The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests            Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011                     Tropical d...
The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests   Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011   Tropical areas represent the largest ...
The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests            Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011   Tropical deforestation leads...
The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests   Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011The humid tropics is where the modern ex...
The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests                 Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011Global deforestation produ...
The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests   Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011 SC America host as much tropical forest...
The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests                                Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011           ...
The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests                 Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011                          ...
The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests     Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011  Deforestation                       ...
The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests                          Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011                 ...
The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests   Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011                                      Th...
The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests                 Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011                          ...
The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests                 Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011                          ...
The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests               Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011    ENSO warm (El Niño)     ...
The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests                 Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011                          ...
The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests   Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011After 2004, a vertiginous drop in cleari...
The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests      Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011                                 1. T...
The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests   Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011                  2. The Politics of Mul...
The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests   Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011            3. Governments, Governance a...
The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests         Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011                                  ...
The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests        Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011                                   ...
The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests   Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011               2. C emissions and fire d...
The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests      Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011                              3. A st...
The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests     Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011                          … that exten...
The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests   Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011… suggesting that changes in logging pra...
The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests   Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011   4. Peat swamp ecosystems, which store...
The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests   Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011                          …have been ext...
The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests            Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011   …and will be further degrade...
The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests                 Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011                          ...
The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests   Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011Hence, they may represent good opportuni...
The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests                   Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011                        ...
The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests    Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011                                       ...
The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests   Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011                                       A...
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Tropical deforestation - Local solutions for global problems

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Tropical deforestation - Local solutions for global problems

  1. 1. The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011 Tropical deforestation Local solutions for global problems Luis Santamaria
  2. 2. The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011 Tropical areas represent the largest remaining tracts ofcontinuous pristine forested habitats (together with the boreal region).
  3. 3. The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011 Tropical deforestation leads to reductions in biodiversity, disturbed ecosystems services (e.g. water regulation, soilconservation) and the destruction of livelihoods for many of the world’s poorest. Kindermann et al. (2008) PNAS
  4. 4. The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011The humid tropics is where the modern extinction crisis will have the greatest effectThey host 60% of the world’s terrestrial biodiversity hotspots,and contain the highest number of threatened species overall. Coupled with accelerated rates of global change, the higher extinction proneness and greater concentrations of tropical biodiversity predict increasingly severe species losses. Brook et al. (2011)
  5. 5. The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011Global deforestation produces between 12to 20% of global greenhouse gases, aboutequal to the emissions from the entireglobal transport sector.Amazonia generates 27% of this. Kindermann et al. (2008)
  6. 6. The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011 SC America host as much tropical forest as Africa and SE Asiatogether. Under current deforestation rates, SE Asia will have virtually no forest by the end of the century. Cramer et al. (2004)
  7. 7. The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011 SE Asia show the world’s highest deforestation rate: 2 to 8 times higher than Africa or America. Effect of 1997-8 fires INPE / Miettinen etal. (2011)
  8. 8. The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011 Despite having much less forest, SE Asia shows C emission rates comparable to or higher than those of C-S America Cramer et al. (2004)
  9. 9. The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011 Deforestation Climate changeScenarios for the combined effectof land-use change and climatechange by 2100 Asner et al. (2010)
  10. 10. The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011 Main drivers of deforestation Amazonia SE Asia Cattle ranches 65-70% Oil palm plantations Agriculture 25-35% Rubber plantationsLogging, legal and illegal 2-3% Logging, legal and illegal Other 1-2% Other
  11. 11. The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011 The Amazonian caseIn the Amazonia, deforestation increased steeply from 1990 to 2004, but it has decreased since then. Is this a temporary decrease, or does it reflect a long-term change in deforestation dynamics?
  12. 12. The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011 35Deforestation rate (1000 km2) 30 25 20 15 10 Changes to Brazils Forest Code 5 0 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010
  13. 13. The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011 35 5.0Deforestation rate (1000 km2) 30 4.50 Brazils per capita GDP 25 4.0 20 3.50 15 3.0 10 2.50 5 2.0 0 1.50 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010
  14. 14. The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011 ENSO warm (El Niño) ENSO cold (La Niña)
  15. 15. The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011 35 5.0Deforestation rate (1000 km2) 30 4.50 Brazils per capita GDP 25 4.0 20 3.50 15 3.0 10 2.50 5 2.0 0 1.50 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010
  16. 16. The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011After 2004, a vertiginous drop in clearing seemed to beoccurring and the zero-clearingn target (“desmatementozero”) became a credible idea in Brazil’s policy circles.How did this transformation come about and is it durable?1.The “Politics of Agreement”: convergence of all theenvironmentalisms.2.Controlling deforestation in Amazonia: the politics of multipleenvironmentalisms.3.Governments, Governance and Governmentality Hecht (2011)
  17. 17. The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011 1. The Politics of Agreement- Empirical baseline : science based information on the magnitude and location of clearing, produced in timely usable ways.- Emergence of climate change as a national political concern.- The “rules of the game” were agreed to: •All sectors agreed on the use of regulations (Forest Code), state powers (national environmental agency, state agencies) and local social institutions to enforce deforestation laws. •Local social institutions and decentralized strategies (at municipal and state levels) were supported for controlling clearing. •Market mechanisms were mobilized to enhance alternatives to clearing (ranging from intensification of agriculture/agroforestry, to payment for environmental services). Hecht (2011)
  18. 18. The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011 2. The Politics of Multiple EnvironmentalismsVarying approaches for controlling deforestation:- Conservation set asides and the fragmented forest.- Inhabited forest: extractive reserves (traditional peoples) and indigenous reserves.- The Social Forest: Reimagining the Matrix.- The Globalized Arc of Fire: the soy frontier. Hecht (2011)
  19. 19. The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011 3. Governments, Governance and Governmentality- The deforestation Panopticon. Command-and-control form of compliance to legal norms, facilitated by surveillance technology.- Governmentality, Environmentality and the Creation of Environmental Citizens.- Global governance. International pressure on the beef and ranch frontiers. The golbalization of Amazon taste. Hecht (2011)
  20. 20. The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011 SE Asia SE Asia is a hot spot for biodiversity but is undergoing widespread change.Its global markets are growing, as is large-scale agricultural business.Large extensions of primary forest are being turned into oil- palm and rubber-tree plantations.
