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Una guia de recursos actualizados de información, contactos, herramientas y eventos relacionados con la promoción del emprendedurismo juvenil en el mundo que es util para los que trabajan con jóvenes …

Una guia de recursos actualizados de información, contactos, herramientas y eventos relacionados con la promoción del emprendedurismo juvenil en el mundo que es util para los que trabajan con jóvenes en Honduras.

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  • 1. State of the field in YouthenterpriSe, emploYment andlivelihoodS developmentA Guide for Programming, Policymaking,and Partnership BuildingAlso includes information on:• 316 recently released articles, books, case studies, handbooks, interviews, publications, reports, technical briefs, toolkits, and portals.• 27 learning events related to youth enterprise, employment and livelihoods development that take place in 2011.In partnership with: THE WORLD BANK
  • 2. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes STATE OF THE FIELD IN YOUTH ENTERPRISE, EMPLOYMENT AND LIVELIHOODS DEVELOPMENT A Guide for Programming, Policymaking and Partnership Building To provide feedback or other comments on this publication, please contact: • Skype: MakingCentsConference • • © 2011 Making Cents International. All rights reserved, including the right of reproduction in whole or in part in any form. Written permission from Making Cents International is required before extracting any section of this publication. If any content is used, a reference of this publication is required. All information in this publication is verified to the best of the authors’ ability. First printing, February, 2011, in the United States of America.
  • 3. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes All presentations and presentation material from Making Cents International’s 2010 Global Youth Enterprise & Livelihoods Development Conference can be accessed at: To download Making Cents International’s previous post-conference “State of the Field” publications, please visit: or Join us at the 2011 Global Youth Economic Opportunities Conference September 7-9, 2011 in Washington, DC! For more information, please visit: Visit the new YFS-Link portal: The one-stop-shop for information on Youth-Inclusive Financial Services. To learn more about Making Cents International’s projects, curricula and services, please visit:
  • 4. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development Table of Contents Letter from Making Cents International . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Executive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Chapter I: Youth Enterprise Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Chapter 2: Workforce Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Chapter 3: Youth-Inclusive Financial Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Chapter 4: Adolescent Girls & Young Women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Chapter 5: Monitoring, Evaluation & Impact Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Annex I: Acronyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108 Annex II: Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .109 Annex III: 2009-2010 Articles, Briefs, Interviews, Papers, Technical Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . .112 Annex IV: 2009-2010 Books, Reports, Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131 Annex V: 2009-2010 Case Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .148 Annex VI: Internet-Based Resources (Portals and Websites) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .153 Annex VII: Toolkits, Guides, Handbooks, and Manuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .161 Annex VIII: 2011 Learning Events Related to Youth Enterprise, Employment, Financial Services and/or Livelihoods Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167 Annex IX: List of Participating Organizations in 2010 Global Youth Enterprise & Livelihoods Development Conference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .172 Annex X: 2010 Global Youth Enterprise & Livelihoods Development Conference Agenda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .176 1
  • 5. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development 2
  • 6. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development Dear Colleagues, This 2010 “State of the Field” publication is a synthesis of the key findings, lessons learned, and recommended next steps that more than 400 leaders from 63 countries examined at Making Cents International’s fourth Global Youth Enterprise & Livelihoods Development Conference. The conference was hosted by the Inter-American Development Bank September 15-16, 2010 in Washington, DC. Its demand-driven learning agenda enabled practitioners, policymakers, funders, researchers, and youth entrepreneurs to challenge assumptions, take stock of programming done to date, and examine gaps in understanding that we – as a global community – need to address if we are to effectively increase and improve economic opportunities for young people. Conference participants shared their experiences and ideas through the following 2010 conference tracks: Youth Enterprise Development; Workforce Development; Youth-Inclusive Financial Services and Financial Capabilities; Adolescent Girls and Young Women; and Monitoring, Evaluation and Impact Assessment. Participants discussed a variety of topics, such as how to effectively conduct market research to design appropriate financial products and services for youth, how to develop high-impact economic empowerment programs for girls, and how to serve both youth and employers by taking a dual client approach with youth workforce development. Participants left the conference with enhanced technical capacity, new partnerships, and access to funding opportunities. I would like to take this opportunity to express Making Cents’ sincere appreciation to all of the conference partners, Global Advisory Committee Members, presenters, exhibitors, advertisers, and participants who committed their time and expertise to the 2010 learning program. In particular, I would like to recognize RTI International, the conference’s Platinum Plus sponsor and the sponsor of the Workforce Development chapter of this publication; The MasterCard Foundation, which provided a scholarship fund to facilitate participation in the conference and partnered on this publication, and whose collaborations on youth-inclusive financial services have exponentially moved this sector forward; to the Nike Foundation, which supported the development of the chapter on Adolescent Girls & Young Women; and to ImagineNations Group for its committed support of the conference and publication since the inaugural conference in 2007. This publication builds upon the information that was shared via Making Cents’ three previous post-conference publications. The 2007, 2008, and 2009 post-conference “State of the Field” publications are downloadable from: www. They have been downloaded 3,000 times in more than 200 countries to date, which shows the high demand for this information globally. Making Cents is interested in hearing how the conference and its resulting publication have made an impact on you and the work you’re doing; please let us know. As we are quickly approaching the fifth anniversary of our global conference, Making Cents is excited to announce that the Global Youth Enterprise & Livelihoods Development Conference has a new name: Global Youth Economic Opportunities (GYEO) Conference. The new name is inclusive of the diverse programming being implemented by stakeholders working to increase and improve economic opportunities for young people. It also reflects the evolving nature of this conference’s demand-driven learning agenda. We look forward to your active participation in the 2011 conference, which has as its theme: breakthroughs in youth enterprise development, youth workforce development, youth-inclusive financial services, and youth livelihoods development. We hope you will play an active role in building the evidence base of proven approaches that have the potential to achieve scale in a sustainable way. Sincerely, Fiona Macaulay Founder and President, Making Cents International Skype: fmacaulay 3
  • 7. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development Acknowledgements Making Cents International wishes to acknowledge and thank the hundreds of organizations and individuals that contributed to building the 2010 learning program. This publication is the result of a yearlong collaboration with partners that support youth enterprise, employment, and livelihoods development around the world. Thank you to RTI International for their support of the Workforce Development track at the 2010 Conference and for providing the Lead Writers, Andrew Baird and Estera Barbarosa, for the Workforce Development chapter of this publication. We would also like to make a special acknowledgement to the following additional RTI staff members who contributed in various ways to the 2010 conference and publication: Gayle Schwartz for her involvement on the Global Advisory Committee, assistance with shaping the Workforce Development track, and technical review of the Workforce Development chapter; and Christy Crais and Haden Springer who served as session reporters and organized the RTI reception. Making Cents thanks The MasterCard Foundation for a scholarship fund that facilitated youth participation in the 2010 conference, and for collaborating on the Youth-Inclusive Financial Services Linkage (YFS-Link) program and conference track. Making Cents greatly appreciates its partnership with The MasterCard Foundation to expand economic opportunities for youth in developing countries. This strategic partnership is built on the mutual belief that given the opportunity to learn and build their human and financial assets, young people have the potential to transform their lives and improve the economic opportunities of their families and communities. Thank you, Rick Little, Alan Fleischmann, the rest of the ImagineNations team, and also their Global Partnership for Youth Investment with the World Bank Group for envision • engage • empower TM their contributions to the conference and post-conference publication. A special acknowledgement to the following ImagineNations staff members who served as session reporters: Elizabeth Dowling, Anna Elfing, and Stefanie Harrington. Making Cents would also like to express its sincere appreciation to the Nike Foundation for its support of the chapter on Adolescent Girls & Young Women, and for its global initiatives that support the girl effect ( Making Cents shares the Nike Foundation’s commitment to drive resources, change the system, show the impact, and spread the word on how to effectively work with and support adolescent girls and young women around the world. Additionally, Making Cents recognizes the significant contribution of Chemonics International to the 2010 conference and this “State of the Field” publication. We have greatly appreciated our long-term collaboration with Chemonics on high-impact international development initiatives that promote meaningful change and help people live healthier, more productive, and more independent lives. Making Cents International also recognizes and acknowledges the contributions of our staff and consultants to the publication: Fiona Macaulay, Founder and President: Strategic Direction and Review Whitney Harrelson, Associate Director,Youth Enterprise & Livelihoods Development: Publication Manager and Conference Director Elena Reilly, Consultant: Publication Coordinator, Lead Writer of Chapters on Enterprise Development, Adolescent Girls & Young Women, and Monitoring, Evaluation & Impact Assessment 4
  • 8. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development Lara Storm-Swire, Lead Writer of Chapter on Youth-Inclusive Financial Services David James-Wilson, Contributing Writer for Chapter on Youth-Inclusive Financial Services Veronica Torres, Director,Youth Enterprise & Livelihoods Development: Review Veleka Burrell, Manager, New Business Development: Copy Editing Lindsey Witmer, Coordinator,Youth Enterprise & Livelihoods Development: Development of Annexes Ron Ivey, Executive Vice President, New Business Development and Technical Assistance: Review Thank you also to the presenters who reviewed sections of the publication pertaining to their presentations, and to the following conference sponsors that helped make the content possible. CONFERENCE HOST PLATINUM SPONSOR Inter-American Development Bank’s RTI International IDB YOUTH Program GOLD SPONSORS BRONzE SPONSORS ImagineNations Group Academy for Educational Development USAID Chemonics International EQUIP3 Education Development Center International Rescue Committee Plan International COPPER SPONSORS YOUTH SCHOLARSHIP SPONSORS CHF International The MasterCard Foundation Inter-American Foundation 5
  • 9. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development 6
  • 10. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes Executive Summary EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
  • 11. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development Executive Summary All over the world, every day, young men and women open a bank account, launch a business, receive theirExecutive Summary first paycheck, save for their education, contribute to their families, and find safe and rewarding ways to achieve their economic goals. Those seemingly small successes can have lasting impacts on young peoples’ lives. Economic opportunities help many young people avoid risky behavior, adopt new technologies, find solutions to social problems, and engage with others. Those successes can reverberate through families, communities and local economies.Young people can inject new talent into the work and marketplace. They can shake-up the status quo, questioning harmful social practices. But they need adults, as well as institutions, to give them access to services, eliminate barriers, and guide them on their way. And the world’s more than 1.8 billion young people1 deserve many more successes. The youth enterprise, employment and livelihoods development (YEELD) field has been growing and evolving to respond effectively to two critical issues: the youth population surge and global youth unemployment crisis. With the largest youth population in the history of the world, developing economies struggle to provide economic opportunities, as well as health and education services, for such a large demographic. The need for a youth focus is especially acute in fragile states, conflict-affected areas, and countries where the majority of the population is under age 30, but it exists to varying degrees throughout the world. The recent global economic crisis has exacerbated challenges related to youth unemployment, impacting both developed and underdeveloped economies at unprecedented levels. During the economic crisis, youth unemployment experienced the sharpest increase ever, rising from 11.9 percent in 2007 to 13 percent at the end of 2009 for a total of 81 million unemployed young people.2 For those young people, formal employment and the social protection it affords remains out of reach; they dedicate themselves to the informal market, work for their families, and subsist on whatever opportunities arise. By channeling youth energy and innovation towards safe and viable economic opportunities, both in the formal and informal sector, young people can contribute to vibrant economies, peaceful societies, and healthier and better educated people. Making Cents International’s 2010 Global Youth Enterprise & Livelihoods Development Conference convened more than 400 stakeholders from 63 countries to share key findings and lessons learned, discuss common challenges, and reflect on next steps needed for the maturation of the YEELD field. This publication provides a snapshot of how 400 conference participants from 63 countries—those who design, implement, monitor, evaluate, and fund programs and policies in this field—work to create impact, influence policy, and achieve scale and sustainability. As the field advances and more people dedicate time, resources and energy to YEELD, it is important to take stock and chart the way forward. At the 2010 conference,YEELD stakeholders highlighted the following overall advances and recommendations for the field: • Focus on policy change. Governments need assistance to effectively support youth livelihoods. Policies should build on lessons learned in programs or pilots, bridge the gap between education 1 The Inter-Agency Network for Youth Development estimates that there are approximately 1.8 billion young people ages 10-24 years in the world today. The United Nations Population Division estimated that the global youth population (ages 15-24 years) in March 2009 was 1.1 billion youth Approximately 90 percent of young people ages 15-24 live in the developing world. pressrelease.pdf. Note that global youth statistics can vary depending on the age range considered.Young people are considered to be inclusive of children in their early adolescence. 2 International Labour Office. “Global Employment Trends for Youth: Special issue on the impact of the global economic crisis on youth.” Geneva: August 2010. unemployment rates track young people ages 15-24, when young people in many countries are legally allowed to engage in formal employment. 8
  • 12. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development systems and the market, institutionalize support for young people, and remove antiquated policy barriers that prevent young people from accessing the services and education opportunities they need. • Build a more nuanced knowledge base of “what works.” The knowledge base is starting Executive Summary to grow and expand; deepening and disseminating this knowledge is a critical next step. Examining “what works” and for whom, as well as what doesn’t work, strengthens learning and contributes to more intentional programs. • Mobilize donors. The number, type, and sophistication of donors funding the field indicate a growing understanding of the impact programs can have on youth, economies, and nations. Donors realize that youth as a demographic are critical to reaching socio-economic development objectives. Investment horizons of three to ten years allow for depth, impact and significant contributions to the evidence base. • Listen to and engage young people. Practitioners and policymakers have increased access to the tools, expertise, and guidance necessary to engage young people in program design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. The field still has to create stronger policy and institutional environments that give voice to young people and inspire authentic engagement with them. • Work with young people as partners. Understanding young people’s vulnerability is critical. Equally critical is acknowledging their potential to transform their own lives and communities; and also ensuring that youth development professionals, educational leaders, policy-makers, families, and community members do as well. • Promote cross-sectoral approaches. Holistic programs reflect the way young people live their lives; address the interconnected nature of economic opportunities and HIV/AIDS, reproductive health, and education; and can strengthen outcomes across those various domains. Avoiding “silos” of development, and convincing all partners to invest in and work with youth, remains a challenge. • Create networks to advocate and promote the field. National, regional, and global networks connect young people and stakeholders via technology or other types of exchanges. They publicize successes in the field, communicate its importance to policy-makers, and share new approaches and research. This is an important start but more needs to be done to organize concerted advocacy efforts. While important advances have been made in the field, stakeholders remain dedicated to its continued maturation. Details about how to fund, design, implement, evaluate, and improve YEELD programs, especially in certain contexts and with specific populations, need to be refined. Many of those gaps are highlighted as next steps in the chapters of this publication. The five tracks for learning at the 2010 conference included: youth enterprise development; workforce development; youth-inclusive financial services and financial capabilities; adolescent girls and young women; and monitoring, evaluation and impact assessment. Overlap exists between the tracks. For example, the success of youth enterprise development programs is often dependent on young people’s access to financial services. Workforce development programs may include entrepreneurial components and vice versa. Monitoring, evaluation and impact assessment, as well as gender considerations, are common to all tracks. Key findings from each of the tracks are summarized below. 9
  • 13. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development Youth Enterprise Development (YED) Youth enterprise development programs encourage and support the entrepreneurial behaviors that young people need to devise innovative solutions to social or business problems, create and sustain small businesses,Executive Summary and succeed in employment.Young entrepreneurs now benefit from national networks, experienced mentors, resource-filled websites, online communities, supportive organizations, market-driven capacity building, unique partnerships, and more youth-friendly financial services. Participants in the 2010 conference reflected on how to mobilize policy-makers, link to mentors in the private sector, and encourage schools to promote entrepreneurial behaviors, creativity, and positive risk-taking. Tailoring approaches to support diverse types of entrepreneurs, from small-scale to high growth entrepreneurs, was also discussed. Workforce Development (WFD) Workforce development programs strive to provide relevant and accessible training, education, and development opportunities so that young people can secure meaningful employment in rapidly changing economies. This new sector continues to address key issues critical to its evolution: balancing public and private sector investment, addressing the supply and demand sides of WFD, ensuring that marginalized young people access services, and strengthening educational institutions to create sustainable workforce development solutions. Innovative experiences partnering with high-growth sectors, involving youth and families, and designing dual-client approaches that address both youth and employers’ needs are a few of the experiences highlighted here. Youth-Inclusive Financial Services and Financial Capabilities (YFS and YFC) Young people depend on access to youth-friendly financial services to secure their livelihoods, manage and control their assets, and make wise financial decisions for their future. Participants in the 2010 conference discussed how to identify the youth sub-segments of existing markets, develop new youth-friendly products — using both formal and informal models — by using market research to adapt existing products, and utilize innovative delivery approaches and channels — including the use of technology — to reach youth. Partnerships between financial institutions and youth-serving organizations can lead to more holistic programming and offer unique opportunities for quality, sustainability, and scale. Microfinance institutions offering youth products as part of their competitive strategies are now convincing peers of the business case for investing in youth; powerful arguments that will undoubtedly lead to the continued advancement of the sector. Adolescent Girls and Young Women (AGYW) Important investments in YEELD programming for adolescent girls and young women have contributed to more sophisticated and intentional programming for this population. Exciting programs embrace the empowerment side of the economic equation, counteracting unacceptable situations of vulnerability endured by millions of girls and young women. Participants discussed how to refine program delivery models, design girl-friendly and girl-designed financial products, integrate girls into value chains, and expand pre-existing livelihoods programs to include girls. 10
  • 14. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development Monitoring, Evaluation and Impact Assessment (M&E) Practitioners, donors, policy-makers and other stakeholders acknowledge that while employment or financial statistics tell an important story, the building blocks of young people’s success may be more subtle and need Executive Summary to be measured at the individual level. The sector advances in finding viable ways to measure the outcomes and impacts of interventions designed specifically to increase and improve a young person’s employability, life, financial, and entrepreneurial skills and access to finance, mentors, and other resources. More sophisticated and standardized M&E tools, meta-analyses of evaluations, reflections on operational and capacity-related challenges for M&E, and careful considerations of gender-responsive M&E characterized the dialogue on this track at the conference. What’s next? Several ways forward emerged from presentations, conversations, panels, and participants at the 2010 conference. They include the following: • Develop more targeted, intentional programming for specific youth populations. Theories of change should reflect a nuanced understanding of population sub-sectors and how YEELD programming will add value to young peoples’ lives and contribute to the social and economic progress of their communities. Stakeholders, whether deciding to invest in girls, early adolescents, street children, or high-growth entrepreneurs, should map a path for change based a clear understanding of the young people’s life cycle and the individuals and institutions that make up a young person’s environment. • Determine which models and approaches merit being taken to scale and advocate for them. The development of the YEELD evidence base still lags behind the pace of implementation. Despite advances, the field still needs a more detailed understanding of which models and approaches are most effective for a particular context, population, or problem and why and when they are most effective. That knowledge should then inform advocacy, national-level policy change, and additional investment. Research is also needed to prove more explicitly the connection between YEELD programs and poverty alleviation, demonstrating which youth interventions impact local and national economies. • Use partnerships to fill current gaps and broaden the reach of the YEELD field. Partnerships offer the potential for scale and allow specialized organizations to complement each other’s expertise, resources, and geographical focus. Given the time and resources necessary to develop effective partnerships,YEELD stakeholders should strategically partner with organizations to fill existing knowledge or coverage gaps and advance the field. Communicating with partners about practical, field-level issues should be prioritized as the best-designed programs can be undone by operational challenges during implementation. • Maximize the use of media and technology in YEELD programs.Technology and media offer intriguing opportunities to reach scale, expand services, lower operating costs,democratize participation, and keep programming relevant to a dynamic world. Questions about access to technology and media—who gets left behind—need to be addressed, as do questions about the quality and purpose of content for both “new” types of social media and “old” television, radio, and print media. Both media and technology continue to offer entrepreneurial opportunities for young people as early adopters of technology. 11
  • 15. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development Learn More and Participate in the 2011 Conference Participants in the 2010 conference left with ideas, fresh perspectives, tools, publications, pamphlets, CDs, websites, and advice from colleagues. They also left with affirmations and challenges. Their leading affirmationExecutive Summary was that youth enterprise and livelihoods development programs offer new hope for transforming the “youth problem” into a “youth solution.” Their challenge is to fix the shortcomings in their programs, build new partnerships, publish and share the results of their initiatives, find new ways to achieve sustainability, and take their intervention(s) to scale. Their other challenge, and the challenge for those who did not participate in the conference, is to read this publication, review the ideas and experiences represented, consider the questions it raises, read the annexes that lists additional resources and 2011 learning events, and apply the relevant guidance and information provided to their work. We also hope you will visit the conference’s agenda page to review the 2010 presentation material (, send feedback, and register to attend the 2011 conference as presenters or participants. As more and more young people come of working age without a clear pathway for economic security, civic engagement, or personal fulfillment,YEELD stakeholders must continue to come together as a learning community. The need is as urgent as ever to create and sustain impact at scale for young people. We invite you to continue participating, consolidating learning, reflecting on achievements, filling gaps, and advancing the field. 12
  • 16. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development Voices: Why Should We Be Talking About Youth? Executive Summary The following visionaries and thought leaders “We, the old people (and I don’t like to say this), are reflected on the critical role that young people can comfortable consuming. But we need more making. play in global development. They offer their opinions Young people are well-positioned to re-invent economies. on why we need to create economic opportunities for Young people are capable of initiatives, if those are young people and how we can best support youth to enabled. My vision is that out of extreme conditions [like bring about positive change. slums] emerge new ideas on how to construct. In the global slum and city, people are motivated to initiate “The average age in Latin America and the Caribbean is rather than just consume.” 26 years old; there are a billion youth in the region. Many of the countries in the region are nearing incomes of the —Dr . Saskia Sassen, Robert S. Lynd Professor developed world. That tells us about the opportunities we of Sociology and Member, The Committee on have today. There is a direct link between development Global Thought, Colombia University. Dr. Sassen and youth development. The region has the highest emphasized the importance of nurturing talent and cellular phone penetration in the world. What will we do production in the poorer sectors as the “middle class with that technology?” will take care of itself” and our economies need to better distributed. —Mr . Luis Alberto Moreno, President, Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). In addition to speaking For more information about her research, see about the importance of technology, Mr. Moreno discussed the importance of scaling-up initiatives “We have studied changemakers and learned from social through partnerships and collaboration, and seeing entrepreneurs. We found that they start early. Changes and promoting youth as agents of change for their they brought about as young people inspired a lifelong communities. mission. An adult mentor encouraged them to pursue For more information about youth and the IDB, see ideas. They work in teams. They are empathetic and understand other people’s situations.” “Young people are the single most untapped resource for —Ms . Diana Wells, President, Ashoka. In addition to economic growth and better governance. With the right discussing characteristics of social entrepreneurs, investments in young people, we have the opportunity to Ms. Wells discussed the importance of participation, change the planet. We need to start by listening to young asserting that more people need to have a role and people and creating the supportive environments that realize that they are part of the “conversation.” She enable us to do so.” and other panelists agreed that “shining a light” on stories about changemakers can promote positive —Ms . Reeta Roy, President and CEO, The MasterCard ideas about youth and encourage engagement. Foundation. Ms. Roy discussed how to empower young people to create their own pathways, and For more information about Ashoka, how we need to broaden the formal education see system and teach marketable skills for a 21st Century economy. For more information about The MasterCard Foundation, see 13
  • 17. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods DevelopmentExecutive Summary 14
  • 18. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes Introduction INTRODUCTION
  • 19. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development INTRODUCTION A . Why Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development? Young men in Jamaican slums enter the value chain of the US$6 billion ornamental fish industry. Andean artisans contribute traditional designs to the world of high fashion. Blind Colombian children benefit from the ingenuity of local engineering students. Central American coffee farmers connect to fair-trade retailers. Brazilian teenagers transfer skills learned on the soccer field to the workplace. High school students analyze the ethical consequences of their role in the marketplace. And like many of the young entrepreneurs behind these success stories, practitioners in the youth enterprise, employment, and livelihoods development (YEELD) field catalyze and support the creative, social and entrepreneurial potential of young people for a greater social and economic good.YEELD programs may: • Protect youth from trafficking, sexual exploitation, unsafe labor, risky behaviors or recruitment into criminal or armed groups that destabilize countries and threaten global security. • Empower young people, especially girls or other marginalized populations, by promoting their safeIntroduction participation in local economies and in their communities. • Support educational systems to improve quality and relevance, teach entrepreneurial behaviors, and assist young people to translate ideas for income-generation into the local marketplace. • Prepare young people for formal employment in traditional and growth economies in their local contexts through public and private partnerships that bridge the “learning and earning” divide. • Provide access to age-appropriate financial services to give young people control over their assets and the guidance they need to make informed financial and life decisions. YEELD programs make sense for economies, societies and nations: economies depend on the continual flow of talent and new ideas into the workforce and marketplace, societies depend on empathetic individuals to devise solutions to vexing social problems; and nations benefit from a young, productive, and engaged citizenry that contributes to socio-economic growth, builds the private sector, and develops civil society. The YEELD field must continually advance by building on past experiences, documenting lessons learned, assessing impact, filling knowledge gaps, and developing richer and more sophisticated evidence-based approaches that have been proven effective. The 2010 Global Youth Enterprise & Livelihoods Development Conference convened more than 400 practitioners, educators, funders, policy-makers, researchers, and youth entrepreneurs from 63 countries to focus on that task. The conference provided a learning platform to reflect on the field’s advances and chart a shared course for the next 10 to 20 years. Participants learned about new tools, debated promising practices, shared successes and failures, networked with colleagues, and engaged with visionaries. The 20103 conference responded to the same impulse that drove the organization of the first event in 2007.4 a need to better understand how to increase and improve economic opportunities effectively for young people around the world. The 2010 conference, in its fourth year, continued to tackle issues of global relevance. Statistics paint a bleak picture for adolescents and youth. Nine out of ten of the world’s young people live in developing countries.3 Over 81 million young people were unemployed in 2009, 7.8 million people more than in 2007.4 Formal employment, and the social services that frequently accompany it, remain out of reach for millions; young 3, page. 1 4 Ibid, page. 1 16
  • 20. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development people must seek the economic opportunities they need to continue education, stay healthy, build their future, and support their families. Since young people are key to developing strong families, open societies, fair governments and vibrant local and national economies, the situation calls for a comprehensive response. With access to appropriate educational and financial services, guidance and social support, and facilitating policy environments, the “youth problem” becomes an opportunity. B . What Are The Key Ingredients Of Youth Enterprise And Livelihoods Development Programs? Participants in the 2010 conference deliberated over key ingredients that are necessary to include in programming and policymaking in order for young people to obtain a decent job or start a successful business. The following are key ingredients that participants agreed lead to high-impact YEELD initiatives: • Connection with classrooms. Connecting with school systems or other formal learning institutions provides YEELD programs opportunities to bridge the learning and earning divide, impact large numbers of young people, and influence national policy through curriculum change. Introduction Some YEELD programs, such as workforce development with in-school youth or financial education for children, may be based entirely in schools. Other programs may focus on out-of-school young people or employ a hybrid approach, focusing on non-formal education but connecting with traditional classrooms when necessary. • Access to financial products, services and education. Financial products, services, and education are the basic building blocks of the YEELD field. Without access to financial products and services, young people often cannot save income, receive credit to start small businesses, or control their assets. Financial education can complement life skills, entrepreneurial education and other learning components offered in YEELD programs. Services may be offered by commercial banks, informal savings and loan arrangements, schools, or through family members. Mentors or peer leaders also serve to guide young people as they develop entrepreneurial, financial, and life skills. • Private sector partnerships. YEELD programs are intimately connected to local economies. In most cases, young people are already actors in their local marketplaces, though their contributions may not be recognized. Private sector partnerships allow YEELD programs to tap into available resources, uch as mentors, meeting space, and products that can serve as in-kind donations. They can also help ensure YEELD programs are market-led. In many cases, private sector partnerships benefit both the private sector company and the individual client(s) since young people or their families may become new clients for businesses or banks. Financial services, value chain approaches, micro-franchising, internships, and mentoring all involve private sector partnerships. • Enabling environments for systemic change. YEELD pilots or small-scale programs serve to test delivery mechanisms, refine financial services or products, target marginalized young people, and improve the lives of a select group of young people. Nevertheless, program impact will be limited to a geographic area or a target group unless programs also take a macro-level approach to policy change. That policy change will be context-dependent; it might mean allowing minors to open bank accounts, integrating entrepreneurial education into the formal school system, or requiring both public and private financing for workforce development. Whatever the change, a focus on the enabling environment will allow for impact beyond a limited geographic area or target group. 17
