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    Aspartame review Aspartame review Document Transcript

    • The Multicarcinogenic effect of Aspartame on mouse modelPérez Soto LuisDepartment of Biology, University of Puerto Rico at Cayey, Cayey, PR 00737, USAReceived 19 November 2011____________________________________________________________________________AbstractAspartame (L-phenylalanine N-L-aspartyl-1-methyl ester) is an artificial sweeter widely use. Inother experiments is has been prove that aspartame has lots of side effects. The experiments bySoffitti in 2006 and 2010, and Renata in 2010 were conducted with the purpose to prove thataspartame has a multicarcinogenic effect even at the daily recommended dose. The experimentthat lasted 8 week and used Sprague Dawley rats. They were used a control group and theexperimental group that were administered with 5,000, 2,500, 500, 100, 20, 4, or 0 mg/kg bodyweight of aspartame in the food and other experiment to prove that if expose during prenatal lifethe risk are higher. The experiment demonstrated that aspartame is multipotential carcinogeniceven at the daily recommended dose (50mg/kg body weight) and that the percents of tumors ifadminister during fetal like are higher. (Renata et al. 2010), (Soffritti et al. 2010)____________________________________________________________________________INTRODUCTION Administration (FDA) (Alsuhaibani, 2010).Aspartame (APM) is a dipeptide artificial After saccharin APM is the second mostsweetener in food and drinks. It is formed by used artificial sweetener in the world. It isAspartyl, Phenylalanine and Methylester. estimated that 8,000 tons of APM areAPM was discovered in 1965 and in 1981 it consumed each year in the United States. Itwas approved by the Food and Drug is use by 200 million peoples worldwide and 1
    • is approximately 200 times sweeter than a molecular weight of 294.3. Investigationssugar. Actually it can be found in 6,000 have proved that in humans, primates,products including carbonated diet drinks, rodents when it is metabolized in thechewing gum, desserts, tabletop sweeteners, gastrointestinal tract it transformed intosugar-free cough drops, vitamins, etc. It has three metabolites: aspartame acid,been use to sweet products without sugar for phenylalanine (50% of APM) and methanol.over 25 to 30 years (Soffritti, 2006). It Aspartic acid is transformed into alanine andacceptable daily intake (ADI) of APM is oxaloacetate, phenylalanine is transformedcurrently 50mg/kg body weight (bw) in the into tyrosine, and methanol is converted intoUnited States and 40mg/kg bw in the formaldehydate and then to formic acidEuropean Union for both children and adults (Soffritti, 2006) (Renata, 2010).(Renata, 2010). Here I will review the DISEASE RELATEDeffects of APM on the human health and it It has been prove that APM is related tocarcinogenic effect. causing these diseases: CardiovascularTHE CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS diseases, diabetes, Cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, retinopathies, and vessel aging (Renata, 2010). The carcinogenic effects were described in an animal model by Soffitti et al. (2006). Long-termhttp://www.hindawi.com/journals/cfg/2010/605921/ carcinogenicity bioassays on APM demonstrate the multipotentialAPM, the methylester of the dipeptide L-α- carcinogenicity of APM at a dose close toaspartyl-L-phenylalanine (C14H18N2O5) has the human ADI. It was demonstrated that 2
    • exposure to APM during the fetal life span and upon death, a complete necropsyincreases the risk of cancer (Renata, 2010). and histopathology evaluation. The health status of the rats was checked regularly by aSPRAGUE DAWLEY RATS veterinarian. The measurement of bwEXPERIMENT continued every 8 week until the end. At theThe experiment “First Experimental 4th to 5th week the experimental group wasDemostration of the Multipotential randomized in order to have no more thanCarcinogenic effects of Aspartame one male and one female from each litter inAdministered in the Feed to Sprague- the same group (Soffritti, 2010).Dawley Rats” by Morando et al. When the animals die they were registereddemonstrate that APM causes brain