A theoretical framework for e assessment in higher education


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A theoretical framework for e assessment in higher education

  1. 1. A theoretical framework for e-assessment in higher education<br />Pereira, A.1<br />Oliveira, I.1<br />Tinoca, L.2<br />1 LEaD, Universidade Aberta<br />2 InstituteofEducation, UniversityofLisbon<br />
  2. 2. Context<br />Pedagogical model for online education<br />Bologna Process (European Commission,2008), challenged higher education to promote learning environments that are centered in the development of competences<br />New assessment culture supported by edumetric criteria – assessment forlearning<br />
  3. 3. New learning landscapes<br />The e-learning explosion and the emergence of new digitally supported learning environments <br />Garrisson& Anderson (2003), McConnell (2006), Pereira et al. (2009), and Anderson (2011)<br /><ul><li> Collaborative
  4. 4. Student centered</li></li></ul><li>A pedagogical model for online education(Pereira et al. 2007)<br />Based on four cornerstones: <br />student-centered learning<br />flexibility<br />interaction<br />digital inclusion<br />“these principles guide the organization of instruction, planning, the design and management of activities for the students, the type of materials to develop and the nature of the assessment of competences”<br />
  5. 5. New learning landscapes <br />Languageandcommunication<br />Four main types of metacompetences (Pereira et al., 2009):<br />Problem solving <br />Group work<br />Metacognitive<br />Fluency in ICT use<br />
  6. 6. An edumetric approach to assessment<br />A new assessment culture arose from the growing criticism of traditional testing methods relating to the unrealistic nature of the tests, the loss of faith in them as valid measures of learning, and an over-reliance on tests as the ultimate goal of the instruction process. (McDowell, 1995)<br />Edumetricscriteria are recognized as more valid and fair for competence based assessment, given their emphasis in flexibility and authenticity, as well as their integration into the learning process valuing the formative function of assessment. (Dierick and Dochy, 2001)<br />“assessment of learning”, as assessment focused on measurement and scaling, from “assessment for learning” as assessment meant for the students, through feedback, to understand their own learning processes and the goals that they intend to achieve. (Elwood and Klenowski, 2002)<br />
  7. 7. The challenge of e-assessment<br /> “Confusionoftongues”<br />“e-assessment occurs when there is an automated marking/response to student input on-screen in a test, informing on the process of answering a question and providing feedback to learners and their teachers through well-crafted advice and reports”. (Beevers, 2010)<br />“e-assessment is sometimes used to refer solely to on-screen assessment but, in its broadest sense, can refer to all technology-enabled assessment activities”. (JISC, 2010)<br />
  8. 8. e-assessment – our definition<br />e-assessment refers to all technology-enabled assessment activities where the design and student activities (complete, present, submit) must be mediated by technologies.<br />It is regarded as optional the format in which the instructor presents the assignment, as well as the way feedback is provided<br />
  9. 9. Steps of an e-assessment strategy<br />must be mediated by technologies<br />
  10. 10. e-assessment benefits<br /><ul><li> Greater variety and authenticity in assessment designs
  11. 11. Improved learner engagement
  12. 12. Choice in the timing and location of assessments
  13. 13. Capture of wider skills and attributes
  14. 14. Efficient submission, marking, moderation and data storage
  15. 15. Consistent, accurate results
  16. 16. Increased opportunities for learners to act on feedback
  17. 17. Innovative approaches based around the use of creative media and online peer and self-assessment</li></li></ul><li>Method(Jabareen, 2009)<br />Literature review <br />Discussions among experts <br /> from three different universities, representing a broad array of scientific areas (literature, natural sciences, social sciences, and education) and with large experience in both face-to-face and online education<br />Confrontation of the literature review<br />construct validity (Messick 1994, 1995)<br /> quality criteria for competence assessment programs (Baartman et al., 2007)<br />Reconstruction of the concepts into a new conceptual framework<br />Reevaluation of the framework<br />
  18. 18. Conceptual framework for e-assessment<br />four dimensions identified as especially relevant for online contexts<br />e-assessment<br />
  19. 19.
  20. 20. Authenticity<br />Similarity – competecesneeded in real/professioanllife<br />Complexity – cognitivechalenge<br />Adequacy – adequateperformingconditions<br />Significance – value for students, instructorsandemployers<br />
  21. 21. Consistency<br />This dimension emerges as an answer to the traditional demands for validity and reliability, associated with psychometric indicators.<br />Instruction-assessmentalignment<br />Relevantcriteria<br />Competences-assessmentalignment<br />Multipleindicators– assessmentmethods, contextsandassessors<br />
  22. 22. Transparency<br />Democratization – availabilityandparticipation<br />Engagement – participation in thedefinitionofthelearninggoals<br />Visibility – present/share processes and/orproducts<br />Impact – effectonthelearningprocessandoncourse design<br />
  23. 23. Practicability<br />Cost– time, digital resources, training, …<br />Efficiency<br />Sustainability– implement and sustain the proposed assessment design, taking into account the learner profiles and the contextual constraints, both for the organizations and for the assessors<br />
  24. 24. Discussion<br />These dimensions are articulated, representing several degrees of reciprocal interdependence. <br />The criteria, more than just illustratingthe different features of each dimension, allow for the operational description of each criterion stage of implementation, and so contribute to the evaluation of the achieved assessment strategy quality level.<br />
  25. 25. Discussion<br />What can bethecontributionsofe-assessmentfor theassessmentculture?<br />How can e-assessmentbeused for internalimprovementandexternalaccreditation?<br />From a research standpointshouldalldimensionsberegarded as equal?<br />
  26. 26. Thank You!<br />http://www.slideshare.net/luistinoca<br />ltinoca@ie.ul.pt<br />isolina@univ-ab.pt<br />amp@univ-ab.pt<br />@ssess – project financed through FCT (PTDC/CPE-CED/104373/2008)<br />
  27. 27. new criteria particularly relevant for e-assessment <br />adequacy to online contexts<br />the distinction between instruction-assessment alignment and competences-assessment alignment<br />democratization<br />engagement <br />visibility <br />sustainability<br />