerides of stearic,palmitic, arachidic, oleic and other acids.• It is the most expensive of the commercial fixedoils.• Its principal pharmaceutical use is for thepreparation of suppositories.
Dr. Rama AzizLard• Lard (prepared lard) is the purifiedinternal fat of the hog, Sus scrofa(order Ungulata,Suidae).• For medicinal purposes lard isprepared from the abdominal fatknown as ‘flare’, from which it isobtained by treatment with hot waterat a temperature not exceeding 57C.
Dr. Rama AzizLard• Lard is a soft, white fat with a non rancidodour.• Lard has a lower melting point (34-41 C).• Lard contains 40% of solid glycerides suchas myristin, stearin and palmitin and 60%of mixed glycerides such as olein.• Lard is used as an ointment base but is nolonger official in UK.
Dr. Rama AzizWool Fat• Wool fat (anhydrous lanolin) is a purifiedfat-like substance prepared from the Woolof the sheep, Ovis aries (Bovidae).• Wool fat is a pale yellow, tenacioussubstance with a faint but characteristicodour.• It is insoluble in water. Soluble in ether andchloroform.
Dr. Rama AzizWool Fat• The chief constituents of wool fat arecholesterol and isocholesterol, unsaturatedmonohydric alcohols.• It is also contains aliphatic alcohols such ascetyl, ceryl and carnaubyl alcohols.• Wool fat is used as an emollient base forcreams and ointments.
Dr. Rama AzizYellow Beeswax, White Beeswax• Beeswax is obtained by melting and purifyingthe honeycomb of Apis meiifica and otherbees.• Beeswax is a true wax, consisting of about 80%of myricyl palmiate (myricin), it is also containsabout 15% of free cerotic acid, an aromaticsubstance cerolein, hydrocarbons, lactones,cholesteryl esters and pollen pigments.
Dr. Rama AzizUses of Beeswax• Beeswax is used in the preparation ofplasters, ointments and polishes.
Dr. Rama AzizCarnauba Wax• Carnauba wax derived from the leaves ofCopernicia cerifera from the family ofPalmae.• The wax is hard, light brown to pale yellow incolour. Esters, chiefly myricyl cerotate are theprincipal components, with some freealcohols.• Carnauba wax is used in pharmacy as a tabletcoating agent and in the manufacturing ofcandles and leather polish and inphytocosmetics.