  • 21. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development C . How Can We Engage Young People As Participants And Partners In Development? Youth engagement and participation emerged as a key ingredient that cross-cut all conference tracks. Successful YEELD and youth development programs engage young people as active participants in their own development and partners in the development of their communities. Engaging youth begins with the belief that young people are capable of developing successful economic and social initiatives when given the appropriate support. Listening to young people is also an important step in design, implementation, and evaluation phases of programming and policymaking.Young people can share which YEELD program and policy components would be most effective to them in securing employment, starting a business, and utilizing financial services. Resources exist within the YEELD field to assist stakeholders to guarantee authentic engagement and participation by young people. Many resources are documented throughout the publication though the following ones deserve a special highlight: • Web-based networks and social media for youth and youth-serving organizationsIntroduction connect young people to organizations and opportunities that exist close to home and on the global stage. They allow young people to drive the conversation and provide support and resources when necessary. • Media outlets can promote positive images of young people, communicating to youth and the general public the impact that young people can have on their communities. They may use celebrities or other traditional media channels to access young people who are not participating in youth development or YEELD programs. • Youth representatives tell their stories, highlighting their path to success and explaining which types of support helped them achieve their goals. Testimonies from young people can help YEELD practitioners understand what young people need to succeed and what facilitates youth participation. The following section describes the experiences of several young entrepreneurs, or those who support them. The following pages of this publication are rich with examples of how various organizations navigated through complex operating environments to impact the lives of young people throughout the world. Many of those organizations explain how young people were engaged in various steps of program design, implementation, and evaluation. Other organizations share how: • Projects were tailored to fit the particular context of a given country or target population or adjusted to respond better to young peoples’ needs or a changing operating context. • Partnerships allowed them to combine resources and expertise to make an idea a reality. • They created a tool to fill a programming need or create guidance based on their YEELD experiences. • Monitoring and evaluation results led them to think differently about their programming. Given the diversity and number of organizations sharing their experiences, the following section will assist readers to know how best to use the publication to meet their learning needs or particular interests. 18
  • 22. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development Voices: Young Entrepreneurs Speak to their Experiences Marcella Echavarria began as a journalist and an his friends designed and tested a device that would aficionado of traditional handicrafts in Colombia and help blind children distinguish and feel colors, thus the Andean region. After connecting with artisans allowing them to participate in the world and have a throughout Latin America, she cold-called Donna more fulfilling experience in traditional classrooms. Karan in New York, looking for a connection to the Over a period of years, DUTO S.A. and its IRIS project fashion world. From that fortuitous moment, she have received international recognitions. People told launched her own company, SURevolution, selling John he was crazy, but he and his team believed in the traditional designs to a luxury market. She took risks, product and its potential to change children’s lives. defended the integrity of traditional design, expanded to Asia and Africa, and is thrilled to see Colombians, as well as fashion-lovers everywhere, valuing the Noah Bopp founded the School for Ethics and traditional designs of artisans from around the world. Global Leadership, a semester-long charter school that educates American high school students to be ethically strong and internationally aware. He said, Introduction “It’s not enough to create more leaders, we have to Nicardo Neil described the work of the think about what kind of leaders we want to create.” In Competitiveness Company promoting a value chain Washington DC, the school provokes young people to in the ghettos of Jamaica where young men deal with think about how the world works, identify solutions to the daily realities of unemployment and violence. problems in their communities, and focus on solving Young men reported that they raised fish in tubs in those problems as a keystone project. their backyards for varying reasons, either they were taught by a father figure or they enjoyed keeping fish as children. Nicardo and his team researched the value Martin Mayorga and his family fled Nicaragua and chain and found that ornamental fish, ranging from migrated to the United States over 25 years ago. Of pet goldfish to high-end tropical fish like Discus and Guatemalan and Nicaraguan heritage, Martin grew Koi, are part of a US$6 billion global export industry. up visiting both countries and bringing back coffee The company has worked to form clusters of over and cigars. He launched Mayorga Coffee, paying for 300 young men, trained them in fish cultivation, most of the start-up costs on a credit card, to change provided them better technology, and created enough the antiquated structure of the coffee export business producers to achieve the volume necessary for export. in Central America and create a more advantageous They’ve also worked to develop more local exporters, relationship for coffee producers who are often at the a critical component if the production of so many mercy of unfair pre-harvest financing. The company small fish farmers is to be aggregated and marketed now employs more than 100 people and wholesales to worldwide. over 1,500 retailers, including Costco Wholesale, Giant Foods, Whole Foods, Sodexo, Sams Club, and other regional and national chains. Mayorga Coffee is proud John Alexis Guerra, as an engineering student in a to support organic and environmentally sustainable small city of Colombia, was interested in a final thesis coffee. For more information, see project that didn’t “make rich people richer.” He and D . What Should I Know About This Publication? This publication is a consolidation and synthesis of the key findings and lessons learned, common challenges and recommended next steps that participants highlighted during the 2010 conference. While it is not an exhaustive review of global practice, it offers an intriguing look into the current state and evolution of the field. The experiences and ideas in this publication detail how many members of the global community are building upon the past and working towards achieving ambitious goals for the field. Their recent experiences, 19
  • 23. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development generated in countries, classrooms, foundations, governments, and businesses throughout the world, represent the “real-time” evolution of the field. Chapters reflect the insights, analysis, and recommendations generated by conference presenters and/or the synergy between presenters and participants. To capture the rich and multi-faceted learning from the event, this publication follows the overall design of the conference. The five tracks/themes of the conference were: • Youth Enterprise Development • Workforce Development • Youth-Inclusive Financial Services and Financial Capabilities • Adolescent Girls and Young Women • Monitoring, Evaluation and Impact Assessment Within the publication, the key findings and programmatic examples related to these tracks/themes are dispersed within and across different chapters. Some examples fit into more than one track. For example, gender approaches to workforce development are included in the workforce development chapter, althoughIntroduction they could also fit in the chapter on adolescent girls and young women. E . How Should I Use This Publication? Feel free to extract information and learning from chapters of particular interest or review all chapters based on your interests and needs. Programmatic examples provide additional insight and ground lessons learned within their operative contexts. In order to facilitate a quick read, certain sections include a small icon to help identify what the example offers. Noteworthy Results share evaluation or other results from YEELD programs operating throughout the world and include a brief description of the program. New tools include training manuals, monitoring and evaluation resources, websites, publications, and any other resources that might be of use to members of the YEELD field. The annexes also include relevant resources that members of this community produced in 2009-2010. Hot topics refer to points of debate or discussion within the field. These may be topics that have recently emerged or that have consistently inspired debate amongst practitioners. Bright ideas include new or interesting approaches worth highlighting. They may refer to an innovation relevant to the entire field or to a region or operating context. Practical tips capture practitioners’ advice, techniques or some other learning crystallized from programmatic examples and on-the-ground experience. Checklists offer new ways for practitioners and others to think about whether they have the components necessary to be successful. They are extracted from presentations shared at the conference. Voices of participants, presenters or other experts in the field make learning personal; describing anecdotes and experiences that shaped colleagues’ perspectives about an issue in the field. 20
  • 24. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes Chapter 1: Approaches to Youth Chapter 1: Youth Enterprise Development Enterprise Development
  • 25. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development Introduction Youth enterprise development (YED) seeks to equip young people with the skills, information and support they need to make an idea a reality, start a social or income-generating venture, seek out financial and other resources needed to begin or grow their social ventures or businesses, and make informed education and employment decisions for their future. While skill-building forms the back bone of youth entrepreneurial development,YEELD practitioners presenting at the 2010 conference emphasized the importance of creating environments that support and promote entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial behavior for all young people. Presenters discussed the diverse population groups that youth enterprise development initiatives target, including small-scale or “necessity” entrepreneurs, growth-oriented or “opportunity” entrepreneurs, social entrepreneurs or “change-makers,” and young people who could benefit from entrepreneurship education and apply it to various facets of their lives. Given the diversity of young business people and their backgrounds, the field must segment its offerings to ensure that programs are applicable and relevant to the specific type of young people they target. Creating safe and viable pathways for young people’s income generation remains a primary concern for YEELD practitioners. For “necessity entrepreneurs,” income-generation can help young people negotiate the challenges of poverty. Additional income can improve young people’s quality of life, enable them to contribute to their household spending needs, and allow them to further their education. “Opportunity” entrepreneurs frequently come from more privileged backgrounds, middle-income countries, or environments that otherwise facilitate business development. These young entrepreneurs leverage educational or economic advantage they might have to convert a business idea into a successful business, and they have greater propensity to be growth-oriented. Both types of entrepreneurs are critical to the overall panorama of social and economic development, and it isChapter 1: Youth Enterprise Development important to distinguish between those who are true “entrepreneurs” and those who are starting a business that has been run many times before. Nevertheless, entrepreneurship, broadly speaking, should not be mistaken as a panacea for the youth unemployment crisis but it should rather be seen as a viable option for integrating young people into a larger strategy for social and economic growth. At the 2010 conference, presenters focused on the following aspects of the sector: micro-franchising, entrepreneurship education, global networks for entrepreneurship, and successful partnerships for youth entrepreneurship development. Social entrepreneurship emerged as a key area requiring greater attention, with many presenters reminding participants that the gap between business entrepreneurship and social entrepreneurship continues to narrow. 22
  • 26. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development 1 .1 Voices: Leaders Discuss Additional Key Ingredients for High-Impact YEELD Programs Leaders from the field added their thoughts on key Ortmans felt that key ingredients for the field include ingredients needed to create high-impact YEELD elevating the quality of economic research, improving programs. Each spoke to their area of expertise, program performance through robust research, and explaining why those particular areas are important changing how policy leaders view entrepreneurship. to socio-economic development and the rights of Mr. Ortmans and the Kauffman Foundation believe young people. They noted emerging priorities for the that entrepreneurs are at the heart of new economic continued advancement of the field. growth; as such, the field cannot be relegated to the sidelines but rather must be actively creating Jonathan Ortmans, Senior Fellow, Ewing Marion connections with Presidents and high-level decision- Kauffman Foundation. The Ewing Marion Kauffman makers. As important as entrepreneurship is to Foundation is one of the thirty largest foundations economic growth, practitioners must also remember in the United States, supporting entrepreneurship, the fun, social, and collaborative opportunities it innovation, education, and research and policy. Mr. provides to young people. Key Findings and Lessons Learned A. Promoting Dynamic Entrepreneurship Educational Opportunities, Within and Outside the Chapter 1: Youth Enterprise Development Formal Educational System, Encourages Youth Innovation and Entrepreneurship Entrepreneurship education is at the heart of the sector and offers the clearest and most sustainable path to scale through the formal education system. According to the International Labor Organization (ILO), creating entrepreneurial societies starts with education that fosters creativity, problem-solving skills, positive risk-taking, and enterprising mindsets for both girls and boys. The goal is not to transform all youth into entrepreneurs but rather to expose youth to positive attributes and skills behind entrepreneurship. This requires leadership and a fundamental change in curriculum by integrating entrepreneurship education with content that is gender sensitive and adapted to the country’s context. It also requires a change in how schools encourage entrepreneurial behaviors, provide learning experiences relevant to future income generation, and how teachers embrace active and participatory teaching methodologies. Considering the emphasis placed on rote learning and memorization in many educational systems, the task seems gargantuan. Nevertheless, entrepreneurship education can jump-start the educational system by creating a level of excitement in schools that transcends entrepreneurship and promotes effective approaches to education. The “how” of entrepreneurial education can take many forms and depends on context. The ILO feels that entrepreneurship skills, and also life skills and adaptability, should be embedded across the curriculum for all ages.5 Financial education can provide an entry-point for entrepreneurial education, though most teachers will still need significant support to jump from teaching financial education and literacy to promoting entrepreneurial mindsets. Partnerships between in-school curricula and extra-curricular activities can assist the formal education system to change as out-of-school activities allow for more freedom and experimentation. Non-formal education holds the promise of working with more vulnerable out-of-school adolescents and youth. Opportunities exist to link formal and non-formal activities and encourage cross-fertilization. 5 For discussion of the “nature versus nurture” debate in entrepreneurship education, as well as a look into “necessity and opportunity entrepreneurs” see the 2009 State of the Field Publication for a synthesis of ILO’s previous presentation at the Conference, page 54. 23
  • 27. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development The Kauffman Foundation promotes “messy” entrepreneurship education in a non-classroom setting. Their research tells them that rigid frameworks will not lead to the organic innovations and ideas that characterize entrepreneurship. An example of “what works” is Startup Weekend,, which provides a dynamic, non-traditional approach to entrepreneurship education in a 54-hour event. 1 .2 Checklists: How Can You Support Entrepreneurship Education in Your Country? The ILO put together the following checklist to spark messages content into entrepreneurship education ideas on how best to advocate and support the and translated into local languages? Ensured development of entrepreneurship education at the effective support and ongoing learning of teacher national policy and program level. Have you, your trainers? Been realistic about the amount of time organization, or your coalition: necessary to integrate entrepreneurship education into the curriculum (2-5 years?) Connected in-school ✔ Reviewed existing economic development and and out-of-school programs? employment policies? Identified champions from government, private sector, and civil society to ✔ Piloted the program first in a select number of advance entrepreneurship education nationally? regions including urban, semi-urban and rural schools? Integrated monitoring and evaluation ✔ Invited a broad range of stakeholders to participate mechanisms that are simple and can track a small in policy development? Cooperated with the number of core impacts onyouth employability business community? Established roles and and attitude changes among young participants?Chapter 1: Youth Enterprise Development responsibilities between stakeholders through Prepared a report to the government about pilot dialogue? Developed greater cooperation between results that highlights the need for entrepreneurship Ministries? education and includes the voices of teachers and ✔ Created teacher training in entrepreneurship students? education and worked with teachers’ colleges? For more information about the ILO, Integrated gender equality, disability, and HIV/AIDS B. Creating Effective Partnerships Are Critical For Developing High-Impact Entrepreneurship Programs that Have the Potential to Achieve Scale and Sustainability Effective partnerships, though challenging, are key to achieving scale and sustainability in the YEELD field. Many organizations create global and local partnerships to inspire and support youth entrepreneurs by connecting them to networks, mentors, and other useful resources. Partnerships with formal school systems, training institutions, financial services, and local businesses are often key to designing comprehensive YEELD programs that have the potential to survive after project funding runs out. At the 2010 conference, Peace Corps shared advice on creating effective partnerships, drawn from their experiences with developing youth entrepreneurship programs in Central America. 24
  • 28. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development 1 .3 Practical Tips: Advice from Peace Corps in Central America on Creating Effective Partnerships Peace Corps (PC) Honduras and Nicaragua shared • Work with many levels of the government guidance at the 2010 conference on how organizations simultaneously. PC Nicaragua knew that integrating can develop effective partnerships. This guidance entrepreneurship into the national curriculum is based on lessons learned from Peace Corps’ would transform an after-school activity into a management of youth entrepreneurship and business nationwide change. They signed agreements with incubator programs in Honduras and Nicaragua. both local and national Ministry of Education officials to ensure that all stakeholders were engaged and • Build local capacity through effective that entrepreneurship, life skills, workreadiness and methodologies for support and sharing. In technology were integrated into the secondary Nicaragua, Peace Corps volunteers co-teach and meet curriculum. with local teachers regularly. • Be patient, be persistent and celebrate successes. • Document experiences and training Most partnerships require patience. It took ten years methodologies. Replication for growth is only for the Nicaraguan government to make the Peace possible if experiences are well-documented. This is Corps-volunteer designed curriculum part of the especially important in Peace Corps since volunteers national curriculum. The media are an ally in raising only serve two year terms. awareness and interest in a program. • Adapt a national model to local contexts. PC • Flexibility counts. Programs need to adapt to Honduras learned that cookie-cutter approaches to political and social instability; youth need support Chapter 1: Youth Enterprise Development program replication often don’t adjust for differences during those times. in rural-urban contexts, literacy, and food security levels in diverse regions. Program designers should For more information on Peace Corps, see: solicit community input to help understand local contexts and what elements of the program need to be adapted. While most organizations are usually able to agree on the “why” of partnerships, the “how” can be challenging. Negotiating between various organizations should include a discussion on how to divide roles and responsibilities, as well as on general partnership principles.Youth Business International, drawing lessons from a global portfolio of partners, has developed the following guiding questions to support organizations’ partnership-building process. 25
  • 29. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development 1 .4 Checklists: Youth Business International Shares Guiding Questions for the Partnership-Building Process Youth Business International (YBI) has supported over ✔ Transparency. Are we saying what we think? 100,000 young people, ages 18-35, start their own businesses. YBI partners with NGOs, governments, and ✔ Consultation. Have we talked to all partners? local communities to provide mentors and funding ✔ Understanding. Are we speaking the same for young entrepreneurs. They know how important language? If we are partnering with a business, are partnership building is to successful programming and we acting business-like? promoting enterprise development for young people around the world. YBI asks the following questions For more information on YBI’s experiences with during their partnership-building process, which have partnerships and entrepreneurship, see their “Making proven to make the difference in securing effective Entrepreneurship Work” series, including the report, partnerships: “Recommendations for Action: How governments, businesses and civil society organizations can help ✔ Mutual benefit. Do all partners stand to gain from young people get started in business” at www. the partnership? work.aspx. C. Global and Regional Alliances and Networks Support and Raise Awareness on theChapter 1: Youth Enterprise Development “Multiplier Effect” Youth Entrepreneurship Can Have Global and regional alliances are critical to getting the word out about youth entrepreneurship opportunities and the potential entrepreneurship has to transform individuals, communities, and local economies—often called the social and economic “multiplier effect.”6 Many of the presenters at the 2010 conference discussed alliances and networks that support entrepreneurial development in a globalized way. Those collaborations build on individual organizations’ strengths to raise awareness on the multiplier effect and get local success stories to a global stage. They often link young people, universities, organizations, governments and private sector partners, thus promoting a global policy and programmatic environment that supports youth entrepreneurship in various countries and contexts. The following text boxes provide examples of high-impact alliances and networks that are facilitating information exchange, partnership building, and access to resources. 6 “Resolutions adopted by the International Labour Conference at its 93rd Session, Geneva, June 2005.” 26
  • 30. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development 1 .5 Bright Ideas: Global Entrepreneurship Week and the Kauffman Foundation Create a Global Movement for Entrepreneurs Global Entrepreneurship Week (GEW) was designed to The Kauffman Foundation supports GEW and other promote entrepreneurship globally. It seeks to inspire activities such as iStart (, an online young people to “explore their potential as self-starters platform for the administration of business plan and innovators” and encourage entrepreneurial competitions around the world; Kauffman FastTrac behavior through activities that expose young people, (, an initiative that provides educators, policy-makers, and other key stakeholders mentorship and support to entrepreneurs at every to “generate new ideas and seek better ways of doing stage of their business’s development; and Global things.” This movement of entrepreneurs has a global Scholars ( vision, believing that entrepreneurship transcends kauffman-global-scholars-program.aspx), a program national boundaries and socio-economic contexts. In that immerses top young entrepreneurs in American 2009, over 7.5 million people participated in activities businesses. that over 18,000 partner organizations organized in 88 countries. The 2010 GEW occurred from November 15- For more information, see 21; new partners are invited to join for 2011. 1 .6 Bright Ideas: ImagineNations Group, a Global Alliance and Catalyst of Networks to Support Youth Entrepreneurship and Employment Chapter 1: Youth Enterprise Development The ImagineNations Group (ING) is an example that economically advance young people. GPYI’s of a global alliance that catalyzes the creation of experience to date has shown that it is necessary to collaborations and networks that support youth engage government leaders on contextually-specific entrepreneurship and employment. ING consists youth employment and enterprise development of policymakers, world leaders, media, social issues in a way that demonstrates to them the entrepreneurs, financial institutions, global brands, benefits of their investments in youth. Focusing on media and the private sector, which are dedicated the policy level is critical. to empowering and inspiring young adults in the developing world with opportunities, employment • Silatech. One of the initiatives ING is leading in and livelihoods. ING and its partners support the the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region development of comprehensive and scalable youth is Silatech (meaning “your connection” in Arabic). investment systems and models that address the This initiative, which is featured in Chapter 5 of this barriers faced by unemployed young people. publication, is financed and chaired by Her Highness Sheikha Mozah bint Nasser al-Missned of Qatar to Since its founding in 2003, ING has created, supported, address the critical need for jobs and opportunities and promoted the following alliances and networks: for young people in this region. • Global Partnership for Youth Investment (GPYI). • ImagineNetwork (INN). The ImagineNetwork is a Recognizing the convening power and role of the global technology platform ImagineNations Group World Bank in the youth space, ING joined with developed in collaboration with Yahoo! Inc. to the World Bank in 2007 to co-found GPYI, which facilitate the access young entrepreneurs have to is a global trilateral public, private, civil society mentors and other supporters. For information on partnership. GPYI mobilizes interest, investment, INN’s lessons learned and outcomes to date, please knowledge, resources and action to drive large- see: scale, comprehensive youth investment initiatives 27
  • 31. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development 1 .7 Bright Ideas: The IDB Youth Program Promotes Youth Participation and Development through Regional Networks The Inter-American Development Bank’s (IDB) Youth • Promoting sports as a vehicle for youth Development and Outreach Program (IDB YOUTH) development. The program A Ganar/A Vencer uses focuses on the potential of young people, ages 15-30 soccer as a way to teach skills that young people years old, to contribute to the economic and social need to succeed in life and in the formal job market. development of the Latin American and Caribbean Key partners from the soccer industry support this region. It promotes youth development throughout program in Brazil, Ecuador and Uruguay. Sports the region and integrates young people into the programming can be both a strategy for youth IDB’s portfolio and activities. Given the vibrancy of development, social inclusion, labor training, the private sector and civil society in Latin America and life skills as well as a way to generate positive and the Caribbean, IDB YOUTH works to promote media and public attention to youth at risk. investment in youth development, integrate youth development into the Bank’s core business, and create • Linking youth and organizations working for national and regional linkages that facilitate youth and with youth and young people throughout participation and leadership. The IDB Youth Program the region. Regional networks support knowledge works to achieve their objectives by: dissemination between young leaders, ages 15-30 years old, and public, private and non-governmental • Collaborating with the public and private organizations working on behalf of youth in the sector. Microsoft, MTV Latin America, the region. Though the region is vast, cultural and Federación Internacional de Fútbol Asociado (FIFA), linguistic similarities can lend itself to learning andChapter 1: Youth Enterprise Development the Organization of American States (OAS) and cooperation between countries and organizations, thousands of youth leaders and organizations sharing lessons learned, opportunities for throughout the region are partners of the IDB Youth collaboration, and relevant data. Program. These partnerships leverage private sector interest in the youth market to initiatives that For more information, see prioritize investments and in-kind support for young idbyouth/index.cfm?artid=7135&lang=en. people. D. Technology Offers Innovative Ways to Connect Young Entrepreneurs with Resources, Information, and an Entrepreneurial Community Technology provides innovative opportunities to help young people from around the world join the global economy on more equal footing. ING’s global technology platform, called the ImagineNetwork (INN), is an example of how technology is being used in the youth employment and enterprise development space to bring young people, mentors and other stakeholders together. Through the INN, young people are able to access a comprehensive menu of educational content and business development services. 28
  • 32. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development 1 .8 Bright ideas: ImagineNetwork: a Technology Platform that Connects Youth Entrepreneurs to Mentors and Other Resources The ImagineNetwork is based on the idea that “it’s indicated, when a woman is trying to figure out how all about who you know.” Through the portal, young to run her small grocery from 7 a.m. to 7 p.m., she’s entrepreneurs, mentors, supporters and others can not going to take an hour-long bus ride to get to the interact virtually to promote youth entrepreneurship nearest Internet café, especially when the streets and development by offering access to: aren’t safe at night. • Peer Networking. Linking people or groups in the • Language barriers must be overcome. Certainly, same country or across the globe who share this applies to English as a second language, common interests, ideas and challenges but it also applies to the language of business. Understanding the business aptitude and • Q&A Forums. Personalized answers to business educational threshold of the young entrepreneurs questions is key to developing content that is relevant and delivered in useful ways. • Mentoring and Advising. Expertise from experienced peers and business professionals • Engaging youth and the frontline staff of youth enterprise development organizations in • Content Knowledge Base. Educational articles, the development process will boost usage and videos and practical tools covering a range of effectiveness of the ultimate product. business topics. • Youth enterprise development organizations Through ING’s partnership with Yahoo! Inc., Chapter 1: Youth Enterprise Development are the “gatekeepers” to young entrepreneurs. ImagineNations is planning to expand INN’s reach, Engaging these organizations early on helps ensure accessibility, convenience, and utility through the the ImagineNations Network meets their needs and development of a mobile phone interface. They are that they can advocate for its usage. developing this interface in response to the reality that in emerging markets, Internet usage is increasingly • Identifying and engaging trusted advisors is driven by wireless access technologies, low-cost critical to influencing participation and building messaging channels, and mobile net and Web services. credibility. With more than 600 million unique visitors per month, thousands of mentors, and a platform that reaches • There is a lack of online content offering basic half of the world’s online population, INN’s experience business and sector-specific information for young offers the following “lessons learned” and guidance for entrepreneurs. practitioners planning to develop similar technology- based initiatives: • There are a plethora of good programs addressing young entrepreneur needs but they • Cultural relevancy is essential. A one-size-fits-all often lack coordination. The ImagineNations approach will not work. Rather, it is important to Network can serve an important role in effectively understand the needs and constraints associated integrating successful programs, sharing best with cultural, social, political and economic practices, minimizing redundancies and facilitating situations in each country. project sharing. • Do not assume Internet access is readily Visit: accessible. As a microfinance institution in Tanzania 29
  • 33. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development E. Growth-Oriented or High-Impact Youth Entrepreneurs Merit Additional Attention for Their Job Creation and Innovation Potential Some organizations within this field are focused on supporting “Opportunity” entrepreneurs who are “growth- oriented” or “high-impact”. These entrepreneurs take an innovative idea for a product or service to the marketplace and have the potential to build “breakthrough” enterprises that generate significant employment, growth, and revenue. They are particularly relevant in emerging markets where new and growing businesses – and new business ideas – can revitalize local economies and communities by creating new job and business opportunities for others. Given their job creation potential, growth-oriented businesses can attract policy- maker attention and provide a more visible link to poverty alleviation, but experts caution that they are the most difficult types of start-ups, especially for young entrepreneurs. The Kauffman Foundation and Endeavor presented at the 2010 conference, pointing out that these types of entrepreneurs, especially in their first few years, merit additional attention in the entrepreneur landscape with almost all net job growth coming from firms less than five years old. 1 .9 Bright Ideas: Endeavor Fills a Void for High-Impact Entrepreneurs in Emerging MarketsChapter 1: Youth Enterprise Development Endeavor Global has found that despite the • Networks. Endeavor entrepreneurs can access economic potential of high-impact entrepreneurs between 100-300 in-country mentors to help them (defined as those who run innovative, high-growth navigate the “pain points” of business development. businesses that create jobs, wealth, and opportunity), the following barriers often prevent them from • Learning opportunities. Conferences and thriving: cost of failure, lack of role models, limited workshops that provde the entrepreneurs with management expertise, lack of contacts or mentors, space to share best practices. lack of trust, and limited access to smart capital. Endeavor only operates in countries where the local Endeavor does not believe capital is an entrepreneur’s business community pulls Endeavor in and adopts its greatest challenge, trust is. Endeavor works to break model for high-impact entrepreneurship. Endeavor down those barriers that prevent trust from flourishing believes that entrepreneurs exist in every corner of in places like South Africa, Turkey and Egypt. the world, and that it is a matter of identifying them Endeavor breaks down barriers high-impact and helping unleash their potential. Their experience entrepreneurs in emerging markets often face by has found that only the local business leaders are in a providing them with: position to do that. • Mentorship and strategic advice. Entrepreneurs Endeavor Entrepreneurs have generated 130,000+ are linked to in-country mentors; 82 percent high quality jobs (three-fourths created from growth of them said they would never have met their post-engagement with Endeavor) and the average mentors without Endeavor’s support. This provides Endeavor company employed 225 people in 2009. A entrepreneurs with solid advice on how to navigate focus on high-impact entrepreneurs ensures a more the unique business culture of each country. complete portfolio of entrepreneurial support in countries with the potential for dynamic growth and provides a model for expansion to other countries. For more information, see: 30