cancer and kept frozen at a 4ºC until the end of theand other types. For this experiment they experiment for later analysis. The biophasepurify APM and assumed the daily intake by of the experiment ended at 151 weeks withhumans of 5,000, 2,500, 500, 100, 20, 4, or the dead of the last rat. Histopathology0 mg/kg bw and added to the standard diet analysis was made in organs and tissues forof the Sprague Dawley rats. The experiment animals of both groups. The analyze partstarted when the animals were 8 week of age were: skin, brain, mammary gland, pituitaryand lasted until the last one has a natural gland, salivary gland, Zymbal glanddeath. They used two groups, the cranium, Hardenian gland, tongue, thyroid,experimental that consumed APM and the parathyroid, pharynx, larynx, trachea, heart,control with no APM in the food. They used diaphragm, liver, pancreas, kidneys, adrenalboth genders in the experiment. All animals glands, esophagus, stomach, intestine,were monitored for feed and water prostate, bladder, and other organs andconsumption and body weight for their life 3
    • tissues affected. The organs were preserved PRENATAL ADMINISTRATION OFin 70% ethyl alcohol, except for bones ASPARTAME ON SPRAGUE DAWLEYwhich were in 10% formalin. RATSTwo techniques were use: Cochan-Amitage This experiment was made after the first onetrend test to test in linear trend in tumor to prove that if APM is administered duringincidence and the poly-K test that takes prenatal life to an organism the risk ofsurvival into account (Soffritti et al. 2010) developing a sort of cancer is higher. The(Renata et al. 2006). experiment follows the same procedure as the first one. The experiment shows thatThis experiment shows that the rats that animals with prenatal exposure have a 31%consume APM even on the daily dose to develop or have cancer. (Soffriti et al.develop a sort of cancer. The disease and 2010)cancer that were found in the study were:Lymphomas/leukemias (29% male, 25% CONCLUSIONfemale), malignant brain tumors (3% male The experiments proves that APM is aand 1% female) , carcinomas (1% male and potential carcinogenic compound even at the4% female) Preneoplastic and neroplastic ADI and if expose during fetal life the risklesions of the olfactory epithelium, are much more higher. This experimentmalignant schwannomas of peripheral would open more windows of why peoplenerves (3% male, 1% female), Preneoplastic develop cancer and can aware people ofand neoplastic lesions of the renal pelvis and what are they consumingureter (Soffritti et al. 2010). REFERENCES Alsuhaibani ES. May 25, 2010. In vivo cytogenetic studies on aspartame., 4
    • Hindawi.com. Recuperated from: induction. Sciencedirect.com. Toxicology inhttp://www.hindawi.com/journals/cfg/2010/6 vitro. 286-293p. Recuperated from:05921/ http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article /pii/S0887233310002249Gallus S, Scotti L, Negri E, Talamini R,Franceschi S, Montella M, Giacosa A, DalMaso L, La Vecchia C. October 2006.Artificial sweeteners and cancer risk in anetwork of case-control studies.Pubmed.gov. Recuperated from:http://annonc.oxfordjournals.org/content/18/1/40.longGombos K, Varias T, Orsos Z, Polvák E,Peredi J, Varga Z, Nowrasteh G, TettingerA, Mucsi G, Ember I. Novermber-December2007. The effect of aspartameadministration on oncogene and suppressorgene expresions. Pubmed.gov. In Vivo.Recuperated from:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17354619J. W. Olney, N. B. Farber, E. Spitznagel,and L. N. Robins,“Increasing brain tumor rates: is there a linkto aspartame?”Journal of Neuropathology andExperimental Neurology, vol. 55,no. 11, pp. 1115–1123, 1996.Morando Soffritti, Fiorella Belpoggi, DavideDegli Esposti, Luca Lambertini, Eva Tibaldi,and Anna Rigano. November 2005. Firstexperimental demonstration of themultipotential carcinogenic effects ofaspartame administered in the feed toSprague-Dawley rats. Pubmed.gov. 7.pRecuperated from:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1392232/?tool=pubmedRenata Alleva, Battista Borghi, LorySantarelli, Elisabetta Strafella, DamianoCarbonari, Massimo Braci, MarcoTomasetti. September 17, 2010. In vitroeffect of aspartame in angiogenesis 5