2. 1. Pedagogic is an important purpose to which translation
has been put for a long time.
2. Translation has been proposed a s a means for learning
and teaching a foreign language.
3. For many centuries, translation was an established
technique in foreign language teaching.
4. The pedagogic use of translation focused on the written
language, these reformers emphasized the importance,
indeed the primacy, of the spoken mode of the foreign
language, and took a decided stance against the
dominating role of translation in foreign language teaching.
3. 5. Interference was thought to occur when learners
translated from the foreign language into their native
6. Bilingual mode is where two languages are active at the
same time, and where it is perfectly natural to switch from
one to other.
7. Translation per se was claimed to be not only an
unnatural activity but a highly specialized one, which far
from being help was hindrance to the desire development
of the four basic skills.
8. Translation was seen as a special fifth skill, to be used
only after learners had acquired a superior knowledge of
the foreign language.
4. 9. In compound bilingualism, the lexicons of the two languages are
said to be stored jointly in the mind, and in coordinate
bilingualism, they are said to be kept separate.
10. Language learning is regarded as a cognitive process, it
naturally involves mental comparison between the formal and
functional characteristics of native and foreign language.
11. Translation helps in the development of proficiency by
economically and unambiguously explaining the meaning of
foreign language items.
12. In exploiting their knowledge of a language, learners are
already familiar with translation activities, learners increase their
confidence and motivation to learn a foreign language.
5. 13. Translation promotes explicit knowledge about the
foreign language and helps develop awareness of
differences and similarities between the native and the
foreign language systems.
14. Language awareness enhanced by translation has also
broader educational benefits since it promotes crosscultural understanding.
15.Translation activities can be used to develop
communicative competence in foreign language.
16. Communicative translation activities can also involve
the production of original source texts.
6. CURRENT ISSUES.
7. 1. Translation is both a linguistic and a cultural activity
involving communication across cultures.
2. the nature of intercultural communication differs in overt
and covert translation.
3. The degree to which the recipients of the translation are
necessarily aware of the fact that the translation originates
in another culture.
4. In a covert translation, a cultural filter is applied in order
to adapt the source text to the communicative norms of the
8. 5. In geographical areas where conflict and war are rife,
translator may be engaged in circulating texts designed to further
the goals of one side or the other.
6. Thinking aloud or introspection is a method used in the
internal or process approach to translation that ask translators
what they are thinking while they are translating.
7. Retrospection is to ask translators immediately after they
finished translating about difficulties, reasons of hesitations and
delay, a particular choice of word, and so on.
8. Verbal reports also known as think-aloud protocols elicited
from translators are usually taped, transcribed, and often also
presented to the translators at some later stage for comment and
9. 9. A corpus is a collection of texts, selected and compiled
according to specific criteria.
10. Corpus methods allow us to focus on a combination of
lexical, syntactic, and discoursal features while comparing large
numbers of translations into different languages by different
translators, in different sociocultural settings, and across different
11. Parallel corpora consist of a set of texts in one language and
a set of their translations into another language.
12. The benefits of work with parallel or translation corpora is
that it helps identify the type of routine translation shifts by
comparing instances of lexical or syntactic structures in both
source and target texts.
10. 13. A use of corpora in translation studies is to compare
texts translated into a given language with original texts in
that language (non-translation).
14. A major aim of work with comparable corpora is to
establish patterns that are either restricted to translations or
occur with different frequency in them.
15. Localization is arguably the field in which the translation
needs generated by modern information technology in
global markets is most visible and most influential.
16. Glocalization is the heart of the global economy in that
it tailors products to meet the needs of a multitude of
specific local markets.