  • 34. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development F. Micro-Franchising Continues To Be A Viable Springboard For Youth Entrepreneurship Development. Scale-Up Strategies, As Well As The Role For NGOs In Micro-Franchising, Require Careful Consideration Micro-franchising has less complex rules than regular franchising and includes a social component. Like franchising, it builds off the brand of an established product, allows for widespread replication, and permits young people to engage in self-employment opportunities while contributing to the expansion of the private sector. NGOs can consider several possible roles to facilitate micro-franchising. NGOs can: create a micro-franchise themselves; invest in an existing microenterprise and support its replication; or build, own, operate and then transfer (BOOT) the franchise to a promising franchisee or a local entrepreneur.7 In Sierra Leone, the International Rescue Committee (IRC) worked with existing businesses to develop micro-franchise operations for youth through its YouthWorks microfranchising pilot program. The targeted youth typically had completed primary level education and showed an interest or previous experience in entrepreneurship. IRC trained young people in business development, counseled youth, geographically situated the young people to avoid competition between the micro-franchises, and facilitated the relationship between young people and the business. IRC also signed an agreement with the business to formalize the relationship. The IRC is learning through the scale-up of the YouthWorks pilot that additional business skills interventions are necessary to help participants refine and grow their businesses. They also found that peer support has played an important role; youth were able to overcome barriers with the support of other youth franchisees. Next steps will include creating linkages to the school system, refining the model, and building a strong management team to assist with the ambitious goals they have set for the next three years. Chapter 1: Youth Enterprise Development 7 Previous microfranchising experiences, including StreetKids International in Nepal, Fan Milk Limited in West Africa, and the IRC are detailed in Making Cents International’s 2009 “State of the Field” publication, page 93. 31
  • 35. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development 1 .10 Practical Tips: The IRC and Fairbourne Consulting Reflect on NGO Participation in Micro-franchising The International Rescue Committee (IRC) began sector – not just by linking youth to businesses, but the YouthWorks micro-franchising program in Sierra actually supporting the private sector to create jobs Leone in November 2008 with 100 participants; the and self-employment opportunities for youth. program grew to 150 youth in 2010 and they are now developing a three-year strategy for scale with the • Identify a path to scale-up. Make sure market goal of reaching 4,000 young people. Franchises varied research and analysis are integrated into the scale- depending on location. Many sold ice, fish, bread, and up design process to ensure that there is sufficient mobile phone air time. The program’s main objective is demand for micro-franchising at scale. Ensure that a to support young people to increase income, their self- long-term scaling strategy provides enough support esteem and goal-setting behavior. to business franchisors to manage and maintain micro-franchise operations. Having completed a final evaluation of the pilot and designed a scale-up strategy, the IRC is at a unique • Evaluate businesses for both brand and point in its learning trajectory to explain how they management styles before beginning. Certain believe NGOs can support youth micro-franchising: businesses have a strong brand that makes sense for youth franchisees; nevertheless, when an NGO works • Believe in youth. Young people, with appropriate closely with a business their overall management is support, were able to succeed at micro-franchising also important to making micro-franchising a viable and engage with the financial services sector as strategy. a result of participation. Results from 150 youthChapter 1: Youth Enterprise Development included the following: 100 percent were still •Understand micro-franchising’s limitations. In a engaged in their micro-franchise seven months post-conflict country with 70 percent unemployment after start-up; 83 percent of youth reported making like Sierra Leone, there are a limited number of a profit and 16 percent of youth reported breaking businesses that lend themselves to youth-oriented even seven months after startup; and 43 percent micro-franchising. A preliminary report found that the of youth reported saving money as their primary franchises themselves coulduse additional training on investment for profits. business development. • Prepare to engage in a new way of doing For the complete evaluation, see business. NGOs must break from their traditional way of working to work closely with the private microfranchising-project-evaluation. G. Cross-Sectoral Approaches Can Improve Outcomes Across Sectors, Especially for Vulnerable Populations and When Built on Existing Projects Several organizations presented on cross-sectoral approaches at the 2010 conference. These approaches leverage YEELD programs to impact outcomes in other areas of young peoples’ lives. USAID’s Cross-Sectoral Youth Program (CSY) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (locally referred to as the Youth Enterprise Development or YED project and detailed below), focused specifically on the connection between income inequality and high-risk sexual practices. By increasing income generation, the project sought to change the individual health behaviors that can lead to HIV infection. Like many cross-sectoral programs, the CSY Program benefitted from the programmatic structure of a pre-existing project—in this case, Family Health International’s HIV/AIDS Awareness Program (ROADS II)—and a clear idea of how YED activities could complement health programming. Additional examples of cross-sectoral approaches can be found in Chapter 4 on Adolescent Girls and Young Women, where programs also addressed leadership and empowerment as independent outcomes of YEELD programming. 32
  • 36. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development 1 .11 Bright Ideas: Layer Youth Enterprise Development into Existing Health Programs in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) Through initial focus groups, the project team found Results were positive: in less than one year, youths’ that young women in Bukavu engaged in “transactional revenues increased by 40 percent on average and sex,” trading sex for support to their businesses to household savings increased 72 percent on average. raise capital and inactive young men identified risky Participants’ business management skills improved behaviors as an “escape.” The initial assessment also in the following areas: preparing a business plan, found that youths’ engagement in risky behaviors conducting a market study, managing the books, was a result of a lack of productive opportunities and tracking inventory, and accessing business advice and income, more than a lack of awareness about the resources. While it is difficult to assign attributions, risks of HIV infection. Collaboration between Family project participants reported increased expenditures Health International (FHI), the Education Development on health and fewer respondents reported that they (EDC) and AZMJ – three international development would put their health at risk in order to expand their organizations – added an economic component to a businesses. pre-existing HIV prevention program, providing 100 youth with training on business, entrepreneurship and Program designers learned to negotiate differences financial literacy, coaching and mentoring, networking in applying a health versus enterprise development through business clubs, a resource library, and access to approach. Dorothy Muroki of FHI commented, “In finance and competitive grants. health, we need to get the most vulnerable, but in entrepreneurship we have to get the early adopters and The business and entrepreneurship aspect of the we need a different mindset in navigating the business program was designed to accomplish three main environment.” Chapter 1: Youth Enterprise Development objectives: to increase youth’s (i) business management skills, (ii) business confidence, and (iii) financial Findings from the assessment of CSY youth self-sufficiency. In addition, the program aimed to entrepreneurship skills, which was conducted in track changes in youths’ health-related choices and September 2009, can be found at: behaviors, as they deepened and strengthened their business skills and financial literacy. The survey reports and additional CSY project documents are available at: 33
  • 37. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development 1 .12 Hot Topics: Peer Coaches versus Private Sector Mentors in YED Skill- Building Many YED programs utilize peer coaches or private The CSY project benefited from having both peer sector mentors to support and build the skills of young coaches and private sector mentors involved in the entrepreneurs. Representatives of the CSY Project project. The peer coaches were especially important encouraged conference participants to discuss the to keeping youth moving forward on the market advantages and disadvantages of working with each research and business plans, reinforcing life skills group. They found that peer coaches are trusted, can and facilitating the flow of monitoring data to the relate easily to youth, and can exert positive peer Project Director. In future programs, however, the pressure. In the DRC, young entrepreneurs thrived on project team would seek peer coaches with more a mix of peer support and networking, to help them entrepreneurial background and business knowledge. deal with frustration, to overcome that first roadblock In working with private sector mentors, one must and to encourage them to persist in their business take into consideration that “volunteerism” is not a activities. The biggest disadvantage was that they norm within many developing countries business lacked business experience, which limited their ability environments and the CSY project had to create a to act as business advisors. On the other hand, adult guide and conduct a training on “Mentoring Youth,” as private sector mentors can bring a proven track record, they had not previously been mentors. offer a wide network of contacts for support, and serve as role models. Nevertheless, they may be too busy to What do you think? When should YED programs effectively support youth, have their own agenda, or rely on peer coaches versus private sector mentors? may not see sufficient benefit from the relationship toChapter 1: Youth Enterprise Development maintain it over time. H. Think About All Entrepreneurship As Social Entrepreneurship; Both Can Be Taught Some entrepreneurs are motivated by financial returns, others are motivated by social or environmental returns, and still others are motivated by all three. When asked why he continued to innovate new technologies that helped blind children learn in standard classrooms, John Alexis Guerra replied that he “remembered the happiness on the face of the first blind girl who tried the product and could finally see her favorite color.” He described a desire to do something different, that wouldn’t just make “rich people richer” though he acknowledged how challenging that was in a small Colombian city. Ashoka defines social entrepreneurs as “ individuals with innovative solutions to society’s most pressing social problems.”8 A social entrepreneur has the same qualities as a business entrepreneur—vision, creativity, innovation, determination—but is driven by the desire to improve society. Leading social entrepreneurs not only solve a social problem but create a new pattern of how society operates and addresses the specific sector they are in. Ashoka has found clear links between adult social entrepreneurs and their experiences as young people, noting that most social entrepreneurs began young and many of their experiences as youth marked their entrepreneurial trajectories well into adulthood. Entrepreneurship education can support both social and business entrepreneurs. Ashoka has found that empathy lies at the heart of much social entrepreneurship, and that that too can be taught.9 8 9 For more information about teaching social entrepreneurship, see 34
  • 38. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development 1 .13 Checklists: Recognizing Characteristics of Young Entrepreneurs Ashoka has identified the following characteristics for ✔Take initiative young entrepreneurs. They can help YEELD and other youth-serving organizations recognize and promote ✔ Lead and/or engage others in their initiative entrepreneurship with young people who exhibit ✔Care about making a positive difference and have these characteristics. Young entrepreneurs tend to: empathy ✔Solve problems ✔Are aware that they have created positive change ✔Think up new ideas Several presenters at the conference emphasized the link between business entrepreneurship and social entrepreneurship, arguing that both involve similar skills sets that include problem-solving, creativity, planning, people skills, teamwork, and persistence. John Alexis Guerra added teamwork, persistence, and big dreams as critical. Jonathan Ortmans of the Kauffman Foundation noted that the line between business entrepreneurs and social entrepreneurs continues to blur as corporate social responsibility replaces more traditional concepts of philanthropy. Social causes are becoming more accepted in the business world and the Startup revolution begun by the likes of Google have made it more socially acceptable among young people to make the world a better place through the marketplace. Even more than corporate social responsibility, many in the sector Chapter 1: Youth Enterprise Development promote sustainable enterprise development, a type of enterprise development that takes financial, social and environmental impacts and returns into account. 1 .14 Bright Ideas: IDB and MTV Latin America Team Up to Showcase and Encourage Youth as Agents of Change Media efforts to “shine a positive light” on young social then, many of the selected 25 Agents of Change entrepreneurs and agents of change serve multiple have received positive recognition, financing, and purposes. They can modify the way society views local support. They also receive support from Youth young people, change the way some young people Venture Latin America Network, an Ashoka initiative view themselves and their potential, and can give that provides technical assistance and seed capital concrete examples of how engaged young leaders to young social entrepreneurs. MTV Latin America contribute in the communities. publicizes the stories of the Agents of Change, promoting the image of young people as participants, In 2006, the Inter-American Development Bank’s and not just beneficiaries, of development. (IDB) Youth Development and Outreach Program (IDB YOUTH) and the pro-social campaign MTV Grita For more information on the Agents of Change launched the initiative Youth as Agents of Change to program, see highlight young people who identify problems and index.cfm?artid=7137&lang=en or make positive change in their communities. Since 35
  • 39. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development Where Do We Go From Here? I. Practitioners Must Strategically Decide Their Niche for Youth Entrepreneurship Development Session presenters highlighted various types of youth entrepreneurship development, from growth-oriented entrepreneurs with businesses that created over 200 jobs to young people selling ice in their community. With such a wide scope, practitioners must pay careful attention when deciding their niche of youth entrepreneurship development. That includes defining a target population, primary objective and the approach they need to take in order to achieve desired outcomes. Such careful analysis will help to identify appropriate solutions for the specific constraints and opportunities that a group of entrepreneurs may face. For example, if young women entrepreneurs are parents or caring for others, it is important to think through how programs can accommodate these other responsibilities and how the young women would balance these if they were launching a small business (for example, they might need to develop a product or service that could be primarily home-based). This awareness will also help program designers adapt training and services to the education, literacy and socio-economic levels of participants. Some youth may need to master basic math skills before they get involved in costing, sales or budgeting. Designing a program that starts with basic math literacy 1 .15 Checklists: Ready for Entrepreneurship Programming? EMpower Created this ChecklistChapter 1: Youth Enterprise Development EMpower identified five components that successful ✔Analyzed staff capacity? In which of the five entrepreneurship programs should provide: business, components above does your organization currently technical, and life skills development; mentorship; and have capacity? In which areas would you need or access to capital. Those components may be offered want to bring in external resources? by one organization or via partnerships. EMpower also found that some non-profit organizations that wanted ✔Gathered external information? Who else is to help young people earn income had little familiarity working on youth livelihoods in your community? or contact with the business sector. They also found What do they offer young people? How can you that some non-profits had jumped into working partner with other groups and avoid duplicating on entrepreneurship without realizing the various resources? aspects required to implement such programming ✔Identified resources? Can other local organizations, effectively. EMpower developed a checklist as a ‘self- institutions or people help you? For example, is screening tool’ to help organizations interested in there a local vocational school that offers relevant youth entrepreneurship determine if it is appropriate technical skills training? for them and if they are prepared to get started. Below is an abbreviated version of the complete checklist. ✔Investigated local tax laws? Are you familiar with the small business environment? For example, If you are an organization considering regarding taxes or regulations for small businesses? entrepreneurship programming, have you… Can you support new entrepreneurs with the ✔Clarified your vision? Why do you want to start information they need to succeed in this regard? an entrepreneurship program? (Have youth For more information, see and been asking for this?) Who would be the primary audience? (Females, males or mixed? What age, level of schooling etc.?) 36
  • 40. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development will not only help the young people in their roles as entrepreneurs, but will also help them in other areas of their lives. Other young people may already have the majority of skills they need for to start a business but may, as in the case of growth-oriented entrepreneurs, need assistance to grow businesses, devise more sophisticated business strategies, or expand to new markets. J. Continue to Expand the Types and Deepen the Breadth of Private Sector, as Well as Other Types of Partnerships The private sector can provide far more than traditional philanthropy. The youth entrepreneurship development sector is a natural fit for innovative private sector partnerships. In most cases, private sector partners demand more engaged relationships than straight financial support allows.Youth Business International (YBI) offers examples of how the private sector can support the YEELD field through: facility donation; assistance with training, marketing, advertising and merchandising; human resource help through staff secondments, volunteers, or retirees; and advice and mentorship on the development of business plans and systems. The private sector can also play an important role as clients, supporting young entrepreneurs by purchasing their products. Beyond the private sector, partnerships in all sectors of the YEELD field are seen as critical to achieving scale and sustainability. Several donors mentioned the importance of connecting with the public sector (see Conclusion), since school systems and governments have the potential to expand programming to municipal, regional, or national levels. Media outlets, such as radio or television, or other types of communication technology, such as mobile phones, also hold unique promise for reaching young people through alternate venues. Talking with young people about the organizations, media, or state institutions that they interact with is the best way for organizations to learn what other actors are part of young people’s environment and what Chapter 1: Youth Enterprise Development potential might exist for partnership. The Inter-American Development Bank’s IDB YOUTH Program leveraged its regional presence in Latin America and the Caribbean to create partnerships with regional television networks and regional and international sports organizations, in addition to private sector partners. Several presenters at the conference encouraged NGOs and other organizations to embrace a partnership mindset. Organizations may at times be limited by a possessive or competitive mentality. They may also be overwhelmed with other demands. Nevertheless, strategic partnerships can advance the field and generate greater impact for young people. Presenters recommended that all organizations, especially those entering the YEELD field or a new geographic area, complete a thorough situational analysis to understand who already works in the area or field. That way, organizations can create synergies rather than competition, seeking to combine resources and expertise. K. Design Cross-Sectoral Programs that Can Be Brought to Scale For many youth development professionals, entering into the world of youth entrepreneurship development requires a fundamental mindset shift. Outcomes and indicators of success are different across program types. New approaches are required. Staff may need additional training or help from business specialists to integrate Youth Enterprise Development sector programs into health, HIV prevention, or education. Cross-sectoral approaches can require more collaboration outside of the standard “technical silos.” For example, programmers might have to work with business owners, as well as the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Finance. However, cross- sectoral programs hold the promise of impacting young people and society in a more holistic and comprehensive way. Prominent funders, such as USAID and The MasterCard Foundation, noted the importance of holistic programming for youth, thus avoiding the intra-institutional stove piping that can limit collaboration between sectors and ensuring that programs respond to various facets of young people’s lives. For example, the CSY Project in the DRC found that they impacted a range of USAID’s impact indicators, including indicators related to peace and security, just and democratic governance, and humanitarian assistance, among others. 37
  • 41. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development Conference participants acknowledged the powerful impact that economic empowerment and 1 .16 Hot Topics: entrepreneurial development can have on at-risk populations, given that many risky behaviors, such Entrepreneurs or Managers? as the sex trade, have an economic component. The Participants engaged in a lively discussion YEELD field continues to gain experiences in linking about supporting entrepreneurs as they YEELD programs with HIV prevention, as well as transition from the world of innovation to the other sectors. Nevertheless, learning from cross- daily responsibilities of managing a business; sectoral pilots should be leveraged to scale, when acknowledging that the two often require possible. different skill sets. Elmira Bayrasli of Endeavor wondered if we sometimes give too much L. Sustain Support for Young Entrepreneurs responsibility to entrepreneurs, noting that Beyond Start-Up Phases they might be best placed to recruit team members destined for management. Others Jonathan Ortmans of the Kauffman Foundation noted that fomenting entrepreneurial behaviors stated that the size of a business may be a less in youth may be more important than the important as an indicator than the age of a business. businesses themselves. Failure can be a powerful He argues that newer businesses, under five learning experience and an important lesson in years old, have greater potential for job creation, entrepreneurial development. innovation, and growth than older businesses. That provides a powerful argument for the sector as it What do you think? How much support emphasizes the economic benefits of youth-led should we offer youth entrepreneurs as they businesses and youth participation in the economy. transition into management roles? Chapter 1: Youth Enterprise Development It also calls for greater attention to helping young people successfully sustain businesses past their first year, when they might be able to hire or find others to support them. Many of the organizations highlighted in this chapter initiate mentoring relationships between an adult and a young entrepreneur that last between one to three years. This ensures that support continues once the start-up phase ends and the daily responsibilities of business management begin. IRC and Fairbourne Consulting, along with the Cross-Sectoral Youth Project in the DRC, found that supplemental business development training is critical as the project continues and young people progress. 38
  • 42. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes Chapter 2: Workforce Development Chapter 2: Workforce Development
  • 43. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development Introduction Demand for workforce education and development programs is increasing in both developing and developed economies. High school and university graduates, as well as youth with low educational attainment, face growing difficulty finding employment. The recent global recession contributes to youth unemployment across the world reaching record levels. According to a study cited by the U.S. Assistant Secretary of Labor for Employment and Training Jane Oates at the 2010 conference, young people in the United States have had the lowest employment rate since December of 2007 in the history of this country.10 This phenomenon is common with unemployment rates reaching 70 to 80 percent in many developing countries.11 At the same time, many private companies and public organizations are unable to find qualified workers and employees who possess the technical and workplace skills required for many positions. For example, in El Salvador the average education level is fifth grade, and employers in the services sector have difficulty finding workers with higher education and skills. Donors, governments, NGOs, and private sector leaders are responding with workforce development programs and strategies that attempt to address this “skills gap,” and participants at the 2010 conference offered a number of insights into their programs including ongoing questions, lessons learned, challenges that must be overcome, and practical approaches that may be adapted by other programs. A. What Are Workforce Development Programs? Workforce Development (WFD) programs are programs that help youth and adults acquire skills, knowledge, and behaviors that help them identify and obtain secure livelihood opportunities and jobs to stay economically active and productive in a changing economy. These programs can be broadly targeted formal education programs supported by national or sub-national governments, or more narrowly, industry or target population-focused programs. Ensuring that WFD programs are both relevant to the current and 2 .1 Hot Topics: Is There an future needs of the economy and accessible to those Inherent Conflict Between who need them emerged as two key lessons in the Workforce Development as a conference’s workforce development track. Means to Economic Growth Versus Relevant WFD programs recognize and address Workforce Development as a Means the skills and knowledge in demand by specific for Poverty Alleviation? industries, typically in competitive and growth- If so, how can it be resolved or addressed? oriented sectors of the economy. AccessibleChapter 2: Workforce Development Poverty alleviation programs are often regarded programs consider the supply side of the workplace as social service programming, and are focused - the workers - and tailor the WFD program on creating opportunities that lead to income- interventions to meet the specific education and generation for the poorest segments of society. skills needs of youth and adults to help them gain Economic growth programs often focus on one employment in existing industries. It is important or more industries and may target populations for WFD programs to address the dual goals of with more economic resources or educational poverty alleviation - helping low-skilled youth experience in order to achieve greater economic and workers gain general education and basic impacts. Can workforce programs effectively skills to improve their livelihood – and economic target both outcomes? growth – providing training and education for skills 10 In July 2010, 51.1 percent of Americans between 16 and 24 were unemployed. U.S. Department of Labor 11 “Global Employment Trends for Youth,” International Labour Office (ILO), 2010. 40
  • 44. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development upgrading to help competitive industries grow and compete globally. The importance of these dual goals and the tension between WFD for poverty alleviation and for economic growth was strongly evident in the Workforce Development track discussion. B. Whose Responsibility Is It to Develop the Workforce? Workforce development is clearly a shared responsibility between the public and private sector. Depending on a country’s government versus private sector capacity, the balance of responsibility for initiatives, programs and activities may look very different. Additionally, there is interplay between national government policy and interests, as well as with the interests of local government and sub-national institutions, which often impact the implementation of WFD programs. In general, the roles each sector assumes can be characterized as follows: Public sector: • Develop and implement WFD policies at the national, regional, and local level • Make education systems relevant and accessible to all citizens • Assure funding priorities for programs with proven success • Establish standards and certification guidelines that promote competitiveness regionally and internationally • Make information and labor market statistics publicly available to WFD programs regarding current and future workforce needs • Provide services for disadvantaged and underserved populations and ensure a fair allocation of resources • Fund initiatives that promote strategic investments by the private sector Private sector: • Invest in the development of human capital through targeted industry-specific training and development programs • Provide opportunities for practical experience through internships, apprenticeships, and mentoring • Work strategically with public sector actors to communicate the skills in demand, share information, and serve as job placement sites • Promote learning and career advancement in the workplace • Engage in public-private dialogue to inform the design of WFD public policies Chapter 2: Workforce Development C. Who Should Pay for Workforce Development and Training? A close corollary to the question of responsibility is the question of who should pay. As a general rule the more specific a skill or behavior is to an industry or business, the more incentive the private sector or that industry has to invest in capacity building. As the skills, knowledge, and behaviors become more general and transferable to other industries, the more likely it is to be considered a public good with an expectation that the public sector will bear the cost. It was also posited at the conference that the rate of unemployment is another factor that influences the willingness of the private sector to invest in workforce development. As unemployment rises and competition for employment increases, this may shift the burden of cost onto the employee in order to compete. Private sector participation in workforce development is generally proportionate to the opportunities perceived to be gained through such investments. Where there is a perception of no or few economic gains 41
  • 45. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development through investing in training of employers, very little is done. Non-competitive industries, those with low profit margins, or those that operate in a poor policy environment often have little incentive to invest in workforce development. Focusing on growth oriented sectors, industry upgrading, and policy reform can significantly increase the level of private investment in human capacity development. Public sector participation in workforce development is generally considered a public good and of strategic importance to the growth and competitiveness of 2 .2 Hot Topics: Who economies. Public investment in a country’s workforce can Should Pay for take many forms ranging from public provision of elementary, Workforce Training, and secondary, and tertiary education to serving as a direct training What Constitutes a Fair service provider. The public sector can also provide incentives and co-financing vehicles to help companies and citizens Distribution of the Cost pay for WFD investments. For example, governments often Among Those Who Pay? provide tax rebates or financial reimbursements to private What Are or Should Be the education and training providers, and in some countries, Incentives for Companies governments provide school vouchers to parents to pay tuition to Invest In Training Their for their children’s education at private schools. Furthermore, the public sector can invest in efforts that create strong policy Workforce? environments for WFD strategies to prosper and in policies that increase the supply and demand for the workforce. Key Findings and Lessons Learned The Workforce Development discussion at the 2010 conference raised a number of important questions, trends, challenges, and opportunities. As many aspects of the Workforce Development sector are in a nascent state of development, the discussion focused more around exploratory questions and emerging practices and less on reaching agreement on “best practices” in the sector. A number of questions emerged that will help to drive the sector’s learning agenda, and also further shape the emergent trends and themes that are outlined below. Conference participants addressed and explored the following three important questions that the global WFD community is contemplating: • Who should pay for workforce training and development, and what should the incentives be for companies to invest in training their workforce? • Is there an inherent conflict between workforce development as a means to economic growth versusChapter 2: Workforce Development workforce development as a means to poverty alleviation, and if so, how can it be resolved? • How can practitioners systematically assess the skills that learners need both for present and future jobs, and ensure their programs are relevant to present and future employment opportunities that are available to their clients? D. Gathering Accurate Information Through Market Assessments Is Necessary to Design Effective WFD Programs, Especially in Non-Traditional Sectors Many of the presenters at the 2010 conference emphasized the importance of using reliable information and data to develop programs and make informed policy decisions about investments in workforce development. Having reliable information on current and future labor market needs and skill-focused supply and demand is critical for decision-making. Conducting labor market assessments is particularly important for workforce development programs that aim to target high growth potential sectors rather than some of the more traditional 42
  • 46. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development sectors where the labor market may already be saturated, with the goal of increasing the competitiveness of local and national economies and fueling economic growth. 2 .3 Practical Tips: Listening to the Market The International Youth Foundation (IYF) provided companies to get primary data on hiring decisions their best practices for conducting a quick assessment and patterns. of the market to design appropriate interventions. 4. Review findings. Plot out market intelligence 1. Create multi-disciplinary team of people who from employers by the following type of variables: understand labor markets, investment trends, positions, technical skills versus non-technical skills, vocational education, and forecasting to advise your ICT, language, education, gender, and monthly market research. salary. 2. Review and select key sectors. Use secondary 5. Design Intervention. Convert data into design data and look for sub-sectors that look to be most decisions to determine where the target youth dynamic now and in two to three years using populations match up with particular occupational projections. Look for the labor-absorbers. areas. 3. Collect employer data. Find industry leaders and 6. Recheck your data. distribute questionnaires to hiring managers at For more information on IYF, see: Various tools exist for collecting labor market information for different market segments, sectors, and industries. It is important for WFD practitioners to access market information on a regular basis to remain informed about labor market studies and the release of new statistics at national and local levels. Robert Holm of Jobs for the Future, an organization focused on education and workforce policies, shared steps to systematically conducting labor market assessments. The first step is to identify government statistical agencies that collect and share industrial labor statistics, such as ministries of labor or employment. Other non-governmental institutions such as universities, research centers, and trade associations may also track and be willing to share this information. The next step is to collect up-to-date and usable occupational data at national and sub-national levels, if available. The final step involves segmenting and analyzing the data to Chapter 2: Workforce Development identify important labor market trends, such as the following: fast growing industries that are employing skilled labor, sectors that employ a large share of low-skilled labor, the composition of the current workforce, skills in demand, and other important market considerations. In places where reliable information is not available, generating this data may be a necessary starting point for many programs. WFD practitioners can disseminate questionnaires or conduct interviews and focus groups with employers or employer associations. This can be implemented through partnerships with sector training authorities in specific industries. Working with training institutions that have strong employer participation and credibility, as well as statistical experience, will help guarantee a higher chance for success. Other partnership ideas include working with chambers of commerce to identify target businesses to interview and collaborating with community colleges to track employment outcomes of their graduates and identify hiring trends. Also, practitioners can create innovative methods to collect labor data. For example, tracking employment trends through online job postings and hiring websites is a strategy to identify the type of skills, knowledge, and 43
