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# Hyphothesis

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### Hyphothesis

1. 1. Republic of the Philippines EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Nagtahan, Sampaloc, Manila GRADUATE PROGRAM MASTER IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION TOPIC: The Hyphothesis RESEARCH METHODOLOGY DR. ELIZABETH E. SORIANO Professor Presented by: LOUIE A. MEDINACELI 1
2. 2. The Hypothesis   A Hypothesis is a suggested answer to the problem. It may be defined as an expectation about events based on generalizations of the assumed relationship between variables. 2
3. 3. The Hypothesis  Another definition of hypothesis is that it is shrewd guess that is formulated and provisionally adopted to explain observed facts or conditions and to guide In further investigation. In a sense, the hypothesis takes the place in research what is held by opinion in everyday life. They differ in one important aspect: while both hypothesis and opinion are preceded by consideration of the facts, only in the case of the former (i.e., research) is it a rule to test by further comparison with the data. 3
4. 4.     A hypothesis has the following characteristics: It should conjecture upon a relationship between two or more variables. It should be stated clearly and unambiguously in the form of declarative sentence. It should be testable, that is, it should be possible to restate it in an operational form which can then be evaluated based on data. 4
5. 5.         A hypothesis can be derived from a problem statement. Two examples are given below: Example #1: Problem statement: What is the relation between I.Q. and achievement' Hypothesis: I.Q. and achievement are positively related. Example *2: Problem statement: Do students learn more from a "directive" teacher or a "nondirective" teacher? Hypothesis: Directive teachers are more effective than "nondirective" teachers. 5
6. 6. The "Null" Hypothesis  The use of the "null" hypothesis has become more common in research-whether it be psychological, social, or educational. The reason for the use of the `null" hypothesis by researchers is that it is easier to disprove. In using a "null" hypothesis, one assumes that no significant relationship or difference exists, after which the researcher seeks to ascertain the improbability of such "null" hypothesis. 6
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8. 8. Other Types of Hypothesis   Other types of hypothesis, as given by Ary et al. (1972) are as follows: The alternative (or deductive) hypothesis, which is considered the operational statement of the research hypothesis. For example, if the related literature shows that, according to the findings of previous research, a certain teaching material is effective, the researcher will have to assume or adopt the same prediction since such prediction has a basis. On the other hand, if the survey of related studies point to the ineffectiveness of the teaching material, then the researcher has to state his hypothesis as null. Another type of hypothesis is the inductive hypothesis, which is on observations of behavior. 8
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