  21. 21. The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011 Parallels with Amazonia: 1. The role of agricultural commoditiesPrimary forests were the source of nearly 60% of new plantationsestablished in Southeast Asia between 1980 and 2000. Gibbs et al. (2010)In 1990–2005, more than half of oil-palm development inMalaysia and Indonesia had resulted in deforestation. Koh & Wilcove (2008)
  22. 22. The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011 2. C emissions and fire dynamicsThe tremendous amounts of carbon stored in the region’s forestsand peatlands are being swept to the atmosphere. To these, wemust add the loss of C-uptake capacity in these ecosystems - andthe catastrophic spread of fires during dry years.E.g. in 1997-1998, fires burned some 9.7 million hectares of forestand non-forest land, caused estimated economic damage ofmore than 9 billion dollars and released 0.8-2.5 gigatons ofcarbon into the atmosphere.
  23. 23. The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011 3. A strong influence of El Niño…There is a clear link between drought, deforestation and carbonemissions.In 2006, the climate was 3 times drier in the region than it was in2000, and the carbon emissions were 30 times greater –exceeding emissions from fossil fuel burning.In a dry climate, fires are easier toset. Land managers respond to thedrought by using fire to clear moreland. In dry years, they burn deeperinto the forest, releasing morecarbon dioxide.
  24. 24. The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011 … that extends to forest dynamics…Dipterocarp reproduction is tied to the arrival of El Niño: mostspecies synchronize their flowering to the onset of dry weather.By reducing the local density and biomass of mature trees belowcritical thresholds that limit masting, logging may disrupt thisreproductive cycle.Forest triggered by dry conditions may restrict further seedrecruitment, and drought stress on seedlings, saplings and adults. Curran et al. (1999)
  25. 25. The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011… suggesting that changes in logging practices may be advisableConstrains to dipterocarp reproduction linked to threshold size formasting put into question current selective-loggingpractices, based on a minimum-size threshold for all species (45-cm DBH).Comparable policies, used e.g. for fisheries and sport-huntingregulation, are currently being revised worldwide owing theintroduction of undesired demographic and evolutionary effects(e.g. Darimont et al. 2009, Santamaría & Méndez 2011).
  26. 26. The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011 4. Peat swamp ecosystems, which store large amounts of carbon in the soil…
  27. 27. The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011 …have been extensively cleared…In Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo and Sumatra, the extent ofcleared peatlands (2.3 million ha) more than doubles the landarea under oil-palm cultivation (≈880,000 ha).The unplanted clearings that remain are under increasing threatof conversion, particularly if cleared peatlands were to beconsidered “degraded lands” by land-use policymakers. Koh et al. 2011
  28. 28. The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011 …and will be further degraded if turned into oil-palm Biodiversity outcomes of land-use transition scenarios for cleared peatlands plantations. Koh et al. 2011
  29. 29. The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011 The role of secondary forestSecondary forests show a reasonable recovery of biodiversitywithin moderate time frames (years to decades). Successional influx of different taxa into secondary forests of different ages (Chazdon, 2009).
  30. 30. The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011Hence, they may represent good opportunities for forest-ecosystem recovery, provided that:1. Older, more species-rich secondary forests near protectedareas are given priority2. Secondary forest re expanded nearby old-growth forests andriparian zones, and used to established biological corridors.3. Areas where regeneration is slow or inhibited becomepriorities for assistedregeneration, reforestation, agroforestry, or sustainableagriculture.4. Monitoring programs are developed and framed into adaptivemanagement practices.
  31. 31. The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011 Summary of comparison Amazonia SE Asia Empirical baseline Incipient, largely academic Climate change as national concern Weak Rules of the game agreed to Weak Set asides Most Parks Sustainable reserves Present (?)Sustanaible management of fragment-matrix Preliminary experiences. mosaic Intensification-for-conservation Under-developed Absent. Difficult to implement State Panopticon (ASEAN?) Governmentality and Environmentality Absent (?) Global governance Moderate
  32. 32. The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011 Questions? Comments? lsantamaria@imedea.uib-csic.es
  33. 33. The sustainability and conservation of Malaysian forests Kuala Lumpur 14/09/2011 Acknowledgements
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