  • 47. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development experience in demand. Finally, there are many ways to include youth as members of the market assessment teams, and best practices can be found in the Guidelines and Experiences for Including Youth in Market Assessments, available at: E. Relevancy: The Most Successful WFD Programs Provide Training in Skills Relevant to Local Growth Sectors and Industries Effective and relevant youth WFD programs are aligned with market demand and have success in securing jobs for their graduates. They provide relevant training and education to youth and adults, equipping them with skills and knowledge in sectors and industries that are hiring and growing. As described in the previous section, it is critical for WFD practitioners to begin by conducting market assessment when designing youth WFD interventions, as good market information is needed as a baseline. The data and information generated through this exercise informs the design of workforce development services and trainings, creating a market match with youth’s current and future employers. There was general consensus among conference presenters that input from multiple WFD stakeholders is required when addressing local labor market needs. This includes participation from potential employers in private sector, industry and trade groups, and government. The International Youth Foundation (IYF) recognizes the importance of engagement with employers in its “dual client approach” to workforce development, whereby it treats youth as one client, and private and public sector employers as another client. The objective of this approach is to meet the needs of both clients simultaneously. Having a “dual client approach” involves multiple components, beginning with consulting public sector and private sector employers to target the right skill sets. This can be done through formal market assessments or through informal consultations with potential employers in the community.Youth WFD practitioners can also consult with employers when designing their different program components. For example, employers may give feedback on the importance of building an English training curriculum, teaching soft skills to youth to ensure their success in the workplace, and preparing youth for internships programs with public and private sector placements. The success of these youth WFD programs is dependent not only on youth aspirations and preferences but also on the match with the needs and interests of employers. 2 .4 Bright Ideas: How the Chemonics Rritje Albania Project Addresses Local Market Needs Chemonics’ Rritje Albania Project is a program that recruited and retained qualified staff. Those withChapter 2: Workforce Development provides workforce solutions to small and medium- training programs for new employees were able to sized enterprise (SME) clients. The project targets retain workers and had a more productive workforce higher growth potential sectors including information than those that did not. As a result the project helped technology, tourism, footwear, recycling, garment establish pre-employment training and internship and apparel. The project started with collecting programs that increased productivity. For more quantitative data on full time, part time, seasonal information on Chemonics’ Rritje Albania Project, go employment and turnover as a baseline. It then to: focused on collecting data about how each enterprise 44
  • 48. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development F. Accessibility: Design Appropriate WFD Strategies That Take into Account Young Peoples’ Life Circumstances, Gender, and Aspirations Ensuring that WFD programs are accessible to those who need them emerged as an important lesson for workforce development practitioners. Accessibility must be considered at many levels, including education attainment and skills, gender, life circumstances, and aspirations. Practitioners must be aware of social and cultural barriers that may prevent youth from participating in WFD programs. For example, Chemonics discovered in Jordan that cultural beliefs and social pressures kept many youth from participating in the tourism and hospitality industry. By developing programs that exposed the parents of the youth to the realities of the workplace and benefits of training, many of these cultural barriers were overcome. In other programs, working through religious or civic leaders brought down barriers to participation. According to IYF’s experience, youth practitioners need to refine their recruitment efforts to attract youth who want to work, are motivated to learn, and have the capacity to succeed. Understanding youth aspirations is an important piece of this because if aspirations are not taken into account, there will be lower levels of youth motivation to succeed and develop the required skills. Additionally, programs should be designed around youth realities in order to assure access to the WFD programs. This includes: providing financial supports to attend class if necessary, developing positive parental attitudes, safety considerations, and providing for child care or other needs that might prevent youth participation. Assessing the needs is not a one-time event; continual assessment and rechecking the current situation is key to successful programming. 2 .5 Bright Ideas: How the International Youth Foundation Applied Dual Client Approaches in Tanzania IYF’s Alliance for African Youth Employability (AAYE) and associations of informal enterprises. They then program in rural Tanzania practices dual customer identified demand in local industries, such as hotel, principles. Working with local implementing partners, car repair, and local retail, and opportunities for self IYF targets disadvantaged youth, ages 16 to 35. employment in food preparation, bike mechanics, Participants receive training in information and and bee keeping. The baseline assessment allowed communications technology (ICT), life skills, and for sound planning, which led to the creation of entrepreneurship, and also gain access to employment partnerships for formal and informal training providers services. Its approach is fitted for local circumstances and apprenticeships. It also helped prepare young and targets highly vulnerable youth. IYF started by people for self-employment, and provided seed capital Chapter 2: Workforce Development conducting a stakeholder mapping exercise and for their business ideas. holding consultative meetings with community elders, vocational training providers, government officials, For more information about IYF’s programs, go to: Furthermore, practitioners need to consider gender in program design and distinguish between boys’ and girls’ needs and their ability to participate in WFD programs and job placements. In some cultures and societies, there are different expectations and opportunities for boys and girls for education, youth development programs, training, internships, and jobs.Youth-targeted programs must recognize these differences and create strategies to help create equal access for boys and girls and to tailor program components to serve the unique needs of girls. 45
  • 49. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development 2.6 Noteworthy Results: Technical and Vocational Education for Youth in the Philippines Children International’s Technical and Vocational A key factor of the program’s success was its early- Education for Youth program in the Philippines stage involvement with youth and their parents for is another example of successfully making WFD input in program design and modification. Children programs accessible to youth. The program International has long-term connections to these encourages youth to focus on income generation youth and their communities through other programs, activities that have greatest economic potential in and created community management committees their communities, and works with youth to develop for the design of this program that included youth, skills necessary to make products that build on local parents and other leaders. In addition democratic traditions that can be consumed locally such as fiber elections were held for the committee members that and hemp products. The program provided alternative included youth and female representation. For more skills training to 225 youth to start-home based information about Children’s International programs, businesses. An additional 25 youth received technical go to: training at local vocational institutes for job placement in companies. 2.7 Noteworthy Results: Making Workforce Development Programs Accessible to Girls Partners of the Americas (POA) presented promising In adapting the program, POA focused on the practices in making WFD programs accessible to following: girls and creating strategies to meet girls’ needs. POA successfully adapted its regional co-ed A Ganar/Vencer • Changing the curriculum to provide girl-specific (“To Win”) program into a female-focused program language and examples and to present female in Brazil called Vencedoras. These programs focus on athletes, business women, and community leaders employment and entrepreneurship training and use as role models the convening power of football (known as “soccer” • Creating safe spaces for the girls to meet and discuss in the United States) to help at-risk young youth in sensitive topics Latin America and the Caribbean develop market-Chapter 2: Workforce Development demanded job skills, become entrepreneurs, or • Recruiting gender specialists to run the program return to the formal education system. They combine sports with classroom activities, vocational training, • Creating gender-specific monitoring and evaluation internships, mentorships and community service, indicators to track results which result in the development of skills and self- • Providing constant motivation and follow-on to confidence. Vencedoras provided training to more ensure success after program participation. than 1,400 young women from 2008 to 2011. For more information on Vencedoras, see: 46
  • 50. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development G. Private Sector Investment in WFD Is Critical to Ensure Sustainable and Relevant WFD Programs It is important to create win-win partnerships where the benefit is obvious to both the private sector and youth-serving WFD organizations. Ultimately, private sector companies are better off with healthy, educated, and skilled workers, and therefore, they have an important role to play in investing in their workforces. CHF International, an international development organization, described three successful partnerships with individual companies from Haiti during its presentation at the 2010 conference. In these partnerships, CHF – through the USAID funded KATA program – provided WFD technical assistance and support to the Haitian companies. These three companies are excellent models of private businesses not only providing trainings to their workers to help them enhance their ability to do their jobs and increase productivity, but in also making investments in improving the quality of life for their workforces. In the first example, CHF supports JMB Enterprises, a mango exporter, in its work with the National Association of Mango Exporters to improve storage and transport infrastructure, deepen market facilitation, meet traceability requirements, and increase standards certification and grading systems for mangos to help Haiti compete in the global mango export market. KATA supported the construction of two post-harvest centers for these associations, which is projected to raise productivity levels by 40 percent. JMB is a model company that invests in its workforce by providing education on crop quality and handling. The company works with 150,000 “backyard” mango growers–of which many are youth–providing training on picking and handling techniques designed to reduce fruit losses in the field. The farmers gain new skills in fruit picking and knowledge in post-harvest techniques, and as a result of improved practices, increase household income significantly, improving their financial security and quality of life for themselves and their families. In the second example, CHF provides support to REBO S.A., a coffee producer. Through its Ti Pilon micro- franchising business, Café Rebo provides mobile coffee 2.8 Practical Tips: Key carts to youth micro-entrepreneurs–many of whom are Ingredients to Successfully female–who sell coffee and sandwiches in the streets of Partner with the Private Sector Port au Prince. The youth participating in this program are provided with a coffee cart and training to run Jean Maurice Buteau of JMB Enterprises their enterprises. Training focuses on teaching business explained what initially attracted him to work and sales skills, understanding the franchise business with CHF and best practices that made the model, and on practicing quality control. The youth partnership a success. These practices can be Chapter 2: Workforce Development also receive additional education about basic notions on replicated by WFD practitioners when thinking the environment and civics. The youth sell thousands of about partnering with the private sector: cups of coffee every day and are able to have long-term • Willingness to meet in the field jobs and build their economic security. KATA helped REBO S.A. expand its operations in Port au Prince’s • Ability to talk to anyone at anytime and get slum areas, and approximately half of the costs of this answers project were paid for by the two private companies • Keeping the project simple involved in this initiative. • A focus on increasing revenue Finally, in the third example, CHF partners with Sewing International S.A., a garment company, to engage in • Flexibility, flexibility, and flexibility training activities in industrial sewing in order to help fill the necessity for skilled workers in Haiti’s growing 47
  • 51. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development garment sector. By providing worker training on adopting new technologies and learning new production processes, Sewing International is upgrading the skills of its workforce and helping retain its workers. Moreover, this Haitian business invests in the health and quality of life of its workers by offering paid training on health awareness practices and offering on-site childcare. Through their efforts, Palm Apparel has been able to better compete in the global economy, offer employees two and a half times the minimum wage, and become a model for socially responsible businesses. The partnership with CHF is playing a key role in developing the skilled and modern workforce needed to provide a better future for youth and help rebuild Haiti. The program is financed by KATA, the company, and the Haitian government. H. Industry Upgrading Strategies Allow for a Focus on Specific Skills and Vocational Opportunities for Young Workers Creating relevant and dynamic educational programs and experiences that directly respond to the needs of local employers remains a significant challenge to developing effective national workforce strategies. Chemonics is taking an industry specific approach to developing linkages with educational institutions through the USAID- funded Jordan Tourism Project. Tourism is one of Jordan’s main industries, and its rapid growth is creating increasing demand for skilled tourism labor. The project responded to market demand and created a national program for vocational training in tourism in partnership with the Ministry of Labor and the Vocational Training Corporation (VTC), with the goal of developing educational programs to attract students to the sector and help them gain hospitality and tourism skills. Chemonics has upgraded 11 vocational hospitality and tourism centers and created new curriculum developed with significant input from private sector employers, including tour companies, restaurants and hotels. Additionally, the program worked to create awareness and generate interest among young Jordanians, particularly women, about careers in tourism. Despite the growth in this industry, local culture discourages work in the tourism sector. The VTC hospitality and tourism centers created regular open days for potential students and their parents to speak with current students, teachers, and trainers and to see the program in action. They also hosted events for industry representatives to discuss careers in the hotel sector and provide tours to local hotels. This targeted awareness effort significantly increased enrollment in the training program and generated interest among youth for employment in tourism. Through partnerships brokered by the project, an extensive internship program was developed, placing students into real world work situations in the tourism industry for six months. Approximately 1,150 students, including 420 women, completed training at the centers, including the practical internship program. Hundreds of jobs were created as a result of the Public-Private Partnerships, and approximately 70 percent of the internships resulted in offers of employment being made to those students. Success factors include the competitiveChapter 2: Workforce Development selection of students into the schools, competitive process for securing internships, and career counseling available at each of the schools to discuss job prospects and family expectations. 48
  • 52. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development 2 .9 Bright Ideas: How RTI Is Contributing to Industry Upgrading in El Salvador Industry upgrading frequently requires the matching of employers and job seekers. This process participation of a wide range of stakeholders. RTI includes developing a monitoring system for training International, a research institute that is dedicated to providers and consumers that measures program improving the human condition by turning knowledge quality and post-training success of graduates. into practice, is working in El Salvador with CARANA, RTI is also training cadres of trainers in up-to-date an international consulting firm on the Improving occupational content and training methodology. Access to Employment project (2009-13) in order RTI is working with public and private institutions, to build local WFD capacity. For this project, RTI is employers and educators in order to ensure that the developing and strengthening curricula for skills- proper resources and information are present. For based competency certifications and improving labor more information about RTI’s programs, go to: market information systems, which enhance the Where Do We Go From Here? Participants and presenters in the Workforce Development track at the 2010 conference engaged in lively and thoughtful dialogue on important WFD questions, trends, challenges, and opportunities related to implementing programs and designing policies. It was clear from the discussion that there are many unresolved questions and unexplored areas that need further deliberation as a global community of WFD practitioners. I. Continuing to Establish and Share Proven Best Practices for Conducting Market Assessments One of the key questions revisited frequently during the 2010 conference’s WFD track was how practitioners can systematically assess the skills that learners need both for present and future jobs and ensure their programs are relevant to present and future employment opportunities. WFD practitioners stressed the importance of conducting rapid labor market assessments to conduct accurate and up-to-date labor market information to inform the design of youth WFD programs. There was consensus on the need to capture employers’ perspectives on workforce needs to design WFD interventions that respond effectively to both the supply and demand side of the local labor market. Presenters from USAID, RTI International, Jobs for the Future, the International Youth Foundation, Chemonics, and Children International all offered methodological tips for gathering, analyzing, and using labor market data, as well as presenting examples of projects with successful Chapter 2: Workforce Development market assessment components. The strong interest in this topic could be carried forward into a community of WFD practice and research, collectively continuing to explore new methods, innovations, and successful examples of labor market assessment. In order to continue the dialog and learning initiated at the 2010 Global Youth Enterprise & Livelihoods Development Conference, RTI has established a learning community of interested practitioners, donors and policy makers. If you are interested in joining, please contact Estera Barbarasa at J. Staying Relevant: Identifying and Addressing Future Needs in the Workforce While the importance of identifying and/or generating relevant, accurate and timely data has been highlighted, most studies are “point in time” exercises, and information is soon out-of-date. The question about how to create systems whereby data is continually generated and updated emerged in several sessions. Building sustainable data collection systems, review cycles and revisions of the information that informs the development of WFD programs is a key to maintaining the programs in the long-term. 49
  • 53. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development K. Creating More Incentives for Public and Private Investment in WFD The important question of who is responsible for, and consequently who should pay for, workforce development was a hotly debated topic in the WFD conference track. There was consensus that workforce investment is a shared responsibility between the private and public sector, yet, there also existed the sentiment that the private sector should take more measures to pay for and invest in the development of their workforces. Moreover, the dialogue and presentations more heavily emphasized examples of WFD initiatives and programs with the private sector and less so with the public sector. Participants also discussed the need to identify incentives to encourage more private investment in workforce development programs. Win-win relationships are often cited as a key incentive, but more evidence must be generated in order to better identify the conditions that lead to the win-win scenarios. It was agreed that the private sector is more willing to invest in industry specific skills, but how are the priorities for investment in publically funded WFD programs best determined? L. Moving to Connect Practice and Policy in Workforce Development Strategies Clare Ignatowski, the Senior Advisor for Workforce Development and Youth in USAID’s EGAT/Office of Education, discussed the importance of systematically thinking about WFD policies and programs and the interplay between WFD at the industry-focused level, at the community partnership level, and in the formal education and training context. In the future, the WFD practitioner community can move towards creating linkages between practice and policy and using successful and replicable WFD models to create scale at the policy level. Strengthening the policy and institutional environment is a critical intervention by the public sector, and policy-makers need to be in dialogue with practitioners to drive smart and informed reforms. Governments, particularly national governments, can shape the supply and demand for workforce skills through macro-economic policies, business policies and regulations, formal education investments, and labor policies and regulations, among others. This important policy element of WFD reform needs further exploration so that practitioners and private sector actors can learn how to better engage with policy-makers. M. Measuring Impact of WFD Programs to Ensure Efficacy Moving forward as a field, it is important for workforce practitioners to adopt more rigorous monitoring and evaluation (M&E) and impact evaluations of workforce programs. Evaluating WFD programs will vary depending on the specific objectives of each program. For example, some WFD programs target poverty alleviation among the youth cohort. In this context, evaluation would focus on assessing the extent to whichChapter 2: Workforce Development at-risk youth and youth with low educational attainment are able to develop basic skills and knowledge in order to gain access to employment or other livelihoods opportunities. In other cases, WFD programs target economic growth and competitiveness, and in this context, evaluation would focus on determining the success of workforce programs in affecting worker productivity levels in specific industries or sectors. Measuring the impact of WFD programs and strategies in the public and private sectors can be further explored as a topic in the global WFD practitioner community. Examples of issues for further examination include: expectations about what practitioners hope WFD programs can achieve, designing and implementing M&E systems, tips for conducting baseline studies before programs start, methods for collecting both qualitative and quantitative data on performance and impact, and how practitioners define success (number of jobs versus quality of jobs and career progression). The importance of and ability to conduct impact studies with randomized trials to study the impact of programs on participants can also be explored. 50
  • 54. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes Chapter 3: Youth-Inclusive Financial Services Chapter 3: Youth-Inclusive Financial Services
  • 55. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development IntroductionChapter 3: Youth-Inclusive Financial Services The right financial services can help the developing world’s growing youth majority to better navigate the transitions into adulthood and provide greater economic opportunities for themselves and their families. While savings and in some cases credit12, may already be available to select groups of young people, a growing community of practitioners believes that adapting these services will make them more broadly available to low income young people and will help to prepare them to manage the challenges of adulthood. This includes, for example, lowering minimum balances on savings accounts, developing new marketing and delivery mechanisms and providing financial education. Making Cents International convened 21 youth-inclusive financial services (YFS) pioneers at its 2008 Global Youth Enterprise & Livelihoods Development Conference to discuss these ideas and lay out plans for future market research and product development for young clients. The 2010 conference witnessed the ongoing coming of age of the YFS and youth financial capability building communities. It brought together presenters from microfinance institutions, youth-serving NGOs, funders, the academic community, financial capability building organizations and youth clients, and it provided a glimpse into a sector that has moved from establishing broad directions and principles, towards the practical work of making new youth-inclusive financial products and services succeed on the ground and become well positioned for scaled-up delivery. This year’s participants provided practical approaches on how to divide the youth market into distinct sub- segments; how to define products and services for youth and distinguish them from adult oriented products; and how to successfully reach young people through effective marketing mechanisms and the use of technology. Participants also discussed the role of financial capabilities in enabling youth to better take advantage of financial services, and translate them into benefits for themselves and their families. Finally, some of the early pioneers in the field of YFS discussed how they are poised to scale up their financial services to a broader market of young people. Key Findings and Lessons Learned A. Segment the Youth Market for More Effective Product Design Technical service providers Freedom from Hunger (FFH), Mennonite Economic Development Associates (MEDA) and Making Cents International; and Ryada, a CHF owned Microfinance Institution (MFI) in the West Bank/Gaza, have each been working to better understand the youth market. FFH is researching and developing youth savings with partners in Mali and Ecuador. MEDA has been working with partners in Morocco and Egypt to develop a range of financial services for young people and CHF has been supporting Ryada to determine what financial products are most appropriate for their youth market. Making Cents supports these organizations as well as the broader microfinance industry in designing youth-focused market research tools and methodologies. The previously mentioned organizations put into practice YFS Emerging Guidelines #1: Involve youth in market research and product development; and #2: Develop products and services that reflect the diversity of youth. Following these guidelines has helped each of these organizations to segment their market into smaller, more homogeneous groups. In doing so, each organization is better prepared to develop the right products and services for one or more distinct sub-segments of the market. 12 Credit is usually limited to those above the age of 18 52
  • 56. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development Chapter 3: Youth-Inclusive Financial Services 3 .1 Checklists: Emerging Guidelines in YFS The YFS Chapter of the 2009 State of the Field in Youth 3. Ensure that youth have safe and supportive Enterprise, Employment and Livelihoods Development spaces. These help build youth’s confidence and publication summarized what had been learned enable them to take advantage of opportunities. This to date around YFS into six Emerging Guidelines. may involve infrastructure considerations, delivery These guidelines resulted from a series of pioneering mechanisms, and social networks. It also includes experiences regarding the approaches and practices appropriate protections through codes of conduct that ensure the availability of quality, demand-driven that are age appropriate. financial products and services that could be effectively 4. Provide or link to youth complementary non- utilized by youth to meet their lifecycle and economic financial services. These may include such non- advancement needs. This year’s chapter focuses on the financial services as mentoring, financial literacy, ‘operationalization’ of these guidelines with a variety of cultivation of savings culture, life-skills training, youth markets. livelihoods, and workforce development. 1. Involve youth in market research and product 5. Focus on core competencies by utilizing development. Attention to the particularities of partnerships. Assess institutional capacities in the youth market and involvement of youth in the delivery of financial services and complement product development processes may result in simple, strengths and weaknesses by collaborating with yet important changes to existing – and in critical youth serving organizations (YSOs), schools, training elements for new – products and delivery channels. institutes, and other entities, particularly for safe 2. Develop products and services that reflect the spaces and non-financial services. diversity of youth. The youth market contains sub- 6. Involve Community. Involve the community – segments related to age (legal age), life cycle stage starting with the family, but also including schools, (marital and parental status), gender, education, teachers, and other local groups – to mutually employment status, and vulnerability. These reinforce and enhance the effectiveness of financial differences should be taken into consideration in and non-financial services. product design and delivery. Some key findings with regards to segmentation include: Youth Are Not a Single Market. A common conclusion from groups who shared results from their market research activities is that it is a misnomer in most countries to talk about a “youth market.” When discussing this market, most YFS practitioners agree that young people fall within an age range of 12-30. This range however, is characterized by significant life transitions and subsequent diversity in living situations, earning and learning balances, and overall life circumstances. For example, CHF’s research in the West Bank/Gaza found some interesting distinctions by gender.Young men preparing for marriage were interested in saving to be able to afford the dowry; whereas young women showed less interest in saving, in part because they would receive gifts and jewelry upon marriage. As such, it is more useful to speak about “youth markets” or about youth sub- segments of existing adult oriented markets. Youth Do Share a Few Common Characteristics. Despite the diversity found among the youth with whom MEDA, CHF and Freedom from Hunger (FFH) carried out their market research, a few common findings showed that: (i) youth have access to money, and (ii) youth are willing and able to save money. 53
  • 57. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods DevelopmentChapter 3: Youth-Inclusive Financial Services 3 .2 Noteworthy Result: Differences and Similarities Between Adolescent Girls in the Dominican Republic and Mongolia Women’s World Banking (WWB) found that as it boys. Significant differences could be found though conducted its research with adolescent girls in in the following variables: (i) perceived need to save, Mongolia and a similar demographic in the Dominican where Mongolia has an existing savings culture and Republic, the differences across cultures outweighed the Dominican Republic does not; (ii) familiarity/ the similarities, thus emphasizing the need for quality, comfort with savings banks, where Mongolian girls in-depth market research in each country prior to do not feel comfortable in a bank and Dominican girls designing pilot products and services. actually like bank branches; (iii) availability to attend financial education classes, where Mongolian girls are Commonalities between Mongolian and Dominican generally available after school and Dominican girls girls included a definitive preference for the color pink are not. along with the desire to be treated differently than Limits to Segmentation by Age. In some settings, age can be a useful way to segment the youth market and to target market research efforts. Some countries, however, may show a diversity of life cycle needs among young people of the same age. As a result, segmentation should result from a careful analysis of both age and cultural demographic characteristics. Segmentation of Youth Markets by Other Variables. MEDA has been working with well-established MFIs and NGOs in Morocco and Egypt to conduct market research and develop youth-inclusive financial services for the past three years. It has identified the following variables that groups should consider using when trying to segment the youth market: • Age: When designing financial and non-financial services, it is very important to consider the differences between younger youth (from approximately 15 to 18) and older youth (19 and above). Younger youth are often limited to non-formal financial services. However, they are more receptive to training because they are still in an educational mindset. Getting older youth to attend training is more challenging because they may have less time and already have access to services. • Age of majority: Financial institutions must also consider any legal issues that might impact the types of financial instruments they are able to offer a particular market segment. For example, offering loans is generally restricted to those youth above the age of 18. Savings accounts, in some countries, may also be restricted to those of legal age or require an adult cosigner. • Marital status: A 21-year-old married youth is very different from an unmarried person of the same age. Their time commitments, readiness and maturity levels are often very different. They have obligations and feel a more immediate need to invest in their ability to fulfill them, meaning that they feel the necessity of investing in income generating possibilities, such as training or a business. • Gender: Some products are more appealing to one gender than the other. For example internships are more popular among males. Loans are generally more attractive to women, possibly because the loan amounts are relatively small and women are more willing to begin businesses with smaller loans. • Education level: Knowing participants’ education level(s) is very important in designing training in particular, and has also influenced the design of MEDA’s internship program. • Geographic location, including rural and urban living: For training, in particular, it is critical to understand where clients live, as cultural norms may change depending on location. In 54
