Republic of the Philippines
EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ
INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Nagtahan, Sampaloc, Manila
MASTER IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
TOPIC: The Hyphothesis
DR. ELIZABETH E. SORIANO
LOUIE A. MEDINACELI
A Hypothesis is a suggested answer to the problem.
It may be defined as an expectation about events based on
generalizations of the assumed relationship between
Another definition of hypothesis is that it is shrewd guess
that is formulated and provisionally adopted to explain
observed facts or conditions and to guide In further
investigation. In a sense, the hypothesis takes the place
in research what is held by opinion in everyday life. They
differ in one important aspect: while both hypothesis and
opinion are preceded by consideration of the facts, only
in the case of the former (i.e., research) is it a rule to test
by further comparison with the data.
A hypothesis has the following characteristics:
It should conjecture upon a relationship between
two or more variables.
It should be stated clearly and unambiguously in
the form of declarative sentence.
It should be testable, that is, it should be
possible to restate it in an operational form
which can then be evaluated based on data.
A hypothesis can be derived from a problem statement.
Two examples are given below:
Problem statement: What is the relation between I.Q.
Hypothesis: I.Q. and achievement are positively related.
Problem statement: Do students learn more from a
"directive" teacher or a "nondirective" teacher?
Hypothesis: Directive teachers are more effective than
The "Null" Hypothesis
The use of the "null" hypothesis has become
more common in research-whether it be
psychological, social, or educational. The reason
for the use of the `null" hypothesis by
researchers is that it is easier to disprove. In
using a "null" hypothesis, one assumes that no
significant relationship or difference exists, after
which the researcher seeks to ascertain the
improbability of such "null" hypothesis.
Other Types of Hypothesis
Other types of hypothesis, as given by Ary et al. (1972)
are as follows: The alternative (or deductive) hypothesis,
which is considered the operational statement of the
For example, if the related literature shows that,
according to the findings of previous research, a certain
teaching material is effective, the researcher will have to
assume or adopt the same prediction since such
prediction has a basis. On the other hand, if the survey
of related studies point to the ineffectiveness of the
teaching material, then the researcher has to state his
hypothesis as null. Another type of hypothesis is the
inductive hypothesis, which is on observations of