  • 58. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development some rural areas, males and females should be trained separately. Regarding savings, access to facilities Chapter 3: Youth-Inclusive Financial Services is more limited in rural areas and alternative partners or delivery methods must be found. For example, the Post Bank (Le Poste) is more willing to provide services outside urban centers. Freedom from Hunger’s research in Mali echoes these findings where researchers learned that dividing segments by gender and marital status was the most effective way to delineate segments of the youth market. The study found that not everyone actually knows his or her age. It also revealed that some adolescents, though not all, marry as young as 15-years-old. Youth Are Often Sub-Segments of Existing Markets. MEDA’s advice regarding the step-by step engagement of youth segments that share features in common with existing adult clients reflects a larger realization shared by many presenters at the 2010 conference as well as the broader YFS sector; namely that one of the best ways to approach the “youth market” is to see cohorts of youth as being “sub-segments” of existing markets, and to appreciate that these sub-segments are often either: • Already being served, but not recognized as being a specific sub-segment • Already being served but with only slight modifications (formal or informal) to typical adult marketing/delivery approaches • Not yet being served (or are being underserved) due to barriers in effective marketing/delivery approaches 3 .3 Practical Tips: Entering into Youth Markets One Segment at a Time MEDA has found that it must work with MFIs to When partnering with Moroccan MFI, Al Amana, address the youth market in a gradual, step-by-step MEDA first began by adding a short training program process. It recommends beginning by identifying one to its existing loan product. Once Al Amana saw the specific segment of the youth market. This should be benefit of modifying the product for youth, a savings a segment that shares commonalities with an MFI’s component was added. Eventually, the training existing clients so that products and services may component was expanded to include more business only need slight adjustments and risk can be kept at a skills and financial education. Finally, loan conditions minimum. Once an institution pilots this new product (interest rates, repayment rates) were altered. Now, this concept with the identified segment it can then begin improved product is offered to a wider youth audience to expand its product offering to address the needs within Al Amana. of other youth segments. In this way, institutions are better able to manage the risk of implementing new products and services with young people. B. Apply Youth-Friendly Market Research to Segment Your Market and Inform Product Design Another key theme at the conference, which is under discussion throughout the sector, is youth-friendly market research, which describes both an overall approach, and a tailored set of tools and techniques, used both to segment the youth market, and to define the parameters and features of youth-inclusive products and services. Some findings include: 55
  • 59. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development Effective Market Research with Youth Requires a Distinct Approach. Market research with youthChapter 3: Youth-Inclusive Financial Services requires a distinct approach to that used in segmenting and assessing priority needs within the adult market. As a result, researchers need to define techniques that use language and activities that make young people feel comfortable and confident enough to actively participate and share their opinions. 3 .4 Practical Tips: Not All Adult Oriented Research Firms Know How to Work with Youth Using market research to identify how to differentiate different with youth-friendly tools. Data collected market segments is key to developing the right focuses on dreams, aspirations and life-events. There product mix for young clients. Getting quality data, is no direct questioning with regards to product however, can be challenging. As CHF’s MFI subsidiary design. As such, researchers must understand what in Palestine, Ryada, embarked on market research, information will be useful for a finance institution – it was unable to identify a market research firm that both in product design and marketing – and be able had experience conducting qualitative research with to identify trends arising from the data. Even after youth. As such, the market research firm that was initial training, a market research firm can benefit from selected required a thorough orientation to youth on-site guidance throughout the study from a youth market research tools including how to communicate specialist to address challenges that arise during the with young people and how to probe for the right implementation of focus groups or other types of answers. More importantly, translating market research. information into data that can define a product is Focus on the Design of Youth-Friendly Market Research Tools. Making Cents International experiences from its wide range of youth-inclusive market research initiatives in the past year, including building the capacity of the local research firm in the West Bank/Gaza described above, reinforce the need to use youth-friendly market research tools. For example, market research techniques should respond to a participant’s age or level of maturity.Young children best express themselves through games or speaking in the third person while adolescents and young adults embrace activities that make them feel empowered. 56
  • 60. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development Chapter 3: Youth-Inclusive Financial Services 3 .5 New Tools: Examples of Youth-Inclusive Market Research Tools Making Cents International used the following tools to conduct youth-inclusive market research with its partners in the West Bank and Gaza. TABLE: MARKET RESEARCH TooLS Name of tool Purpose Type of data created Life Events focus group tool To learn about the aspirations and life events • Critical events in the lives of young people of young people • Links between life events and resource needs • Aspirations of young people Money Flow focus group tool To learn about how young people earn • Existing sources of money money and spend it • Expenses • Priority uses of money and decision- making Business Mobility focus group tool To learn about where young people spend • Where young people spend time time as well as understand how they think • What attracts young people to certain businesses grow places • The steps and support young people see in growing a business Financial Services Preferences focus group What young people are looking for in • Use of formal and informal financial tool financial service providers and their use of services financial services • Advantages and disadvantages of financial services In-depth interview with potential clients What makes financial services accessible for • Preferences for saving and borrowing young people • Information needs and channels • Characteristics of a good client 20Interview%20with%20Potential%20Clients.doc/view In-depth interview with current clients Current clients’ experience with financial • Satisfaction with the financial service services provider • Business development process • Communication with the financial service provider Clients.doc/view In-depth interview with micro finance staff Relationship between financial institution • Perceptions of young clients staff and potential and current clients • Characteristics of good clients • Communication with clients doc.docx/view While the importance of conducting good market research prior to developing a product or service is not a new concept to financial service providers, the lessons learned in this section provide practical tips on how to apply youth-friend market research techniques to effectively understand youth segments and sub-segments of the market. Using this knowledge, financial institutions will then be able to more successfully develop a new product or adapt an existing product to best suit the needs and wants of its younger clients. The following 57
  • 61. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development section discusses some examples of youth-friendly financial products that are currently being offered to youngChapter 3: Youth-Inclusive Financial Services clients across the developing world. 3 .6 Practical Tips: How to Encourage Young Girls to Participate in Focus Groups In designing their market research strategy, FFH found about themselves. As a result, FFH designed tools that that adolescent girls, particularly from rural areas, encouraged them to speak in the third person. For tend to be shy and may feel intimidated by a focus a group discussion the facilitator invites a volunteer group activity. One approach to address this was to to draw a typical youth in the community. As the incorporate a game at the start of the group discussion volunteer draws the young person, other participants to make them feel at ease. One game typically used are engaged by suggesting what dress or hairstyle was a ‘hot potato’, in which participants standing the person would have, or simply enjoying witnessing around in a circle would pass around a small stone or the drawing evolve. Then the facilitator points to the a ball while clapping, and when the facilitator would drawing and asks what type of financial strategies stop clapping, the person holding the stone would this youth uses to address financial pressures. By need to introduce herself. pointing at the drawing, participants are more likely to comment on the question because they do not have Another lesson learned in working with this segment, to talk about themselves, but about a typical youth in was that fact that adolescent girls do not like to talk the community. C. Youth Products May Only Require Slight Differences with Adult Products In analyzing market research findings, many institutions have found that the youth-inclusive financial products themselves only differ slightly from those offered to older clients. Differences generally focus around smaller size of savings accounts or loans and lower fees. These small differences make financial services more easily accessible to a broader scope of youth market segments. Specific examples of modified adult products include: Adolescent Savings. XacBank in Mongolia, Banco Adopem in the Dominican Republic and K-Rep Bank in Kenya have each developed savings products for adolescent girls and boys. Each institution made small changes to the adult savings product to make it more accessible to young people including reductions in minimum balance and fees. All three banks have also partnered with a separate institution to provide financial education to their young savers, a topic that each institution, as well as the broader youth-inclusive financial services community, recognizes as an important component to a young person’s ability to save and plan for the future. Group Lending to Young Entrepreneurs. Several microfinance institutions including Equity Bank (Kenya), Alexandria Business Association (Egypt) and Al Amal Bank (Yemen) provide young entrepreneurs with loans backed by a group guarantee. By starting off with small amounts under a group-based methodology, these banks are able to provide young people with start-up capital without requiring collateral. This method of solidarity group lending is backed by the power of social collateral and enforced by the cooperation of the group members and their willingness to achieve success. Similar to the aforementioned savings product, most institutions also link clients to some type of financial education or entrepreneurship training to complement the loan and to help prepare young clients with the knowledge and skills they need to manage money and to grow their businesses. This last element to the product 58
  • 62. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development Chapter 3: Youth-Inclusive Financial Services 3 .7 Practical Tip: Differences between Youth Products and Adult Products As can be seen in the following table, WWB found it including smaller minimum balance requirements necessary to make a few small changes to its existing and lowering fees. This enables young people, who adult savings products in order to make savings generally manager much smaller amounts of money products more accessible to youth markets in both than their adult counterparts, to take advantage of the Mongolia and the Dominican Republic. The changes bank’s savings products. generally reflect the importance of lowering costs TABLE: YoUTH PRoDUCTS VERSUS ADULT PRoDUCTS XacBank, Mongolia Banco Adopem, Dominican Republic Minimum Balance 70% Lower 60%, 20% Lower Interest Rate 5% Lower* Same Fees Passbook fee is 50% lower; otherwise same Same Term Same (both available) None (only demand) *Adult demand deposit IR = 6.6%; Girl demand deposit IR = 6.3% reflects the implementation of YFS Emerging Guideline #4: Provide or link youth to complementary non-financial services. The following text boxes present examples of organizations that have made small changes to their existing products and services to better meet the needs of their younger clients. 3 .8 Bright Ideas: A Step-by-Step Approach to Ensuring Greater Success Rates for Youth-Owned Businesses While its group loan remains unchanged for young business. Young clients receive ongoing mentoring clients, Alexandria Business Association (ABA) has and a second grant after three months. Once these developed a program that serves to help reduce young clients have completed the program they then the probability of youth-owned business failures. qualify for a solidarity group loan under the same It recently launched a new program, Step-by-Step, terms as adult clients. The project is currently being targeting young people ages 18-22 who have a piloted with 150 young people and based on its minimum of primary school and a maximum of high success rate, will be rolled out to all six governorates in school or technical school education. Candidates Alexandria in 2011. ABA funds the program both with receive one to two months of vocational training its own resources as well as donor commitments from and then receive grant seed capital to start a small external parties including MEDA and British Gas. 59
  • 63. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods DevelopmentChapter 3: Youth-Inclusive Financial Services 3 .9 Bright Ideas: Making Business Loans More Accessible to Kenya’s Youth Entrepreneurs In studying the youth market Equity Bank found experienced young entrepreneurs. Equity Bank’s that most young people are members of a club young entrepreneurs each have a savings account, or group. As a result, Equity decided to develop as well, and are required to save 10 percent of their a group loan product rather than offering its loan amount, however, most place a high value on individual loan targeted at adults. Equity Bank now savings and save well above the minimum. Because offers the Young Entrepreneur’s Club loan, which its young clients lack financial knowledge and currently serves 74,000 young entrepreneurs with business experience, Equity Bank links its young 2.83 billion Kenyan Shillings (US$35 million). Under clients, through its sister organization, Equity Group the group methodology, Equity is able to leverage Foundation, with complementary financial education existing group social structures to manage the risk and entrepreneurship training. By combining financial of lending to less established entrepreneurs. It has services with practical training, Equity hopes to also lowered its business age requirement from one prepare its young clients to plan for the future, make year to three months to increase access to those less wise financial decisions and grow their businesses. D. Informal Mechanisms Play an Important Role in Expanding Access to Financial Services for More Vulnerable Youth 3 .10 Hot Topic: Is Adapting Market Segments Financial Services for Youth Really Necessary? While financial institutions are the appropriate service provider for some youth segments, other One of the questions that YFS skeptics continue types of institutions, including NGOs, are piloting to pose is whether adapting financial services is informal savings and lending mechanisms to reach truly worth it. If a low-income person is selling more vulnerable segments, such as rural youth and fruit in a market, does is matter if that person is orphans and vulnerable children (OVC). Some of the below the age of thirty or not? Does that person’s emerging lessons in this area include: age or lack of experience warrant a specialized loan or accompanying financial literacy or Savings Group models are being adapted for business development training? Similarly, for a vulnerable youth market segments. CARE’s young saver, do they require adapted savings Village Savings and Loan Associations (VSLAs), CRS’ accounts in order to grow their savings? Does Savings and Internal Lending Communities (SILCs) accompanying financial education help these and Plan’s Youth Savings and Loan Associations young people to develop healthy savings habits (YSLAs ) all share several similarities with the well- from an early age? These questions continue to known savings group model. encourage healthy debate in the microfinance sector. In the coming years many of the YFS pilots • Members meet regularly and establish such as the XacBank Adolescent Girls Savings minimum and maximum savings and the savings products developed under requirements to maintain equity the YouthSave project will hopefully shed light among members on whether youth-focused financial services and their accompanying financial capabilities • These savings are then lent internally to components actually do encourage young members Onpeople to save actively and plan for the future. 60
  • 64. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development • Groups are self-owned and self-managed, using a simple record keeping system Chapter 3: Youth-Inclusive Financial Services • The implementing partner; e.g., CRS, Care or Plan, serves as facilitator only • Groups are usually time bound and function between 8-12 months per cycle • Groups set interest rates at around 5-10 percent per month, which ensures a high rate of return on group savings, which often ranges between 29 and 40 percent per annum Youth and adults have different training priorities. While the general informal savings model is the same, Plan International learned that youth and adults have different training needs. Where adults tend to require financial literacy, young people tend to require both financial literacy and life skills training. Topics include “Self-Knowledge,” where youth explore life goals, who they admire, and what they like about themselves and their abilities; “Gender and Discrimination,” which discusses how stereotypes and discrimination can be harmful; and “Good Communication” where young people learn how to communicate well and manage conflict.Young people are often more reluctant to borrow as compared to their adult counterparts and less likely to want to graduate after 12 months. 3 .11 Bright Ideas: Adapting Savings Models to Include Training and Mentoring for Adolescent Girls CARE, with the support of the Nike Foundation, has thinking simply about their own survival. In addition, embarked on the Ishaka project targeting 20,000 CARE’s model incorporates mentor support from the adolescent girls in Burundi’s western Bujumbura and community particularly from older, successful women. central Gitega provinces. It has taken its adult savings It also has worked to reduce domestic violence in model and adapted it to include financial literacy and the community by creating change agents in men life skills training tailored specifically for adolescent and boys, targeting those leaders who are willing to girls. Within the training programs, CARE staff found speak out against domestic violence. To enable greater that using appreciative inquiry allows young girls to access to these mentors and male change agents, highlight positive attributes and accomplishments CARE has incorporated radio programming that and use them as building blocks in planning for the features these individuals and their messages to help future. This approach enables them to move beyond reach even more remote communities in Burundi. Seek opportunities to work with children of existing clients. As CRS rolled out its Savings and Internal Lending Communities (SILC) program for adults, program managers observed that SILC group members occasionally brought their children to the SILC group meetings to learn about the importance of savings and how a SILC group functioned. In some cases, the children and youth inherited their parents’ savings following a death or began to save themselves within the groups. As with Plan International, CRS quickly realized that young people needed additional support and as a result decided to design a separate program that would better meet the needs of children and youth, including youth-only SILC groups that used adult mentors, who were not group members. Involve parents, caregivers and community in the program design and roll out. While all SILC programs have a community education component, youth-focused SILC programming needs to sensitize parents, caregivers and community members on the value of teaching young people to save. This helps generate buy-in and ongoing adult support for the program. For example, parents and caregivers need to help children balance their SILC activities with their household chores and schoolwork. In some cases community leaders 61
  • 65. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development have been called upon to enforce the SILC groups’ constitution and teachers often mentor young people withChapter 3: Youth-Inclusive Financial Services their income generating activities. CRS has found that the sequencing is critical; i.e., preparing the parent or caregiver must precede the training of young savers so as to promote a positive attitude among adults and avoid the misuse of child’s savings by the adults. Finally, CRS recognizes that child protection is an integral component of all projects that work with children and youth. Thus in Zimbabwe each implementing partner had a child protection policy in place. This finding reflects the implementation of the YFS Emerging Guideline #6, Involve Community. 3 .12 Bright Ideas: The Importance of Engaging Caregivers CRS Zimbabwe has identified the following effective • Caregivers are often instrumental in providing the practices for the engagement of the caregivers of first savings contribution for the child. young people served by its youth-focused Savings and • Caregivers can help to sell products made by the Internal Lending Communities (SILC): child. • Sequencing is important: it is important to start with • Adults external to the SILC group help resolve group caregivers (primarily female head of household or conflicts (parents, caregivers, village leaders). mothers), and then extend SILC access to youth. • Youth exclusive SILC groups can be spun off from • Even if the caregivers are not directly involved in the adult groups. a SILC, it is important to sensitize them about the program. • SILC provides a platform for delivering life skills and health education to children and youth. Involve youth in research and development phases of new projects. Many of the lessons learned by providers of informal services to youth resonate with those learned by formal financial institutions – especially in the market research and product development phases. As per the previously mentioned YFS Emerging Guideline #113, involving youth in all aspects of program design and management will ensure greater project outcomes. To do this, Plan recommends setting up youth advisory boards to help guide program design and management. Using existing community infrastructure such as community learning centers or health clinics, also helps to lower costs and ensures youth feel comfortable in a safe and familiar environment. Involving parents as contacts ensures that youth are able to participate more consistently. Keeping groups at an average of 20 members ensures greater management and participation by all. 13 Involve youth in market research and product development 62
  • 66. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development Chapter 3: Youth-Inclusive Financial Services 3 .13 Bright Ideas: Youth as Designers and Managers of Their Own Programs As Plan International evaluated its microfinance Youth Advisory Board’s (YAB) that are comprised and education projects, it discovered that “project of youth community members who are elected by beneficiaries” were generally not treated as general assembly. The role of the YAB is to collect stakeholders, active participants or partners, a information and to develop a permanent consultative fact which has been detrimental to ownership, committee. YAB’s meet on a monthly basis and are effectiveness and relevance of the projects. In usually comprised of five youth (President, Secretary, order to generate more youth ownership over its Treasurer and members) and supported by one Plan Youth Financial Services and Business Skills pilot staff (the Project Manager) and a representative from project in West Africa, Plan conducted a formal the YSLA implementing partner. During their monthly workshop and informal consultations to define the field visits, the YAB communicates with youth in the project’s objectives, results, strategies and activities. community about the project’s progress as well as the Consequently, the resulting project design reflects problems they are facing. Representatives of these not just the needs, but also the active participation of YAB also participate in regional Steering Committee working children and youth. meetings where, along with national and regional level Plan staff and partner organizations, they discuss In order to ensure ongoing youth involvement ongoing issues facing the program and participants in project design and management, Plan formed Following YFS Emerging Guideline #214, the products described in sections C and D represent a broader industry focus on developing a range of financial services based on the unique needs of different youth market segments. These youth products and services are financially similar to their adult-focused counterparts and carry slight differences in terms of smaller sizes and lower fees. The biggest differences often lie in how to brand products and market them appropriately for young people; and how to address a young person’s general lack of financial literacy and business knowledge. The following sections E through I address how some institutions are working to address these differences. E. Use Marketing Mechanisms that Resonate with Young People A growing recognition among financial service providers interested in better serving youth is the need to use youth-inclusive marketing strategies. Women’s World Banking (WWB) is setting a new standard in marketing effectively to young people. WWB shared both successes in this area – along with a number of setbacks its partners in Mongolia and the Dominican Republic have experienced. The following is a short description of some of the lessons learned around marketing strategies used to attract youth to financial services. Use of media. XacBank in Mongolia invested resources to design marketing strategies that would resonate with its target market and encourage young people to open savings accounts and save regularly. For example, XacBank took advantage of the low cost of popular media in Mongolia to release a television commercial targeted at adolescent girls that encouraged them to save their money, rather than spend it. Use of incentives. In addition to educating the girls on how to save, XacBank designed a series of incentives that rewarded girls as they reached savings goals. Incentives included girl’s accessories and school supplies. One of the more popular incentives was a pink USB drive. Unfortunately however, XacBank found that most of the 14 Develop products and services that reflect the diversity of youth 63
  • 67. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development incentives were ineffective at getting the girls to save, as most were not valued. . Existing incentives were alsoChapter 3: Youth-Inclusive Financial Services considered to be too expensive and unsustainable. Bank staff is currently analyzing different options for more cost-effective incentives and marketing mechanisms. Use of promotional events. Banco Adopem, in the Dominican Republic, decided to launch its pilot by holding a promotional event with lively music and colorful decorations to attract young girls and boys to open savings accounts. These events however did not produce a significant increase in savings accounts and will not likely be repeated. Cross selling to children of existing clients. Banco Adopem discovered that direct selling to children of existing clients on the bank premises produced better results at a much lower cost than had the use of incentives or promotional events. In addition to promoting the product while bank clients conduct transactions, the bank provides children with special boosters so that they can face the bank teller. Designing cost-effective marketing strategies that generate demand for youth-inclusive financial services can be challenging. Both Banco Adopem and XacBank made the initial investment in marketing tools that did not always result in a significant increase in savings accounts. To their advantage, the least expensive mechanisms including the use of media in Mongolia and cross-selling to client’s children in the Dominican Republic, were the most effective means to attracting new savers to the bank. The lessons learned from these initial experiments will hopefully encourage other institutions to find simple, low cost strategies to encouraging young people to begin saving in a financial institution. F. Technology Can Provide a Low Cost Mechanism for Increasing Outreach to Young People and Achieving Scale Depending on the country, young people tend to be more tech savvy than their adult counterparts and place a high value on using technology in their daily lives. Some financial service providers are looking to incorporate technology to both attract young people as well as to bring down the costs of managing small deposits and small loans. Examples of such innovative uses of technology included: Mobile banking. While technology, particularly mobile banking, is a familiar concept to the microfinance industry—when serving youth, it seems to promise even greater possibilities of increasing outreach and raising customer satisfaction. Kenya’s Equity Bank, for example, found that most Kenyan young people below the age of 30 possess a mobile phone and would be willing to conduct financial transactions using these phones. Using the M-Pesa platform, Equity developed a mobile banking system whereby in the first two months of the product launch, a stunning 670,000 bank accounts were opened.15 Young people find the mobile banking system particularly attractive as deposits and withdrawals do not require an adult cosigner; rather once the young person opens the account with a parent or guardian cosigner, they are then able to avoid the government mandated cosigner requirement by making transfers, withdrawals or deposits using their mobile phone. The mobile banking system does not charge fees and savings are insured. Savings-related games for mobile phones. Because market research results showed Mongolian girls to be very tech savvy, XacBank developed a savings-related game for mobile phones. While the mobile phone programming is not yet perfected and is still somewhat expensive, XacBank sees tech and media based marketing mechanisms as highly effective for attracting young savers and will continue to explore similar options in the future. 15 While the 670,000 reflects savings accounts for all age groups, Equity Bank’s management sees the use of cell phone technology as a means to specifically increase the number of youth savings accounts. 64
  • 68. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development Internet-based technologies. Internet-based technology is shortening distances between lenders in the Chapter 3: Youth-Inclusive Financial Services developed world and young students in the developing world. Vittana, a U.S.-based NGO that provides loans to students in developing countries, has gained recognition for its work in partnering with local microfinance institutions to provide educational loans to students in university and vocational education programs. Similar to the Kiva model, Vittana serves as an investor platform whereby small investors choose from student profiles to determine where to lend their money. Funds are lent at zero interest to local microfinance institutions, which then on-lend to the students. For more information please visit 3 .14 Practical Tips: Helping Developing World Students Finance Their Education Vittana launched its student loan program in May • Target high school graduates to ensure a 2009 based on the theory that education is an income- minimum standard of previous academic generating activity and that additional education achievement. increases the earning power of youth as much or more • Target families over $2/day: students and families than a microenterprise. On average, Vittana’s 700+ living on less than $2/day must concentrate on student loan recipients in eight different countries fulfilling basic needs and will not be in a position to project an increase in income of greater than 200 assume education-related debt. percent after graduation. • offer an interest-only grace period to give Initially developed with input from MFI CEOs, industry students the opportunity to focus on completing experts, and general background research on student their studies while still establishing a pattern of lending—and continuously refined based on loan monthly repayment activity. program performance—Vittana’s guidelines for In addition to sharing criteria for success, Vittana also student lending have been critical to its early success. shares a few useful tips on what doesn’t work for its They include recommendations to: target demographic. It suggests that MFIs work under • Fund vocational school / final year(s) of an individual loan methodology rather than a group university / graduation costs to reduce drop out lending methodology; students are more itinerant risk and increase the likelihood that students will than traditional microfinance borrowers and busy enter the workforce after receiving a student loan. work and school schedules limit their availability for • Target children of microfinance borrowers as they group meetings. Vittana also does not permit its MFI tend to be more familiar with the responsibilities partners to offer interest-free grace periods. During of debt and are more likely to develop strong Vittana’s pre-launch research, it consulted a Filipino repayment habits. MFI that had disbursed student loans with a one-year no payment period. Without monthly contact from the • Use a parent, relative, or adult supporter as a co- MFI, the students had no incentive to return and begin signer to reduce default risk, ease concerns about making payments 12 months later. All but a handful student transiency, and select for highly committed of the students defaulted. Vittana’s interest-only grace students who are willing to include their family in periods ensure that its MFIs maintain monthly contact their decision to assume debt. with the student borrowers. G. Training Staff on How to Effectively Serve Youth Can Help to Create a More Comfortable and Welcome Environment for Young Clients After successfully implementing youth savings in both XacBank and Banco Adopem, WWB maintains that youth financial products must be institutionalized in order to achieve successful implementation. An emphasis on staff training has been growing within the youth-inclusive financial services sector, and WWB has found this to be a 65
  • 69. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development key component to effectively serving young people. As it launched pilots in both Mongolia and the DominicanChapter 3: Youth-Inclusive Financial Services Republic, WWB found that existing financial services staff lacked the communication skills necessary to make young people feel comfortable and welcome at the bank. As a result, both XacBank and Banco Adopem needed to make a significant investment in staff training on how to serve young people. They also realized that it is important to implement ongoing monitoring of staff since application of the training may take practice, and lessons learned along the way will help determine future staff training needs. Making Cents’ 2009 State of the Field in Youth Inclusive Financial Services Survey16 revealed staffing weaknesses to be a primary limiting factor in successfully implementing products and services for young people. In order to meet the growing need for knowledge and tools to effectively manage staff in implementing YFS, Making Cents has developed a one-day training course in 2011 entitled, Staffing forYouth Inclusive Financial Services. Making Cents through its YFS-Link program ( is rolling out the staffing course along with its other YFS-Link courses throughout 2011 and 2012 with training partners in Asia, Africa, MENA and Latin America.17 3 .15 Bright Ideas: Making Banks More Child-Friendly Aflatoun provides children and youth, aged 6-18, productive partnership with Postbank Uganda. with social and financial education to save their Postbank Uganda has incorporated bank training of resources and encourage them to start social and staff to ensure staff welcome children into the bank financial microenterprises. In addition to providing and make them feel comfortable. Children also make financial education and life skills training to children, regular visits to the bank to make deposits and to Aflatoun’s partner organizations in each country become more accustomed to the bank setting. The work to link them to savings programs through either relationship has been greatly facilitated by Postbank home-based, school-based or bank-based models. Uganda’s willingness to provide child-friendly banking The bank-based model for child savings is a newer products and services. Examples include the abolition model but very promising in that it serves not only to of minimum initial deposits and the abolition of provide a safe place for children to save but it helps to administrative fees. Postbank Uganda even went de-mystify banks for young people starting at an early so far as to provide individual bank accounts to age. Aflatoun found that children often feel threatened children. However this raised logistical problems or out of place when walking into a bank and that with poorer families who were non-literate and this impression can persist as a child grows into who where therefore often unable to provide basic adulthood. As a result, they have less incentive to save documentation to the bank. Due to these problems, or otherwise engage in formal financial services. PEDN altered the model so that children’s savings were held in class or club accounts with adult teachers Aflatoun’s Ugandan partner, The Private Education providing the initial documentation. Development Network (PEDN), has established a 16 Making Cents, 2009 Findings.pdf 17 For more information on the Making Cents suite of YFS-Link courses please see box 3.19 or visit: 66
  • 70. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development H. Financial Models for Young People Should Aim to Build Financial Capability in Young People Chapter 3: Youth-Inclusive Financial Services While most YFS practitioners understand that young people require access to financial services combined with financial literacy, the evidence behind whether this dual approach, or what is termed financial capability, actually helps young people develop financial stability and well-being over time has still yet to be proven. Drs. Margaret Sherraden and Gina Chowa, along with fellow researcher Lissa Johnson, at Washington University’s Center for Social Development (CSD), are leading the effort to study the impact of integrating financial capability into youth savings programs in hopes that it will provide evidence for mainstreaming this approach into future programming. For example, an early study conducted with elementary children in St. Louis, USA, showed that children who participated in a school-based saving for college program showed increased savings as well as a more sophisticated understanding of financial issues as compared to a control group. In a separate study in Uganda, children who participated in a community-based savings program showed a positive difference of $20 in productive assets and $744 in financial assets as compared to a control group. Both programs combined financial education with access to matched (1:1) savings accounts. The CSD hopes to build on these initial findings to better understand what financial capabilities models or what components of financial capabilities models actually increase financial literacy and savings among low-income youth. As a member of the YouthSave Consortium (, the CSD will assess the financial literacy levels and savings of both youth and their parents prior to and after access to a youth savings account. Their responses and level of saving will be compared to those youth who do not have access to the youth savings account. This type of research will contribute to the growing body of knowledge around YFS and particularly the impacts of YFS on young people. I. Partnerships with Schools or Other Educational Institutions Maximize Existing Infrastructure to Promote Financial Capabilities and Other Life and Business Skills for Youth Beyond determining the appropriate model, many institutions face financial constraints in offering training to their young clients and must seek partnerships with youth-serving organizations that possess both the expertise and the funding to design and deliver the appropriate educational services to their young clients. The following lessons reflect the implementation of YFS Emerging Guideline #5, Focus on Core Competencies by Utilizing Partnerships. Identifying Partners to Offer Non-Financial Services. Financial service providers have often found it challenging to identify the right partners that can offer accompanying non-financial services to youth including financial education, business training, life skills training, mentoring, and internships. These challenges can include lack of appropriate resources and lack of a shared vision. After thoroughly researching the training needs for a defined youth market segment, MEDA recommends closely analyzing the supply side in the market so as to understand which institutions could potentially provide these services. Partners should possess the capacity to meet young people’s needs both in terms of resources (infrastructure, staffing, funding) and in terms of service quality. Once the partners have been vetted and an agreement reached it is important to continue to actively work with partners to monitor youth needs. For example, MEDA’s research revealed that youth wanted to obtain practical job experience through internships. After implementing an internship program, regular monitoring revealed that young people also needed training on how to succeed in an internship. 67
  • 71. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods DevelopmentChapter 3: Youth-Inclusive Financial Services 3 .16 New Tool: Microfinance Opportunities’ Impact Assessment of Financial Education for Girls The Savings Innovation and Expansion for Adolescent their social assets and financial capabilities. Financial Girls and Young Women project in Mongolia (2008 – literacy outcomes for the girls will be assessed with the 2012) is funded by the Nike Foundation, directed by following indicators: share of girls who follow a savings Women’s World Banking (WWB), and implemented by plans, and who open and regularly use bank accounts. XacBank, a microfinance bank in Mongolia. It offers Life of grant (LOG) impacts will be assessed with these a combined program for adolescent girls, ages 14-17 indicators: share of girls who show increased future years old, including financial education (FE) classes, planning, share of girls with decision-making power which Microfinance Opportunities (MFO) designed, over assets, share of girls who are comfortable in and a savings product. At the time, it was the only discussing financial matters with their parents, and savings product in Mongolia that girls could control share of girls with increased self-esteem. independently of their parents. Financial education classes met once per week for eight weeks and For more information about the Impact Assessment targeted students in secondary school as well as at-risk Baseline Study, see: girls through a community-based organization. The impact assessment’s objective is to assess changes in Savings%20and%20Financial%20Education%20 adolescent girls’ and young women’s economic and for%20Girls%20in%20Mongolia.pdf social empowerment, as demonstrated by changes in School-Based Partnerships in Support of Savings Programs. School-based savings programs are a common approach to child savings as programs can take advantage of targeting youth in larger groups and can utilize the educational infrastructure (i.e., teachers and classrooms) to introduce financial education. Forming young people into democratically elected savings groups works well as they encourage young people’s participation. One challenge however is the security concern often encountered in school-based models. Aflatoun found that by engaging teachers to keep the money in a safe place, or to deposit funds on behalf of the savings groups in a financial institution, can help to reduce the risk of theft. Another challenge in working through schools is the fact that teachers themselves often require financial education in order to teach it to their students. Investing in teacher financial education that is less technical and easier to understand is key to the success of a school-based model for child savings. How the information is taught also ensures greater impact of the financial education. Aflatoun, for its part, takes a child-centered, participatory approach that includes games and simulations. 68
  • 72. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development Chapter 3: Youth-Inclusive Financial Services 3 .17 Voices: The Importance of Linking Financial Education and Empowerment Education with Child Savings Accounts Jeroo Billimoria, Executive Director, Aflatoun. established a “self-concept” at age 14. Aflatoun Through her previous work with street children, believes that entrepreneurial education can make Ms. Billimoria realized that children’s vulnerability school more relevant for children; entrepreneurial to exploitation could be reduced if they developed activities can help pay school fees that frequently as children a positive self-concept, entrepreneurial prevent attendance; access to savings accounts will mindset, and money management skills. For Ms. help children save and plan; and teaching children Billimoria and Aflatoun, in-school financial education their rights will build self-esteem and increase and empowerment programs, linked with child resilience. These ingredients prepare young people savings accounts, are key ingredients for the YEELD to control and manage their assets and can alter the field. These programs must reach children when cycle of poverty. For more about Aflatoun, visit they are young, still in school, and before they have Where Do We Go From Here? While many institutions are still in the early phases of product development, a few pioneers are poised to take their YFS to scale. Al Amal Bank (Yemen), Equity Bank (Kenya), K-REP Bank (Kenya), and the Alexandria Business Association (Egypt) have all developed savings and credit products for young clients and plan to take them to hundreds of thousands of young people in the coming years. Taking YFS to scale has its own set of challenges, however, including high costs, limited funding, regulatory and policy constraints, and lack of information on what product features and delivery mechanisms are both commercially viable and useful to the young client. These institutions are working on the ground to address these challenges as they prepare for large- scale growth. International support organizations also play an important role in increasing awareness around YFS at the global level, funding product development and research, building the body of evidence behind the power of YFS to transform young people’s lives, and developing practical tools and resources to help financial institutions to develop the right products and services for young people. The MasterCard Foundation, The Consultative Group to Assist the Poor (CGAP), the New America Foundation, Making Cents International and the MicroCredit Summit Campaign all support experimentation, knowledge sharing and dissemination on YFS around the world. Representatives from the above mentioned banks and these key YFS support organizations, came together at the YFS plenary panel, “How do We Take Youth-Inclusive Financial Services to Scale?” to discuss both their motivation behind investing in YFS and well as the gaps that currently need to be filled in order to scale-up YFS both in their countries and at the global level. J. From Making the Social Case to Making a Business Case Investing in youth is often considered part of an institution’s corporate social responsibility. K-Rep Bank, for example, sought to provide young people with a means to build futures for themselves and to discourage their participation in delinquency and violence. The population explosion and subsequent youth majority is now shedding new light on the tremendous market opportunity this presents to financial institutions throughout the developing world. Some highlights behind the business case include: 69
  • 73. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development Youth as a Business Opportunity. Young people make up 77 percent of Yemen’s population however areChapter 3: Youth-Inclusive Financial Services largely excluded from the financial services market. Al Amal Bank, the first microfinance bank of its kind in the Middle East, was founded specifically to address the large unmet demand for financial services among this excluded market as well as other excluded groups including women. Contributing factors to Al Amal’s success include targeting those currently unserved by the financial system, tailoring products and delivery strategies to make products more accessible to these groups by training staff to serve clients effectively. Growing an Existing Youth Market. By disaggregating a portfolio by age, financial institutions will often find that a significant portion of their portfolio is already dedicated to serving young people between the ages of 18 and 30. Alexandria Business Association found that 30 percent of its existing clients fell within this age range and plans to grow that percentage to 40 percent over the next five years. Al Amal’s youth clients (18-30) make up 63 percent of its overall portfolio of 25,000 clients and it expects to maintain that percentage as its grows its loan book to 100,000 clients, and savings accounts to 250,000 by the end of 2013. Equity Bank expects to reach 10-15 million clients in five years and anticipates that between 30-50 percent of its clients will be youth under 30. K-Rep Bank expects that between 500,000 to 1 million or 50 percent of its clients will be under 30 within five years. Debunking the Youth Repayment Myth. A common deterrent to serving youth with tailored financial services is the assumption that young people are riskier and will not repay. Those institutions that have developed and launched loans for young people, over the age of 18, have largely found the opposite where most institutions demonstrate a lower risk ratio for youth than for their overall portfolio. Equity Bank’s Young Entrepreneurs Clubs show a 2.15 percent portfolio at risk (PAR) >30 days while it’s overall PAR >30 days is 5 percent. Al Amal Bank has also found similar results with its youth portfolio where PAR>30 days is .06 percent while its PAR >30 for the entire portfolio is 0.1 percent. K-Rep Bank and ABA have also found that there is very little difference in repayment rates between youth loans and regular adult loan products. ABA’s youth PAR > 30 days is 1.3 percent while it’s overall PAR >30 days is 1.1 percent. K-Rep’s PAR>30 days for its youth portfolio is 0.8 percent lower than its overall PAR>30. K. Getting to Scale by Continuing to Experiment with Different Youth Products While the business case may justify investing in market research and product development for youth, the up- front costs and subsequent delays in achieving sustainability or profitability may discourage many institutions from investing in youth. Donor funding can, however, be leveraged to support these activities. The MasterCard Foundation, for example, has committed well over US$100 million to supporting the development and rollout of youth-inclusive financial services. It is making a major contribution not only to the development of YFS but to building the body of evidence around YFS. Its vision for supporting YFS is to promote catalytic change that will eventually lead to the mainstreaming of YFS as another line of business offered by the majority of financial service providers. YouthSave, a consortium project led by Save the Children with Washington University’s Center for Social Development, The New America Foundation and CGAP in partnership with The MasterCard Foundation, is one such initiative that will contribute to the body of knowledge around youth savings by working with local partners to develop and test savings products accessible to low-income youth in Colombia, Ghana, Kenya, and Nepal. The project not only focuses on expanding access of young people to appropriate savings products but on building the business case through careful documentation of experiences and tracking impact data.YouthSave hopes results will demonstrate that sustainable YFS can also create greater economic opportunities and futures for young people. Another piece to the puzzle of achieving scale is the need for greater advocacy around YFS. Since its inception in 1997, The Microcredit Summit Campaign (MCS) has been very successful at bringing microfinance to the 70
  • 74. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development forefront of national policy agendas and educating the general public around the power of microfinance to Chapter 3: Youth-Inclusive Financial Services transform the lives of the very poor. Sam Daley-Harris, Founder and Director of the Microcredit Summit Campaign, suggests that the YFS community launch a similar campaign to continue to raise awareness around both the need for YFS in the developing world as well as the need for increased donor funding and policy support to expand the range of financial services offered to young people and particularly to those more vulnerable segments of the youth market. L. Documenting What Works While the above mentioned financial institutions serve as examples for effective youth-focused product development and roll-out, many institutions still lack the tools and knowledge to be able to develop the right mix of services for young clients. Al Amal bank founder, Mohamed Al Lai, mentioned that it would have been useful to train his staff on youth-inclusive market research however these tools were not accessible in 2009. Technical service providers such as Making Cents International have since worked to fill that gap by developing training and technical assistance aimed at helping financial service providers to develop the tools and resources for more effective market research and product development for youth. 3 .18 Bright Ideas: Enabling Youth Enterprise Development Through Financial Policy and Regulatory Reform in Kenya After the youth-led post-election violence in Kenya million Kenya Shillings (US$1.2 million) received in 2008, government regulators began to prioritize through the program to disburse a total of 2.83 billion youth-friendly policies that would enable them Kenyan Shillings (US$33.4 million) to its 74,000 young greater access to financial services as well as support entrepreneurs. A next step in providing for a more for enterprise development. As a first step, the youth-friendly business environment is the new Small government implemented the Youth Enterprise and Medium Enterprise (SME) act currently under Development Fund, a fund that enables financial development. This act takes one step beyond stating institutions including K-Rep Bank and Equity Bank what financial institutions should do to support to lend to youth at a subsidized rate. While a debate youth-enterprise and provides policy guidelines for exists as to whether this strategy is sustainable in promoting more SME-friendly measures with respect the long term, both K-Rep and Equity Bank agree to procurement and allocation of business premises. that it has enabled them to experiment with youth- In this way, the government takes a more active role in inclusive financial services and provides promising providing market opportunities to youth enterprises evidence for future youth-focused strategies. Equity such as providing market spaces or business premises Bank, for example has leveraged the initial 100 for young entrepreneurs. 71
  • 75. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods DevelopmentChapter 3: Youth-Inclusive Financial Services 3 .19 New Tools: Supporting Practitioners in Developing the Right Financial Products for Young People Making Cents International’s Youth-Inclusive Financial • Partnering for Improved Service Delivery with Services Linkage (YFS-Link) program provides Young Clients (2 days): Presents strategies for organizations with the latest knowledge, tools, and institutions to leverage core competencies and resources for developing high quality, demand driven effectively develop partnerships to better deliver financial products and services for young people. financial services to young people YFS-Link Technical Training • Staffing for Youth Inclusive Financial Services (1 day): provides management with an understanding YFS-Link offers interactive training courses that of the key knowledge, skills, and attitudes for build organizational capacity to serve youth with frontline staff in the successful delivery of financial appropriate, demand-driven financial services. Courses services to youth. include the following: • Savings Products and Services for Young Clients • Making a Case for offering Youth-Inclusive (1/2 day): Deepens the understanding of savings Financial Services (1/2 day): Equips decision- products and services for young clients through case makers with key information regarding the social study discussions and interactive activities. and business case for offering youth-inclusive financial services To date over 385 individuals from 103 organizations • Implementing Sound Practices in Youth-Inclusive and 39 different countries have been trained in Financial Services (2 days): Offers institutions a the YFS-Link courses. YFS-Link will continue to roll practical step-by-step framework for understanding out these courses in Africa, MENA, Asia and Latin what it takes to offer youth-inclusive financial America throughout 2011 and 2012. To access course services descriptions and the calendar of upcoming YFS-Link training courses please visit our online platform. • Market Research with Young Clients (3 days): Provides institutions with the specific tools and on-line Platform: methodologies to conduct effective market research Visit the YFS-Link Platform to access the latest case with young people studies, tools and research; sign up for YFS-Link • Adapting and Developing Financial Services for courses; find out who is doing what where on the YFS Young Clients (3 days): Provides institutions with map; and participate in our practitioner discussion the tools to develop a product specifically for young forum. people M. Need for Regulatory and Policy Supports A growing area of consensus within this sector, which panelists confirmed at the conference, is that the challenge in reaching scale requires policy support to ensure young people have independent access to financial services and regulatory support so that financial institutions are able to provide the right mix of products and services to young people. For example, K-Rep in Kenya suggests that rather than involve themselves in areas that restrict a young person’s access to financial services, governments should focus on promoting policies around ensuring universal financial education and entrepreneurship training as well enabling young entrepreneurs greater access to markets. Another area of policy support that has particular relevance to young people, highlighted by Jamie Zimmerman of the New America Foundation, is that of consumer protection. Since children and youth are considered a 72
  • 76. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development special or protected class of citizens, regulators should address questions around how to ensure that banks Chapter 3: Youth-Inclusive Financial Services do not market inappropriate or risky products to this vulnerable population. Additionally, regulators should find ways to ensure that the fine print on these products is clear enough for youth to understand it and make informed decisions. Conclusion The youth-inclusive financial services sector has made significant advancements in recent years. Whereas in previous years, microfinance practitioners spoke of the market potential for YFS, this year’s accomplishments demonstrate the budding realization of that potential. The innovative financial services showcased during this year’s Youth-Inclusive Financial Services track represent the diversity of products and approaches being tested and proven effective for youth market segments in the broader microfinance sector. These pioneering institutions are helping to build the body of knowledge around how to divide a heterogeneous market into distinct sub-segments, how to define products and services for youth and how to effectively deliver services to them. In the coming years, the challenge remains to identify ways to scale up these products and services to meet the enormous unmet demand among the world’s youth majority as well as to generate the evidence base necessary to convince a broader audience of financial service providers and policy makers that serving young people with tailored financial services is indeed, good business. 73
  • 77. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods DevelopmentChapter 3: Youth-Inclusive Financial Services 74
  • 78. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes Chapter 4: Adolescent Girls & Young Women Chapter 4: Adolescent Girls and Young Women
  • 79. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development Introduction Programming for adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) holds promise for young people and their families, communities, and local economies. Adolescent girls and young women continue to face multiple challenges and human rights abuses throughout the world. Early marriage and childbirth, lack of education, unjust burden of household work, lack of decision-making, and economic dependence are just a few. Media initiatives promoting investment in AGYW as well as key policy changes on their behalf, highlight not only girls’ vulnerability but also their potential to change the socio-economic trajectories of the countries in which they live. The Girl Effect (, a communications initiative supported by the Nike Foundation and partners, notes a few powerful statistics: • If a girl has seven or more years of education, she will marry four years later and have 2.2 fewerChapter 4: Adolescent Girls & Young Women children. • An extra year of primary school boosts girls’ eventual wages by 10 to 20 percent. An extra year of secondary school: 15 to 25 percent. • When 10 percent more girls go to secondary school, a country’s economy grows by 3 percent. • When an educated girl earns income, she reinvests 90 percent of it into her family, compared to 35 percent for a boy.18 YEELD programs targeting AGYW address many of the human rights abuses against girls while working towards their empowerment. Holistic programming is considered to be an important vehicle towards achieving lasting impact.YEELD stakeholders believe that a multi-faceted approach is necessary to improve the social well-being of girls in addition to providing financial or other YEELD services. An increase in research on adolescent girls and young women indicates a growing realization of the importance of this population to global development. The Nike Foundation, along with partners highlighted in this chapter, has been testing the hypothesis that investments in AGYW’s economic opportunities will yield long-term returns. Practitioners contribute to the knowledge base about work with AGYW, complementing evaluations with practical knowledge on the best ways to target and reach marginalized or vulnerable populations of girls. YEELD practitioners, evaluators, and research partners continue to develop and refine tools to create quality programs targeted to AGYW. These include: situational analyses, training curricula, financial products, gender- responsive M&E tools, and staff development programs. Advancements in programming for AGYW can also assist the field to develop more targeted and intentional programs with other vulnerable or marginalized groups that require special attention. 18 See for more information. The Coalition for Adolescent Girls is a useful site for recent research, policy, and program experiences with adolescent girls and young women. For more information, go to: 76
  • 80. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development 4 .1 Voices: Leaders Discuss Key Ingredients for High-Impact YEELD Programs Leaders from the field added their thoughts on key likely be the sole economic support for entire families. ingredients for high-impact YEELD programs. Each From puberty, girls must be equipped with the social, spoke to their area of expertise, explaining why those economic, personal, and educational assets they need particular areas are important to socio-economic to secure their livelihoods, realize their personal goals, development and the rights of young people. and prepare for safe motherhood. Thus, an asset- They noted emerging priorities for the continued based approach, empowerment and advocacy are advancement of the field. key ingredients for these target populations. Critical interventions include eliminating social stigmas against Chapter 4: Adolescent Girls & Young Women Judith Bruce, Senior Associate and Policy Analyst, girls, creating safe and supportive spaces for them, Population Council. For Ms. Bruce, a key ingredient and ensuring that they have birth registration and of YEELD programs is targeting adolescent girls and savings accounts. Ms. Bruce also advocated for tight young women. She explained the biological, social, evaluations that consider age, gender, puberty and and economic factors that make this population so informal control of economic resources. For more about critical to the current and future development of poor the Population Council, see countries—in many countries, young mothers will Key Findings and Lessons Learned A. Tools Specifically Designed for Use in YEELD Programs with Adolescent Girls and Young Women Can Assist with More Effective and Targeted Program Design. Information and tools related to adolescent girl and young women-focused programming can help organizations start or deepen existing programming for girls. EMpower, when they consulted their network of community- based organizations, found that organizations were desperate for YEELD tools, especially those that targeted at- risk girls and young women. They subsequently created a handbook compiling information, tips, and resources on how youth-serving organizations could enter the YEELD field to better serve young women. In addition, the Population Council shares program design tools that can assist organizations in understanding which populations are most underserved. 77
  • 81. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development 4 .2 Checklists: How are Girls Doing in Your Country? The Girl Effect is a communications initiative the ✔ Do investments target girls? Girls are more Nike Foundation created to raise awareness on the likely to invest in their families than boys though impact that investments in AGYW can have on global international investment currently prioritizes poverty. Under the title “Will the Revolution be Led by spending on men. a Twelve Year-Old Girl?” the Girl Effect (www.girleffect. ✔ Do girls enjoy their own category? We need to org) provokes reflection on what needs to be done acknowledge girls’ current roles in their families and to support girls. Think about your particular country communities, not just their future roles as mothers.Chapter 4: Adolescent Girls & Young Women or operating context while you answer the following questions. ✔ Are laws that protect girls enforced? Girls need advocates, laws and enforcement. ✔ Are all girls registered at birth? Legal identification and proof of birth can help girls to access health and ✔ Are girls counted? Statistics about girls provide education and prevent child labor. the information we need to track challenges and advances on their behalf. ✔ Do girls receive a quality education? 70 percent of the 130 million out-of-school children are girls; ✔ Is everyone on board for girls? Mobilization on illiteracy makes girls and women vulnerable and behalf of girls requires family, community, and prevents them from accessing good jobs. policy-maker participation. ✔ Are girls educated about HIV? HIV infection in Extracted from young women is on the rise globally. revolution. Action posters can be downloaded from ✔ Do girls have safe and decent work? Do they learn that site. skills necessary for work? 78
  • 82. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development 4 .3 New Tools: Coverage Exercises and Other Tools from the Population Council Collecting sub-national and disaggregated (by age, For copies of the tool, see sex, ethnicity, schooling status, marital status etc.) data CoverageExerciseGuide.pdf assists YEELD practitioners to understand the situation of marginalized groups whose vulnerabilities are often The Population Council has developed country- masked within national data. In order to shed light specific data guides that disaggregate national data on particularly vulnerable sub-groups of adolescents, sets to highlight particular adolescent girl sub-groups Population Council developed the data guides and their vulnerabilities ( (mentioned above). Population Council also shared publications/serialsbriefs/AdolExpInDepth.asp). Chapter 4: Adolescent Girls & Young Women a Coverage Exercise Tool that assists practitioners to A document called “Investing When it Counts”, determine who youth programming reaches or fails developed by the Population Council, makes powerful to reach. Applying this tool in Guatemala, they found arguments for targeting very young adolescents that 92 percent of youth-serving programs take place (ages 8-12 and younger) for the greatest return on in urban areas whereas over 40 percent of youth are programming investments ( from Mayan ethnic groups and live in rural areas; 85 pdfs/InvestingWhenItCounts.pdf ). percent of the existing programs target in-school youth, whereas most indigenous youth, especially A new state-of-the art handbook providing guidelines girls, are out of school. Usage of this tool in Guatemala and case studies of girl-centered programming also revealed that most youth programs start late initiatives was recently launched by the Council (around age 15), which is too late as many girls are ( already mothers by that age. The program Abriendo AdolGirlsToolkit.asp). Oportunidades targets interventions to this large, neglected sub-group of underserved rural indigenous girls ages 8-18. B. Value Chain Approaches Can Integrate AGYW into Local Economies, Providing 4 .4 New Tools: It’s Her Girls and Young Women with Greater Business from EMpower Financial Independence “It’s Her Business: A Handbook for Preparing Value chain approaches have been used to help Young, At-Risk Women to Become Entrepreneurs” target groups find a niche within a particular is available for download free at market or production chain. This can yield greater It provides information, profits, more regular earnings, and more efficient resources, and tips for organizations helping collaboration with other actors in the production, young women, living in poverty or other processing, or sales of a particular product. More challenging circumstances, start and run micro- recently YEELD practitioners have begun applying businesses. the value chain approach with AGYW, seeking to integrate girls into sustainable, market-oriented businesses. Many of these approaches include familiar ingredients for girl-focused programming: access to financial services and education, creation of girl-friendly spaces or networks, empowerment and self-esteem training, and community advocacy to improve the situation of girls and young women. Cardno Emerging Markets presented on a value chain project with girls and young women in Western Kenya. They found that young women had little decision-making in their home, few social networks, and irregular income related to 79
  • 83. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development fish sales. By filling a gap in the chicken production value chain in that region, Cardno was able to mobilize private sector participants, provide girls access to the market, and improve their financial independence. 4 .5 Practical Tips: Cardno Emerging Markets Integrates Girls into the Value Chain Cardno Emerging Markets, with support from the saturated. Analysis showed that young women Nike Foundation, works to integrate girls and young already raised chicks to earn additional income women, ages 14-24, into value chains and support but they could not always access appropriate feed. them with appropriate financial services in Western Cardno worked with feed and veterinary supplyChapter 4: Adolescent Girls & Young Women Kenya, near Lake Victoria. They shared the following providers to fill the missing links of the value chain; tips about using a value chain approach to work with young women then provided a new supply of adolescent girls and young women. chickens to the region. • Assist the community to understand the concept • Design the value chain to complement girls’ of age-specific programming. Recruiting young lifestyles. The average 19-year-old already has women in target communities was challenging two to three children and a heavy domestic because they are extremely busy and excluded workload. Young women were able to raise chicks from most social networks. When project organizers independently, next to their homes, but sold their asked the community to invite young women ages products in groups. This worked with the girls’ 14-24 years old to meetings, only older women availability, providing them with social and business would come. The project had to raise awareness on support without overwhelming them. the situation of this age group and the importance • Mobilize private sector to support the program. of targeting young women. Value chains can be a win-win situation for the • Review the sustainability, viability, diversity, private sector because they open new markets. and appropriateness of the value chain for Feed and veterinary suppliers, as well as chicken target populations. Fisheries around Lake Victoria coops, were purchased from local suppliers. Savings were being depleted and the fish value chain was accounts helped young women save. The Competitiveness Company looks at the other half of the gender equation for value chains. In Jamaica, young men are considered to be the marginalized group. Almost 50 percent of major crimes are committed by young people under the age of 25, and 99 percent of those arrested are male.Young men are generally less educated (only 18 percent of enrollment in tertiary institutions are men and the others women) and so represent a higher proportion of the 31 percent unemployment rate among youth under 25. The Competitiveness Company has learned that respect and trust are critical in working with a predominantly male target group and therefore building on (or rebuilding) these components at every level of the value chain must be part of the overall approach. This includes trust and respect among farmers from different communities and between farmers and exporters. C. Build on Existing Programming Girl-focused programs can be layered onto other existing programs that do not explicitly target girls. This approach allows organizations to build off the community connections, technical expertise, and operational structure of another program while exploring new ways to target girls. For example, Catholic Relief Services (CRS) added their Empowering Adolescent Girls (EAG) project in Ethiopia onto an existing Integrated 80
  • 84. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development Watershed Management (IWM) project where CRS and its local partners have been working since 2002. The IWM project served as a foundation for new girl-focused activities such as girl-only irrigation farming groups. While the project found that externally initiated quotas for participation from adolescent girls was important initially, it did not take long for households and community members to understand that supporting adolescent girls helped them as well. For example, in the case of the girl-only irrigation farming groups, while girls technically owned the land and had decision-making power over agricultural production and the proceeds, the entire households benefited from her participation because the household gained access to a water pump and increased agricultural outputs. As mentioned above, coupling EAG implementation with the IWM project allowed the EAG project to access technical experts in a variety fields including, but not limited to water and sanitation, agriculture, and agro-enterprise that would have been cost-prohibitive in a standalone adolescent girls’ project. This in turn created more opportunities for the girls and their communities. Chapter 4: Adolescent Girls & Young Women 4 .6 Noteworthy Results: CRS Empowers Girls in Ethiopia Adolescent girls in rural Ethiopia have a heavy to improve their agricultural production, their land domestic workload that includes daily water and management, and their production marketing skills. firewood collection. This work frequently prevents Participation of in and out-of-school adolescent girls girls from attending school or having the time to earn in savings and internal lending communities (SILC) an income. It exposes them to security risks such as was promoted through the EAG project. These small rape and abduction. In addition, traditional beliefs loans contributed to the growth of off-farm income often force adolescent girls into early marriage and generating activities for the adolescent girls and female-genital mutilation. Adolescent girls have helped them develop critical financial literacy skills. limited access to productive assets and decision- making power. In response, with support from the Nike Access to more productive economic activities would Foundation, CRS Ethiopia initiated the “Empowering not have been possible without a reduction in the Adolescent Girls (EAG) Project,” which targeted 5,500 time adolescent girls spent on household chores. Ethiopian girls ages 10-19 thorough a multifaceted To reduce time spent collecting water, water points program that to mitigate the major barriers to girls’ were constructed closer to girls’ homes, which helped empowerment. More specifically, CRS worked in rural to reduce the risk of water-borne illness. It further Ethiopia to empower girls through gender and age reduced the risk of rape and abduction because the specific interventions that improved the girls’ access water points were not in isolated areas and could be to economic opportunities, education, and healthcare. supervised by community members. The introduction Security and social opportunities were also improved. and use of fuel-efficient stoves reduced the time spent collecting wood so that this time could be used for To improve access to economic opportunities, the studying and income generation activities. project helped girls to gain access to productive assets, such as land and inputs, including access to irrigation. For more information about the Empowering They received equipment and technical training Adolescent Girls project, see D. Including Empowerment and Advocacy in All Programs Is Critical to Achieving Lasting Impact and Policy Change YEELD programs can improve the situation of AGYW by taking a long-term vision for change. Judith Bruce of Population Council reminded all conference participants that more than formal laws or policies, informal social 81
  • 85. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development barriers and constraints limit girls’ aspirations and the realization of their fundamental human rights (early marriage being a good example). CRS Ethiopia worked with elders and community members to address girls’ rights. They provided incentives to families that prioritized girls’ education and reduced the household workload for girls. Those efforts complemented activities designed to support and empower girls through safe spaces. Almost all YEELD programs for AGYW that presenters highlighted at the conference included peer support, self-esteem, and leadership training. CRS Ethiopia has worked with elders and community members to address girls’ rights. They have provided incentives to families that prioritized girls’ education and reduced the household workload for participating girls. These efforts complemented activities designed to support and empower girls through the creation of safe spaces, where girls can come together with their peers and female adult mentors to discuss and find solutions to issues of concern to them. This process helps them to develop good problem solving skills and led to higher self-Chapter 4: Adolescent Girls & Young Women esteem. This is the same finding as for other YEELD programs for adolescent girls and young women that were presented at the conference. CRS Ethiopia has worked at multiple levels to address policies and cultural norms that affect girls’ lives. For example, community mobilization has been significant as a result of mass awareness raising activities around the dangers of abduction, rape, and early marriage. Government officials, traditional leaders, parent-teacher associations, and other community members formed committees to identify both positive and harmful traditional practices. Once identified, communities were able to agree on which harmful traditional practices they wanted to end. As such, the project was successful in prompting a local leadership structure called the Aba Geda to make changes in the legal code around early marriage. Violators now face strict penalties if they engage in the practice. The local government supported the Aba Geda in the legal code’s revisions. As a result of these and other efforts, attitudes are changing among parents of adolescent girls, village elders, and other key stakeholders. Targeted communities saw a decrease in early marriage and increased rates of savings for girls’ education. This is significant because prior to EAG Project most parents felt investing in girls’ education was a waste of valuable resources, thus a willingness to save and contribute towards a girls’ education represents an importance attitudinal shift. E. Develop Staff Capacity to Address Girls’ and Young Women’s Needs Staff development is frequently necessary to create teams that can effectively address girls’ and young women’s needs. Girls may benefit from guided discussions on gender dynamics in their communities; this can help surface and challenge assumptions that staff may have about AGYW. Once familiar with basic issues around gender and AGYW, staff development can help familiarize new staff with project design, theories of change, and best practices for girl-focused YEELD programming. Too often program managers may assume that staff have all the background information they need to be successful in positions working with AGYW. In other cases, ad hoc staff orientation may leave staff unprepared for the nuances of holistic girl-focused programming. The Empowerment and Livelihoods for Adolescents (ELA) Program from BRAC Tanzania has systematized staff development in a way to ensure successful staff transitions. The program includes the following staff development activities: initial visit to program; foundation and refresher training for mentors, adolescent and community organizers; specific training to staff on Life Skills-Based Education (LSBE), financial literacy and livelihood trainings; provision of guidebook, manuals and handouts; and close supervision and support from program management. Documentation and clear guidelines for staff development are fundamental to the replication, growth and cost-efficiency of BRAC’s model; they also ensure quality and promote respectful attitudes towards girls and young women. 82
  • 86. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development 4 .7 Bright Ideas: BRAC Tanzania Links Education, Employment and Financial Services for Girls Replicating experiences in Bangladesh and Uganda of the program include: adolescent girls clubs (as described in Making Cents’ 2009 “State of the (safe-spaces), Life Skills-Based Education (LSBE), Field” publication on page 77), BRAC Tanzania brings community participation, livelihood training (job holistic YEELD programming for girls to scale in creation), financial literacy, and micro credit support. Tanzania through the Empowerment and Livelihoods The program is designed to achieve the following for Adolescents (ELA) program, which is reaching objectives: increased awareness of reproductive over 4,000 adolescent girls and young women in health, HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections, two regions of Uganda. Partners include the Nike reduce early marriage, early pregnancy, gender Chapter 4: Adolescent Girls & Young Women Foundation, The MasterCard Foundation, and the discrimination, violence, alcohol and drug abuse; London School of Economics, which is responsible for and create opportunities for income generation. research. Revolving funds support the operational costs related to the group and provide a sustainable platform for ELA represents a holistic model with a simple design replication of the program. that lends itself to replication and scale. Components Where Do We Go From Here? F. Leverage Success with Girl-Focused Programming to Advance Gender Understanding and Improve Services to All Marginalized Groups, Including Boys and Young Men, When the Context Demands It Research and advances in state-of-the-art programming for girls contribute to gender analysis and can lead to more effective programming for all marginalized groups, including indigenous groups; ethnic, religious, racial, or linguistic minorities; young people living in extreme geographic isolation; recent migrants; and boys and young men. Lessons learned from girl-focused programming can contribute the following to program design: determining constraints to participation, designing appropriate program strategies, creating learning and research techniques that allow for free expression, and changing harmful cultural practices. This nuanced approach to programming is especially important when dealing with populations that face multiple risk factors (i.e. rural, female, indigenous minority) as many of the girls highlighted in this chapter do. Interventions focusing on marginalized populations or boys can be independent or complementary of girl- focused programming. Some YEELD practitioners who succeeded with girl-focused YEELD expressed interest in running similar or complementary programs for boys, or components of those programs, based on the idea that enlightened boys support young women, make better fathers, reduce risky and violent behaviors, and contribute to changes in the power structures. Other participants in the conference noted that gender and culturally-sensitive situational analyses led them to the idea that boy-focused programming would be the best approach to reach desired outcomes. For example, in many Caribbean islands with escalating rates of violent crime, boys and young men are targeted for YEELD programming as a prevention, protection, and education strategy. Additional research and more sophisticated analysis tools are needed to better understand the appropriate approach to take in specific contexts and when trying to achieve certain objectives. 83
  • 87. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development 4 .8 Noteworthy Results: Co-educational Financial, Social and Health Education Programs in South Africa In South Africa, the Population Council included • Compared to the control group, all SN participants boys and girls in an in-school randomized financial, (regardless of SN program arm) reported social, and health capabilities program called Siyakha feelinghigher self-esteem, were more likely to have Netsha (SN), or “Building with Young People” in isiZulu. discussed gender and sexuality issues, had improved Participants were randomly assigned to one of three budgeting and planning skills, and were more likely study arms: life skills as currently delivered nationally to have pursued opening a bank account; SN girls (the control group); social and health capabilities reported a large increase in knowledge of social (SN partial package); and social, health, and financial grants.Chapter 4: Adolescent Girls & Young Women capabilities (SN full package). Focus group discussions • Among females who had begun sexual activity with guardians and community leaders to inform before the intervention, SN girls reported more the curriculum content revealed a reluctance to consistent use of condoms; SN boys were more likely exclude boys from the program, due to the lack of to have remained sexually abstinent between survey positive opportunities for boys and a recent focus on rounds, and SN boys who did have sex had fewer inclusion given the country’s history. Girls were the sexual partners. target population due to their vulnerability to HIV and early pregnancy; boys were included to build their • Compared with participants who received the knowledge and skills, and to allow girls and boys to partial SN package (health and social capabilities), work together, interact socially, come to respect one girls with the full SN package (financial capabilities another as colleagues and friends, and thus, move added) felt greater levels of social inclusion in their beyond objectification of the opposite sex. communities and were more likely to have obtained their national ID document. Results from the panel survey (at baseline and 18 • Among SN boys, those who received financial months thereafter) showed the following statistically education were more likely to have undertaken significant program effects/impacts between survey an income-generating activity between survey rounds: rounds, and for sexually experienced boys consistent condom use went up. G. Refining Models for Adolescent Girls and Young Women Facilitates Scale-Up and/or Product Roll Out Many presenters at the 2010 conference were completing analysis of pilot experiences and preparing to scale- up those experiences. The Population Council in Kenya and Uganda found that their delivery model (described as: safe spaces with financial education and savings accounts) was seen as a successful model in the perspective of the girl. More challenging is understanding who is responsible for which components of the model and who will pay for what, something critical in terms of rolling out the product. BRAC Tanzania pays considerable attention to the design of their model in order to ensure a low-cost delivery mechanism. 84
  • 88. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development 4 .9 Practical Tips: BRAC Tanzania’s Advice for Scaling Up With innovative partnerships, rapid growth, and over national radio to broadcast life skills-based 4,000 participants, BRAC has leveraged learning from education and the magazine Femina HIP to reach other countries and its model for women to creates a more girls. unique program for adolescent girls in Tanzania. They • Leverage a pilot to design simple and cost-effective offer the following tips on how to scale-up: programs. • Set a bold vision and take a national and long-term • Invest heavily in staff capacity. approach. • Emphasize field-supervision and program Chapter 4: Adolescent Girls & Young Women • Listen, especially to the girls. monitoring and evaluation. • Partner with the media or private sector, when appropriate. BRAC partnered with the Tanzanian H. Embrace Gender-Responsive Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) in All Programs 4 .10 Hot Topics: Scaling-up As programming for AGYM matures, monitoring for Marginalized Populations and evaluation must likewise evolve with more The concept of scale needs to be considered sophisticated techniques and responsiveness to carefully when working with vulnerable groups the needs of adolescent girls and young women in of adolescent girls and young women in highly diverse contexts. Understanding how age and gender impoverished contexts. Several presenters at the impact young people’s lives and their participation conference argued that scale should not be the in spheres relevant to the project is critical to primary focus of work with such populations due effective programming and design. Nevertheless, to geography, marginalization, and the informal practitioners don’t always have the tools necessary social practices that continue to threaten girls’ to identify differences in perceptions, attitudes, well-being on multiple levels (health, education, opportunities, and the gender relations that can right to ownership, etc). impact programming. The International Center for Research on Women (ICRW) describes gender- What do you think? What needs to be in place responsive M&E as going beyond the use of gender to reach scale for marginalized adolescent girls and young women? disaggregated data to analyze how gender relations will affect program participation and impact. The “how” of gender-responsive M&E includes using mixed methods and participatory approaches and acknowledges that collecting and analyzing information is not a gender-neutral process. 85
  • 89. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development 4 .11 Checklists: How Can Gender-Responsive Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) Help My Program? ICRW offers specific ways in which gender-responsive economically, and sustain positive changes for M&E can enhance programming and the field. greater economic resilience over time. Examples ✔ Identify who to work with, when, and how to include designing innovative financial products develop more effective programming. Preliminary and services, enterprisedevelopment training, assessments and continuous M&E findings can help and market linkages that can suit the daily make programs more relevant and of higher quality. responsibilities and seasonal calendars of particular Preliminary assessments can help project teams groups such as out-of-school single mothers.Chapter 4: Adolescent Girls & Young Women learn where girls and young women can be reached, ✔ Inform the field. Understanding what and how their level of readiness for YEELD activities, and how gender dynamics may have led to success or failure their age and gender limit or create opportunities to will help other practitioners learn how to design benefit from the program within their social context. programs with gender in mind. Monitoring can track attendance patterns that ✔ Generate actionable findings useful for may indicate problems. Girls’ and young women’s different stakeholders (donors, local partners, opinions can be taken into account so that final participants, policymakers). Reaching young evaluations may reveal unexpected (positive and women with children may require specific negative) outcomes. recruitment strategies and investment in creative ✔ Learn what works and document innovation. programming to address competing priorities of M&E can facilitate the creation of innovative paid and unpaid work. M&E can be used to provide products and services by providing evidence of evidence and help stakeholders recognize that what serves their livelihoods development needs, women are often primary and sole breadwinners. enables young people to empower themselves 86
  • 90. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes Chapter 5: Chapter 5: Monitoring, Evaluation & Impact Assessment Monitoring, Evaluation & Impact Assessment
  • 91. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development Introduction Developing a robust evidence base is critical to the continued advancement of the YEELD field and in ensuring that YEELD programs achieve their objectives for young people. Monitoring, evaluation and impact assessment (M&E) provide the information necessary to make decisions, manage programs, report on results, and learn about what works. M&E information can also support advocacy efforts for the field; quality impact assessments of successful programs provide the evidence necessary to promote YEELD initiatives on a global stage. Given its importance not just to individual organizations but to the field in general, M&E merits careful consideration in all phases of programming: from initial design to the end of a program’s term. Monitoring and evaluation needs to be woven into all facets of programming: proposal writing, program design, program start-up, staff development, program management, program reporting, donor relations, and, the final program evaluation. Presenters at the 2010 conference stressed the importance of ownership of M&E processes. Data is only useful when integrated into decision-making and management structures. Participants also shared ideas on the operational challenges of monitoring and evaluation, developing internal and external capacity for effective M&E, and designing effective theories of change. 5 .1 Voices: Leaders Discuss Additional Key Ingredients for High-ImpactChapter 5: Monitoring, Evaluation & Impact Assessment YEELD Programs Leaders from the field added their thoughts on key the case for the YEELD field with national and local ingredients for high-impact YEELD programs. Each governments. Mr. Gardiner discussed the importance spoke to their area of expertise, explaining why those of the following ingredients to the advancement particular areas are important to socio-economic of the YEELD field: action, investment, leadership, development and the rights of young people. and impact assessment. As governments make They noted emerging priorities for the continued policy decisions, they need to know what models advancement of the field. are successful in the field and have the evidence to support those claims. The YEN has established an Drew Gardiner, Fund for Evaluation in Youth Evaluation Fund, the first of its kind, to provide the Employment, Youth Employment Network (YEN). skills and funding necessary to measure innovation in Working with the United Nations and partners, the the field. For more information about YEN, see www. YEN has a unique international perspective on making Key Findings and Lessons Learned A. Make M&E Flexible, Adaptable and Multi-Faceted YEELD programs in general face two common M&E challenges. One challenge involves comparing results among diverse packages of functional literacy, technical skills training, work readiness, and youth-inclusive financial service inputs. The second challenge involves tracking contributions of livelihood programming directly to the cross-sectoral outcomes many funders are seeking. Monitoring and evaluation systems and tools need to respond to the ambitious goals that many YEELD programs set forth. Flexible, adaptable and multi- faceted systems can help accommodate the needs of YEELD practitioners. 88
  • 92. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development 5 .2 Checklists: Does Your M&E System Work for You? The Education Development Center (EDC) and Save additional survey items to be linked to the core the Children developed the following questions to database? help programs assess their M&E systems. Is your M&E system: ✔Multi-faceted? Does it generate data useful for assessment and design, continuous improvement, ✔Flexible? Is it dependent on one particular context? evaluation and research, and coaching and Or to a single unique program offering? mentoring? ✔Adaptable? Does the system allow for changes to bio-data sections and subscales? Does it allow for Standardized tools can offer a uniform way to measure outcomes, facilitate data comparison, and eliminate the trial and error that comes with developing a tool for one specific program. As the YEELD field matures, practitioners are developing and sharing more sophisticated tools to measure program outcomes common to the YEELD field. Chapter 5: Monitoring, Evaluation & Impact Assessment 5 .3 New Tools: The Livelihood Activity Report (LAR) Tool from the EDC The Education Quality and Access for Learning and • Part one of the LAR is designed to collect Livelihood Skills (EQuALLS2) project, supported by quantitative data regarding: (i) the types of new USAID and implemented by EDC and partners, seeks and existing livelihood activities learners are to improve education quality and enhance access to engaged in; (ii) whether these activities are in the relevant learning and livelihood skills training for out- form of paid employment, self-employment, or of-school children and youth in the Mindanao Region unpaid household work; and (iii) if learners have of the Philippines. never engaged in a particular cluster of livelihood activities, whether this is due to an absence of EDC developed the Livelihood Activity Report (LAR) skills (“no skill”) or a lack of opportunity (“no in collaboration with a range of government and non- opportunity”) to engage in that type of activity. government education and workforce development stakeholders in Mindanao. It is designed to track the • Part Two of the LAR asks learners to assess the application of new and improved knowledge and frequency of application of 20 skills they may have skills by non-formal education and technical skills acquired or improved as a result of participating training graduates across a range of employment, in an EQuALLS2 course. These skills are broken self-employment, and household-based livelihood into four clusters: (i) Development of the Self, (ii) activities. The LAR’s design draws on field research Communication Skills, (iii) Problem Solving and into the existing livelihood pathways of out-of- Critical Thinking, and (iv) Work Habits – each of school youth in Mindanao, and it is aligned with the which generates a sub-scale score. competency frameworks of Philippine government agencies responsible for the oversight of both non- For more information about EQuALLS2 see: formal education (DepED-BALS) and technical skills training offerings (TESDA). 89
  • 93. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development 5 .4 New Tools: Applying the Youth Livelihood Development Index (YLDI) The Youth Livelihood Development Index (YLDI) is is an individual measure that yields quantitative scores an overall profiling framework developed by Global for each of these eight asset categories (support, Youth Livelihoods (GYL) with the support of Canada’s empowerment, boundaries and expectations, International Development Research Center (IDRC). constructive use of time, commitment to learning, It draws results from three separate survey tools positive values, social competencies, and positive described below in order to generate an aggregate identity). The DAP’s eight asset category sub-scale score of an individual’s human, social, financial and scores contribute to the YLDI’s human and social physical livelihood capital. It is designed to be used capital scale scores. as a rapid assessment tool that allows program developers to profile the existing strengths and The Livelihood Competencies Profile (LCP), gaps in livelihood capital of a given population of developed by Global Youth Livelihoods, is a 69-item young people – and to design or target interventions survey instrument that draws from a wide range of accordingly. The YLDI is also intended measure the research and practice-based sources to profile young change over time in an individual’s livelihood capital people’s acquisition and development of cross cutting in correlation to their participation in a project’s livelihood competencies. The LCP generates 17 livelihood development programming. Finally, the different sub-scale scores and contributes the YLDI’s YLDI shows promise as a counseling and guidance human, social, financial and physical capital scale resource that can be used to help young people scores.Chapter 5: Monitoring, Evaluation & Impact Assessment appraise their existing assets, establish priority areas The Tangible Assets Profile (TAP), developed by for ongoing livelihood development, and identify key Global Youth Livelihoods, is a 32-item survey tool that gaps in livelihood capital. The three survey tools used builds on work done to profile household incomes as part of the YLDI include: and assets in developing and transitional economies, The Developmental Asset Profile (DAP), a 58-item and draws on pioneering work in the mapping of survey instrument that was created by the Search young people’s financial and physical assets. The TAP Institute, a non-profit organization that promotes generates eight sub-scale scores, which contribute the healthy children, youth, and communities, in order to YLDI’s financial and physical capital scale scores. measure the presence–and change over time—of the For additional information, please contact: 8 categories of developmental assets found within Search’s 40 Developmental Assets framework. The DAP B. Agree on Desired Impact with All Stakeholders at the Beginning Agreeing on desired impacts, with all stakeholders but especially with donors, emerged as a common theme in the 2010 conference’s monitoring, evaluation, and impact assessment track. This is especially true in cross-sectoral programs where multiple outcomes may be desired. Many practitioners communicated at the conference a certain frustration that the changes in young people’s “soft skills” are less a focus of M&E than are more tangible outcomes, such as income generation or job placement, which may lay outside the scope of the program. Fortunately, the field has matured to the point that stakeholders understand the importance of knowledge and skill development in youth. Mutual understanding of shared goals can assist all stakeholders to agree on desired impact. The following provides insight into how one donor approaches M&E. 90
  • 94. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development C. Measure Long-Term Impacts in Diverse Settings Short-term outputs can provide useful information for program monitoring and daily management. They also tend to be easier to measure. Nevertheless, long-term impact assessment provides all stakeholders with a clear idea of the program’s value and return on investment. Impact assessments can also contribute more subtle or detailed information—about what works and for whom—to the evidence base. Good impact evaluations also involve young people, seeking to understand how youth perceive the changes in their capacities or environments as a result of the program intervention. Clear theories of change are the first step in measuring long-term impacts for youth. Most M&E experts agree that defining what YEELD programs seek to achieve for young people is critical to developing effective M&E. This process can be challenging in YEELD programs with multiple stakeholders. Implementers, research teams, local governments or policy-makers, donors, and participants will likely have a different vision of what they hope the YEELD program will achieve over the long-term. Coming to consensus is critical to the design of an effective M&E plan. Measuring long-term impact can also be challenging when dealing with short-term emergency or conflict-funded programs, multiple donors or funding streams, or challenging operating environments. In their presentation on conflict and post-conflict M&E, representatives from the IRIS Center and MEDA encouraged participants to negotiate with donors to ensure that long-term impacts are included in design. D. Design Impact Evaluations Sensitive Enough to Attribute Changes in Program Beneficiaries to Your Program or Intervention Chapter 5: Monitoring, Evaluation & Impact Assessment Evaluation is a powerful tool for learning about what works, what does not, and the reasons why. While evaluations can have different objectives for different stakeholders (e.g., project team vs. donors), one of the key questions is whether the changes in outcomes of program beneficiaries (such as skills or income of young people) can be attributed to a specific intervention. This question is at the core of impact evaluation. This is also essential to those who work with public funds. When entrusted with public funds, practitioners have the fiduciary responsibility to make the best possible investments to enhance public well-being. The fundamental question that any evaluation must answer is that of identification: how can you be sure that the changes you see among your beneficiaries are due to your program? Two of the most widely used evaluation methods are “Before-and-after” and “With-and-without.” Neither of these are able to satisfactorily answer the identification question. The first compares outcomes in beneficiaries before and after the intervention, the second compares the outcomes in beneficiaries to those who did not participate in the intervention. However, both methods have serious limitations and cannot be considered rigorous impact evaluations. Simple before-and-after analysis of program participants fails to control for other changes over time (such as to the economy) that also affect the success of program participants. With- and-without evaluations fail to control for individual characteristics that influence an individual’s decision to participate in a program or her performance in the program or subsequently (e.g. program participants may already be more skilled or motivated when they enter the program). As a result, neither method is able to provide a definite answer on whether or not an intervention was actually successful. To counter these limitations, rigorous impact evaluations require a plausible counterfactual, to allow us to infer causality between the intervention and the change in outcomes. The counterfactual is some measure of what would have happened to the program participants if they had not actually taken part in the program. Clearly this is not possible. We can’t observe a person both with and without a program at the same point in time. Because of this, we have to estimate the counterfactual. 91
  • 95. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development 5 .5 New Tools: Advice from the World Bank on Designing Impact Evaluations The World Bank presented several evaluation methods • Instrumental Variables (IV): The IV approach involves at the conference. finding a variable (or instrument) that is highly correlated with program placement or participation • Random assignment (experimental design): When but that is not correlated with unobserved the evaluators are involved in or have control over characteristics affecting outcomes. For example, to initial program design, the conventional evaluation estimate the effect of a skills training program in a approach is to use a pre- and post-intervention and a specific school, one could use the distance between control group comparison. In randomized evaluation the children’s home and school as an Instrumental designs, subjects (individuals, communities, etc) are Variable, since it directly influences whether a child randomly assigned to the project and control groups, will participate in the program, while being unrelated ensuring the two groups have the same distribution to his/her motivation or parental support. Note that of observed and unobserved characteristics at the both random promotion and discontinuity designs are start of the project. Therefore, the average difference types of instrumental variables. in outcomes is an unbiased estimate of an average treatment effect. • Difference in difference: This method assumes that unobserved heterogeneity in participation is When evaluators do not have control over initial present (which is a potential bias), but that such design, a number of alternative (quasi-experimental) factors are time invariant. With data on project andChapter 5: Monitoring, Evaluation & Impact Assessment methods may be utilized to estimate a counterfactual control observations before and after the program and establish a causal relationship between the intervention, therefore, this fixed component can be intervention and the outcomes: differenced out. • Random promotion: This method may be used when • Matching (propensity score): In many operational it is infeasible to restrict assignment of benefits to one settings random assignment is not possible so the group and not to another. In this case, some groups two groups will be matched as closely as possible may receive extra encouragement to participate. using procedures such as matching on observables The impact of the program, therefore, is the average or propensity scores. Treatment and control groups difference in outcomes between those who had are surveyed at the start of the project and again received the extra encouragement and those who had after project implementation. If the groups are well not. Thisextra encouragement may be as small as a matched, then any statistically significant difference bag of flour or extra information about the program. In between the two groups on impact variables is fact, the encouragement should be sufficiently small indicative of a potential project impact. that it does not by itself induce a behavior change other than the decision to participate in the program. All of these approaches have advantages and limitations, which make them more or less applicable in • Discontinuity design: This approach may be used certain contexts. The challenge for the program planner when program benefits is allocated to the subset of and the evaluator is to decide whether it is possible to applicants who qualify and not to others, assuming conduct a quality impact evaluation under the real- that the mechanism for qualification is measurable world constraints, and to select the strongest possible and transparent. For example, safety nets or other design within the particular set of budget, time and support programs are often allocated to those who data constraints. fall below some income level. In that case, those who are just below the income threshold, and qualify for For more information, see: the program, are very nearly the same as those just above the threshold who do not qualify. The biggest ewForJavaSearch/757A5CC0BAE22558852571770059D difference between them is that the former group 89C/$file/conduct_qual_impact.pdf. receives the program and the latter does not. 92
  • 96. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development E. Consider Ethical and Operational Challenges When Designing Impact Assessments Getting at impact requires examining the counterfactual: what would have happened in the absence of the program? Program design and sampling are key: set up the program so that you have a built-in control group, and then sample appropriately for robustness, and you can readily measure impact. Participants in the 2010 conference engaged in lively discussions on how to make this happen—discussing different ways to determine the impact of YEELD programming using available resources. Randomized control trials were discussed as the best way to attribute causality to programs; however, many mentioned the ethical concerns of denying groups of young people access to services. F. Take Gender and Age into Account While Conducting M&E 5 .6 Hot Topics: Baselines and Incorporating gender into M&E requires more Control Groups than just differentiating beneficiaries by sex. Chapter 4 describes girl-focused programming, Presenters from the IRIS Center discussed how but gender needs to be a part of all monitoring staggered interventions (i.e., reaching a control and evaluation in order to understand how group with services the following year) can allow interventions impact, or fail to impact, all for a shorter-term comparison group without youth. Reflecting their particular organization’s denying services to young people, though it is rare experience, presenters from Cultural Practice, that a program can reach all intended beneficiaries ACDI/VOCA, and the World Bank discussed ways regardless of time frame, as resources are limited. Chapter 5: Monitoring, Evaluation & Impact Assessment to analyze and assess gender-based constraints Presenters from the World Bank discussed the causality that may prevent young men and women from issues raised when completing baseline evaluations and suggested experimental or quasi-experimental accessing market resources and opportunities. methods as more reliable ways to measure impact. The World Bank’s Adolescent Girls Initiative What do you think? Are control groups feasible (AGI), launched in October 2008, is a public- for YEELD Programs? or are baseline before and private partnership designed to promote the after measurements with participants still the best transition of adolescent girls from school to option for M&E? productive employment. Innovative interventions are tested, and then scaled-up or replicated if successful. This initiative will evaluate the impact of vocational and entrepreneurship training for women ages 16-24 in multiple countries including, Afghanistan, Liberia, Nepal, Rwanda, and South Sudan, and will soon be expanded to Jordan and the Lao People’s Democratic Republic. Through use of a rigorous control group methodology for impact evaluation, the World Bank and partners, such as the Nike Foundation and national governments, hope to build a cross-country evidence base for YEELD programming for girls. This evidence base will facilitate program replication and can be used to convince policy makers of the importance of investing in adolescent girls and young women. 93
  • 97. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development 5 .7 Checklists: How Can Results from the Adolescent Girls Initiative Help Your Programs? Using randomized control trials with before and ✔ mprove program implementation by gauging I after comparison of treatment and control groups, which trainers and courses have more or less the AGI evaluations will measure economic success. outcomes, socio-economic behaviors and outcomes, and empowerment of participants. The ✔ rovide hard evidence of program’s impact and P AGI is currently being implemented. Results from justify piloting, expansion, or replication in similar these evaluations are expected to help girl-focused contexts. YEELD practitioners with the following: ✔ rovide guidance for replication by gauging P ✔Improve program design by examining how which program components were most effective participants benefitted from key interventions at reaching desired results. and look at the unintended consequences of For more information about the AGI, see http://web. those interventions. ✔Improve targeting by determining which girls DER/0,,contentMDK:21914520~pagePK:210058~piP benefit most from programming and offer ideas K:210062~theSitePK:336868,00.html. on how best to reach other groups of girls.Chapter 5: Monitoring, Evaluation & Impact Assessment G. Organizations Working in Conflict Zones Must Be Flexible as They Adapt to Challenging Circumstances The security and psychosocial well-being of the organization’s team is paramount; ethical and logistical considerations also must be taken into account for M&E in conflict zones. The Mennonite Economic Development Associates (MEDA) shared tips at the conference for monitoring and evaluation in conflict zones. The STRIVE (Supporting Transformation by Reducing Insecurity and Vulnerability with Economic Strengthening) program promotes economic-strengthening initiatives to benefit vulnerable children. In Afghanistan, as part of STRIVE, MEDA had to adapt to worsening conflict conditions and a challenging security situation. 94
  • 98. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development 5 .8 Practical Tips: MEDA Monitoring and Evaluation in Conflict Situations MEDA recommends the following for M&E in • Ask the right questions. Retroactive questions conflict zones: can draw out changes over time in the absence of baseline data; when combined with a control • Maintain a low profile. Dress in local costume, group, these changes can be attributed to use unmarked cars and blend in by knowing and program interventions. respecting community dynamics and norms. • Measure impact. Given the context, teams may • Ensure data security. Use password-protected tend towards short-term outputs. Push towards devices. Encrypt data, laptops and USB drives. impact measurement and change that most For example, in Afghanistan, local servers are managers and donors are interested in. maintained in laptops and can be moved with 20 minutes. See also “Conflict and Evaluation: Recognizing and meeting the challenges of M&E in crisis situations,” • Be flexible. Flexible work-plans, alternative by Scott Ruddick and Leah Katerberg in Interaction’s routes and data-collection may be disrupted by Monday Developments Magazine, July 2010. fighting and/or inappropriate with traumatized beneficiaries and clients. Chapter 5: Monitoring, Evaluation & Impact Assessment 5 .9 Bright Ideas: The IRIS Center Addresses Capacity Issues in Post-Conflict Settings The IRIS Center at the University of Maryland • Developed a causal model in concert with the presented experiences and lessons learned from the implementer, taking time to understand the causal STRIVE project, a five-year economic strengthening pathways intended by project design, and selected project designed to indirectly improve household indicators to gauge progress along those pathways. economic security and child well-being by means The team then adjusted that model to reflect of economic strengthening projects taking multiple changes in activities as the project evolved. approaches including, horticulture and woven products value chains, VS&L, and MSME development. • Employed mixed qualitative and quantitative ACDI/VOCA is implementing and IRIS is assessing the methods. Qualitative methods were used to project in Liberia. The IRIS team found the following inform the M&E design and decide on indicators. M&E challenges: limited record-keeping and research Quantitative methods are expected to include capacity at the local level, expectations from local well-known tools such as the FANTA (Food and populations of handouts or giveaways, a limited Nutrition Technical Assistance) food diversity scores communication infrastructure, and disruption or to capture child-level nutrition outcomes and LSMS- distortion of familial and social relations as a result of style household income and asset information. conflict. International M&E Specialists bolstered local M&E In order to negotiate these challenges, IRIS took the and provided prolonged oversight and support for following steps: monitoring and data-collection. 95
  • 99. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development Where Do We Go From Here? H. Encourage New Initiatives in M&E Participants, presenters, funders, and other stakeholders emphasized the overarching need to develop a sound evidence base for the field. In fact, impact evaluations in the youth employment and livelihoods field are still scarce, reducing their impact on the policy dialogue. The main question is the issue of causality—determining whether the impact on young people was a direct result of the intervention. Many traditional evaluations don’t control for external factors that might affect program outcomes independently from the intervention itself. More rigorous methods are needed to allow program staff to decide if they are doing the right thing (i.e., if their intervention is having the desired effect) and if they are doing it well (i.e., if they are using resources efficiently and effectively to reach program goals). Evaluating YEELD programs well takes a unique set of skills and knowledge. The World Bank, among others, is creating a toolkit to help practitioners improve evaluation and address some of the practical challenges they typically face. I. Share and Standardize Tools, When Appropriate, to Allow for Greater Learning and Comparison As the YEELD field develops, shares tools, compares results, and grows in depth and sophistication, new opportunities for creating standardized tools will emerge. These tools will likely provide means for better understanding different cohorts of young people in various contexts, and also for understanding how the same monitoring and evaluation tool is operationalized in different contexts. Deepening knowledge base in M&E forChapter 5: Monitoring, Evaluation & Impact Assessment YEELD programs assists practitioners but also can help practitioners negotiate methods and M&E plans with donors and policy-makers. This is especially important in conflict, post-conflict, and other dynamic settings where interventions and activities must be adjusted. This requires equally flexible M&E plans. 5 .10 New Tools: World Bank Toolkit on Evaluations The World Bank is currently putting together a toolkit and cost benefit analysis. The toolkit is targeted at to promote effective impact evaluation of YEELD project and program leaders, to make them more programming. The toolkit, which will be available familiar with the range of available evaluation tools, early 2011, contains practical information on different their advantages and limitations, and how they can be evaluation tools to determine program impact. The applied in a specific context. The main objective is to toolkit will cover the following topics: project design; facilitate the use of more rigorous evaluation methods, monitoring; evaluation, including indicators and in order to broaden the evidence base for YEELD measurement, evaluation tools and methods, data programs. requirements, and practical issues; cost-effectiveness J. Build Staff Commitment to and Capacity for Monitoring and Evaluation Several 2010 conference presenters reiterated the point that effective monitoring and evaluation is approached as a team effort. Leaving all M&E to designated M&E staff may risk quality for several reasons. First, program staff generally have better knowledge of community dynamics, language, and understanding of cultural traditions due to their field work than M&E staff, who may be based in the capital city or in another country. 96
  • 100. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development Second, rapport with youth is critical to gathering information, especially when information is gathered on a group basis and thus requires facilitation skills. Finally, ownership and engagement with M&E will increase the chances that information is utilized for monitoring and management decisions, and that program staff will adjust their programming as indicated by M&E information. Staff capacity building includes assisting M&E staff to understand youth programming and assisting program staff to understand M&E. Since many YEELD programs are integrated into other adult-focused programs, many M&E staff may need support to understand the theories of change or the multiple outcome approach that is utilized for youth. On the other hand, project and program managers need to have a basic understanding of the different evaluation tools, their advantages and limitations, as well as the requirements to carry them out. In practice, most impact evaluations are contracted to an external entity (e.g., university, think tank, consultancy), but the program staff needs to be able to contract the appropriate evaluator, understand and manage the process, and represent the interface between evaluation and programming. In the Middle East and North African region, the Save the Children team found that investment in staff capacity building, along with rigorous M&E protocols, was critical to effective use of all M&E tools. The Youth Employment Network realized that lack of funding, along with capacity building, limits the number of effective impact evaluations. Chapter 5: Monitoring, Evaluation & Impact Assessment 5 .11 Practical Tips: Microfinance Opportunities Advises on M&E with Minors Microfinance Opportunities shared some of their expected. Set clear expectations for listening tips on overcoming M&E challenges while working with evaluation teams. Ensure that translators are with young people in Mongolia. accurately relating the questions to young people. • Plan to get informed consent from parents • Engage parents in research activities. This is before beginning monitoring and evaluation critical not only to hear their perspectives but activities. Young people under the age of 18 also to facilitate their consent for their child’s are considered minors and must have parental involvement in the program. consent to participate in program and research activities. Plan how and when this consent will be • Strategize about best times and places for required to avoid delays or logistical challenges conducting research activities. For example, while in the midst of evaluation activities. out-of-school youth may not feel comfortable in school settings and may only be available when • Motivate the evaluation team to listen to, not working. In Mongolia, in-school students had rather than lecture to young people. In little free time outside the school day so sessions many cultures, young people are expected to had to be well planned. listen to adults. In evaluations, the opposite is K. Use Evaluation Results for Learning, Informing Future Program Design, and Shaping the Field Multiple stakeholders want to know the results of evaluation programs. However, the final use of evaluation and impact assessments vary dramatically and depend on multiple factors. Results from evaluations and impact 97
  • 101. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development assessments, as well as a description of the process employed to obtain results, contributes to the overall knowledge base in the field and will contribute to a more sophisticated, cost-effective, and efficient field. For extensive content on monitoring and evaluation, see the 2008 and 2009 editions of Making Cents International’s “State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development” publication. The Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB) of the U.S. Department of Labor (USDOL) provided highlights of key good practices identified through their technical assistance to prevent and reduce workplace exploitation of children and increase families’ income. They reviewed program evaluations to extract learning that they hope will inform programming for other partners. • High-quality, interactive after-school programs help children achieve literacy, and improve communication and personal relationships. Entrepreneurial programs for adolescents helped them acquire and strengthen interpersonal skills and link with jobs available in the community. • Projects with strong links to the community that involve government in project planning and implementation were more likely to be sustainable. • Shelter, counseling and vocational training for trafficked children led to improved self-esteem, reducing their risk of becoming re-trafficked. • Improving family livelihoods improves children’s school attendance. In an example from a USDOL project in Uganda, village savings and loan groups improved families’ financial situations and increased children’s school attendance.Chapter 5: Monitoring, Evaluation & Impact Assessment 98
  • 102. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes CONCLUSION Conclusion
  • 103. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development Conclusion Participants and organizers of the 2010 Global Youth Enterprise & Livelihoods Development Conference noted the richness of presentations, quality of dialogue between presenters and participants, range of participants’ experiences, and other evidence that demonstrates how the YEELD field has been growing and strengthening. This publication highlights how the field has matured significantly: results from pilot projects have fed into large-scale initiatives, sectoral youth or adult-focused development programs have added YEELD components, and national, regional and international networks have been able to make persuasive arguments for YEELD with decision-makers on the global stage. Gaps in the field were identified with more specificity then before, indicating that knowledge and understanding of the field grows. Like many learning events, the 2010 conference may have generated as many questions as it answered. Now that organizations have moved beyond pilot experiences, completed three to five-year program cycles, tested and finalized training models, adjusted and refined products and services, new questions emerge. The following themes cross-cut more then one of the sectors featured in this publication and represent areas where “new questions” are constantly being asked, if not answered. A. Media and Technology Media and technology continue to change operating paradigms for various aspects of the YEELD field; yet many practitioners, policymakers, and funders still question how best to utilize these tools in order to achieve youth enterprise and livelihoods development objectives. The following media specialists lent their opinions on the topic at the 2010 conference. Media and technology hold significant promise for the continued evolution of the YEELD field, though questions remain about how to effectively harness these tools for program improvement and expansion. Experts from various media outlets offered their perspectives and opinions about the role that media can play in youth programming; discussing how best to reach youth with media, producing youth-friendly content, and deciding which types of media to utilize.Conclusion 100
  • 104. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development Voices: The Power of Media to Generate Positive Change Mario Cader-Frech, Vice President of Public Affairs Robert Knezevic, Regional Director, International and Corporate Social Responsibility, MTV Networks Partnerships, Sesame Workshop. Mr. Knezevic discussed Latin America, VH1, and Nickelodeon Latin America. the power of media for education, noting that local Mr. Cader-Frech shared MTV’s experience building content production is key to maximizing media as strategic partnerships with the non-profit sector, as an educational and social marketing tool. However, well as utilizing media to promote positive images content production still lags behind demand. Sesame and disseminate inspiring stories about young people. Workshop partnered with governments and media in MTV learned the powerful response that media can developing countries to develop television content generate from youth. During the Agents of Change based on the Sesame Street model but tailored to fit program, the number of young people who applied local context and language. He also noted the dearth to highlight their social entrepreneurial initiatives far of programming directed towards youth, suggesting exceeded the network’s expectations. Mr. Cader-Frech that past experiences utilizing television to promote noted that the minority of kids making trouble seem early childhood education may offer ideas for work on to get the majority of press coverage, and that the and for youth. For more information about the Sesame media can change that equation by balancing those Workshop, see images with stories about young people contributing to positive change. For more information about MTV Stephanie Rudat, Co-founder, Alliance for Youth Latin America, partnerships with the Inter-American Movements and Blogger, Huffington Post. Founded Development Bank and the Agents of Change program, in 2008, Alliance for Youth Movements positively see Chapter 1 or empowers leaders to affect nonviolent change in the world by creating and promoting the use of Maria Hinojosa, President, Futuro Media Group. Ms. technological tools to advance freedom, human rights, Hinojosa drew from her work as a journalist at National democracy, and civil society development around the Public Radio (NPR), Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), world. In her personal capacity, Ms. Rudat is dedicated and CNN, as well as her own experience as a social to utilizing social media as a tool for social change and media entrepreneur, to discuss the potential of the activism. She organizes events designed to inform and media to generate change, promote positive images train individuals on the tools and methods necessary of young people, and question the role of “old” and to build effective movements toward lasting change. “new” media. Early on in her journalistic career, she Specifically, she believes technology is synonymous gave the microphone to young people in order to hear with transparency and works to fight censorship as it their side of a story. She was surprised to find that the limits the open exchange of information, which leads to public did not always appreciate hearing from young tolerance building. She commented at the conference people they considered to be “troublemakers” or “gang on the power of social media, arguing that open members.” Given those experiences, she stressed communication can transform societies and content the importance of giving voice to young people in production of citizen journalists exposes realities. order to tell the full story and counteract portrayals of Further, blogging, SMS technology, and social networks Conclusion young people, which may not always resonate with help to eradicate barriers, but traditional forms of the general public or corporate media interests. Ms. communication and engagement building are required Hinojosa hopes that journalism will continue to offer components to enrollment, which is still demonstrated positive representations of the under-represented by those without access to Internet or social media. To and contribute to social change. For more information read her blogs or learn more about social media tools, about Futuro Media Group, see see, www., and 101
  • 105. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development B. Donor Perspectives As investors in YEELD programming, donors are key stakeholders and accountable for program results. Donors monitor, respond to, and set trends for the YEELD field. Their opinions and perspectives have the potential to significantly impact the continued development in the field. At the 2010 conference, donors reinforced many of the promising practices emerging from programmatic examples. Bi- and multi-lateral funders, foundations and other donors reflected on how they can better approach funding YEELD programs and what needs to change in their own organizations in order to support the advancement of the field. For coming years, donors hope that YEELD programs and policy will: • Reach scale and/or develop new and innovative approaches. • Rely on partnerships with governments, private sector, or others to achieve above objectives. • Create evidence for the effectiveness of the field and its role in economic development. • Continue to bridge “learning and earning” through improvements and formal and non-formal education.Conclusion 102
  • 106. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development Voices: What are Donors Saying? The following diverse set of donors described their marketplace. Projects from over 100 countries are organization, funding portfolio, and current funding represented on the website. GlobalGiving began with priorities. the realization that social entrepreneurs anywhere in the world should have access to philanthropic United States Agency for International capital when they need it. Many young non-profits Development (USAID) looks to support systemic do not meet their optimal potential because they approaches and policy reform by strengthening lack effective fundraising strategies and financing sustainable youth development systems in cities mechanisms. Many donors lack a mechanism to and countries, and, when possible, moving beyond learn about and contribute to organizations that implementing discrete programs for small groups of they care about and can trust. The website serves youth. Approaches will depend on the “readiness” of both groups—it provides organizations with a series a particular country. In post-conflict societies, service- of customized tools to generate, engage, manage delivery may predominate but in countries with a and track donors and allows donors to choose from more developed civil society, such as South Africa or organizations that have been cleared by a due Jamaica, more sophisticated approaches based on diligence process. research, such as skill-building, sense of belonging, and learning by doing, should be utilized. In order Multilateral Investment Fund (MIF) of the Inter- to accomplish those goals, USAID emphasized the American Development Bank promotes inclusive importance of: using data for decision-making, economic growth and poverty reduction in Latin improving institutional capacity across the partner America and the Caribbean through private sector base, and ensuring that host country institutions development and support for micro and small take leadership roles. USAID is working to reduce enterprises. It is the largest provider of technical internal silos, support USAID Missions and staff in assistance for private sector development in the understanding youth development and assist with the region, offering financing in the form of grants, coordination of funding streams. loans, guarantees, equity and quasi-equity or any combination thereof, as well as advisory services provided that it maintains its essential grant-making The MasterCard Foundation seeks to make the character. MIF has a large network of over 650 global economy work for everyone. The Foundation executing agency partners (NGOs, foundations, focuses on young people’s life transitions from private and public sector entities) that share MIF goals. “learning and earning.” Their two main youth priority The MIF has been active in the YEELD field since the areas are: youth learning and youth financial services. early nineties, helping to equip disadvantaged youth Youth learning encompasses all education that with the job and entrepreneurial skills needed to takes place inside and outside the formal education succeed in the labor market. MIF projects in this area system; successful youth learning should promote can be divided into three main groups: employment, gender equity, youth engagement, peer-to-peer entrepreneurship, and integral approaches combining models, and technology. Within their microfinance Conclusion both employment and entrepreneurship. Based on its portfolio, the Foundation prioritizes financial services rich experience to date, MIF has identified the need to to youth, seeking synergies between youth-serving be more strategic moving forward and fund specific organizations and microfinance providers. Grantees areas where its interventions can have the most are urged to listen to youth so as to address their true impact. MIF is looking to be more comprehensive, needs and keep youth at the center of programming. defining its youth agenda and looking for the right partners to take what works to scale. For more information about the MIF see, GlobalGiving connects online entrepreneurs and home/index.cfm?language=English organizations with funding through an online 103
  • 107. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development C. Scale The 2010 conference featured several experiences of bringing programs to scale. Of particular interest was a discussion by YEELD stakeholders from the MENA Region, describing experiences unique to their region but replicable in others. Voices: Thoughts on Scale and Innovation from the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region Representatives from the MENA Region offered ideas importance of taking entrepreneurship development on how to take YEELD programs to scale in the MENA to scale, finding the best ways to promote innovation region, how technology can assist with scale, and why and incubation so that young entrepreneurs do not YEELD programming is critical to the region. feel alone. Thelma Tajiran, the Director of Access to Finance, reinforced the importance of believing SoukTel, Inc. uses cellular phone technology in youth and convincing others, especially in the to connect employers to job seekers using SMS finance sector, to invest in young people. For more technology. Despite the prevalence of cellular phones information, see in the MENA region and their importance to youth, Jacob Korenblum, co-founder of SoukTel, found that U.S. Secretary of State’s office of Global cell phones were generally underutilized and that Partnerships. Rob Lalka, Global Partnerships Liaison, the technology was not being efficiently utilized Office of the U.S. Secretary of State, Global Partnership to address employment challenges in the region. Initiative, noted that in order to achieve scale in SoukTel pursued CEOs and other leaders in the region public-private partnerships, government and private to convince them that mobile technology could sector stakeholders must have support from the allow for more effective approaches, such as utilizing highest levels of their organization. Mr. Lalka asserted SMS technology to alert job seekers of potential that the U.S. government is ready to commit that type employment opportunities. For more information, see of support. He felt that networks and technology are opening new horizons for partnerships. Silatech was established in June 2008 to create jobs and economic opportunities for young people, Rajae Slimani, The MasterCard Foundation Youth ages 18-30, by promoting large-scale job creation, Scholarship Recipient, Morocco. Ms. Slimani offered entrepreneurship, and access to capital and markets a youth perspective on YEELD programming in the for young people in the MENA region. In a very Middle East and North Africa as a plenary presenter. short time, Silatech has made significant progress Despite obtaining degrees in English literature and in establishing itself as a credible new player in the business management from Moroccan universities, youth employment space in the MENA region. It Ms. Slimani was unable to find employment for has already launched innovative pilot programs in over a year. In June 2008, Ms. Slimani applied and several countries, established country leadership in was accepted into Education for Employment Yemen, Syria, Qatar and Morocco, conducted one- Foundation (EFE)-Maroc’s Workplace Success Program,Conclusion on-one in-depth interviews with tens of thousands which provides soft-skills professional training for of young people in 21 countries, established a marginalized, unemployed Moroccan youth. This Silatech Knowledge Consortium of highly respected training course helped her improve her confidence, institutions which are providing intellectual and communication, and leadership skills, which enabled scientific support to Silatech’s work, and built a strong her to find a job as an entrepreneurship and technical momentum–all of which has established a solid English instructor. This position gave her the foundation upon which to grow Silatech’s impact and opportunity to improve her financial situation and to influence at scale. Ahmed Younis, Director of Strategic take care of her family. Partnerships and Communications, described the 104
  • 108. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development Voices: Thoughts on Scale and Innovation from the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region Ms. Slimani believes that many young Moroccans lack Ms. Slimani believes that EFE-Maroc’s method of strong communication skills and the language skills linking their training programs to job placements is necessary to find employment. For example, most an important part of their program design because classes in Morocco are taught in Arabic, but many while many organizations have training programs, businesses require their employees to speak French. very few of the programs are connected to jobs. She This system leaves many Moroccan youth unqualified compared her experiences at EFE-Maroc to the old to find a job after graduation. In order to address adage about teaching people to fish rather than this issue in her community, Ms. Slimani decided to giving them fish. She believes programs that teaching set up a language association with her friends and youth the skills to find employment and build better colleagues that provides free extracurricular English livelihoods for themselves and their families will and French classes for primary and secondary school have a larger impact than programs that simply give students. youth resources, but don’t teach them how to find the resources themselves. Conclusion 105
  • 109. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods DevelopmentConclusion 106
  • 110. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes Annexes ANNEXES
  • 111. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development Annex I: Acronyms ACDI/VOCA: Agricultural Cooperative NGO: Non-governmental Organization Development International/Volunteers in Overseas Cooperative Assistance PAR: Portfolio at RiskAnnexes AGI: Adolescent Girls Initiative PEPFAR: US President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief CGAP: Consultative Group to Assist the Poor SILC: Savings and Internal Lending Community CRS: Catholic Relief Services STRIVE: Supporting Transformation by Reducing CSD: Center for Social Development Insecurity and Vulnerability with Economic Strengthening Program DAP: Development Asset Profile TAP: Tangible Assets Profile EDC: Education Development Center USAID: United States Agency for International EQuALLS2: Education Quality and Access for Development Learning and Livelihood Skills Project USG: United States Government EFE: Education for Employment Foundation VSLA: Village Savings and Lending Association FFH: Freedom From Hunger WWB: Women’s World Banking IDB: Inter-American Development Bank YAB: Youth Advisory Board ILAB: International Labor Affairs Bureau YFS: Youth-Inclusive Financial Services ILO: International Labor Organization YSLA: Youth Savings and Lending Association IYF: International Youth Foundation ING: ImagineNations Group LAR: Livelihood Activity Report LCP: Livelihood Competencies Profile MCS: Microcredit Summit Campaign MEDA: Mennonite Economic Development Associates MENA: Middle East and North Africa Region MFI: Microfinance Institution M&E: Monitoring, Evaluation and Impact Assessment MFO: Microfinance Opportunities MIF: Multi-lateral Investment Fund of the Inter- American Development Bank 108
  • 112. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development Annex II: Definitions Capacity Building – A process of creating/strengthening the development of an enabling environment and/ or the institutional or human resources of managerial systems. Causal Chain Model – A depiction of the logical or causal links between project activities, outputs, Annexes outcomes, and the ultimate impact of the project. Decentralized Management Structure – A management structure that relies on lateral relationships and places decision-making and governance at the level of citizens/clients. Evaluation – A function that involves not only the ability to monitor, but also to assess in a systematic and objective manner the effectiveness of a program in improving outcomes. Financial Literacy – The ability to understand finance sufficiently to make appropriate decisions regarding one’s personal finances. Financial Services – Services that involve money and include deposit services, loan services, remittance services, transfer services, etc. Financial Services Provider – An entity that offers one or more services related to money. This could be a commercial bank, non-banking financial institution, credit union, financial cooperative, rural bank, microfinance institution, consumer lender, or community-managed institution. Focus Group Discussion – A participatory market research tool that brings together six to eight people that represent the same type of participants for a conversation around a specific issue or set of questions put forward by a facilitator. Holistic Programming – Holistic programming addresses multiple facets of young people’s lives, acknowledging the interconnected nature of health, education, economic opportunities, and empowerment in young people’s development. Impacts – The long-term effects caused by the program activities. This includes sustainable changes or permanent status resulting from changes in behavior over a period of time. Impact Assessment – A particular type of evaluation that is structured to isolate the effect of specific program activities on longer-term youth outcomes. Impact Assessment involves data collection to compare groups receiving the program products or services and other, similar groups who do not. Job Readiness Training – Training in the skills necessary to enter or re-enter the workforce. Life Skills – Skills that are commonly known as “soft skills”, as they encompass personal and inter-personal skills that affect social and work performance. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines life skills as the ability for adaptive and positive behavior that enables individuals to deal effectively with the demands and challenges of everyday life. Market-based Assessment – An assessment of the market for products and services. It includes labor markets in which the target population(s) of workers competes for jobs and employers compete for workers. Market-Based/Driven Approach – An approach that is designed and implemented in response to the known needs, interests, and realities of the market. The approach is framed around relevant and productive 109
  • 113. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development business sectors and the opportunities and resources that support profitable engagement in those sectors. The Market-Based/Driven Approach focuses on financial viability and profit. Mentor – Typically, a seasoned business professional, who is willing to advise someone with less experience. Mentors share their knowledge and experience about business, markets and how to succeed. They guide young entrepreneurs as they build their businesses and take on more responsibility.Annexes Microfinance – The provision of financial services, which includes credit, savings, insurance, transfers, remittances, etc. to low-income clients who traditionally lack access to banking and related services. Micro-franchise – A small business that has been replicated from a proven franchise model. Monitoring – A function that allows implementers and main stakeholders to track whether financial resources and other inputs are being used according to plan in attaining project objectives. Monitoring also can involve choosing which outcomes are expected to improve among participants and having the ability to measure those changes over the course of the program. Non-formal Education – Any intentional and systematic educational enterprise, usually outside of traditional schooling, in which content is adapted to the unique needs of the students. Non-financial Services – A wide range of services that include amongst other things, financial education, business development services, business training, value chain analysis, etc. that may be related to or in support of effective use of financial services. Open Source Technology – Technology that is developed concurrently and in collaboration with peers, with the end product (and source-material) available at no cost to the public. Outcomes – The short and medium-term effects of project outputs for participants. Outputs – The direct products of program activities, such as the number of clients served and units of service provided. Participatory Needs Assessment – An assessment that engages a target group in identifying their specific needs. Portfolio at Risk – Measurement of the total outstanding balance of loans past due - not late payments or payments not yet due - divided by the active portfolio. A more rigorous manner of assessing portfolio quality than portfolio past due/ delinquent portfolio. Source: ACCION Public-Private Sector Partnership (PPP) – A government service or private business venture that is funded and/or operated through a partnership of government and one or more private sector companies. Randomized Control Trial – An impact assessment methodology that randomly selects some individuals or groups for participation in an intervention, while assigning others to non-participation (control group) status (for a period of time). Safe Spaces – Private areas that young people can access easily and that are out of public sight, accepted by the larger community, and free of adults beyond those associated with the institution providing them. Safe spaces empower youth, allow them to speak freely and learn from and teach others their age. Practitioners can incorporate safe places into financial services programs to provide a place for youth to access training, mentoring, and other support. 110
  • 114. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development Scale – The process of extending and expanding change, social benefit and value by increasing the number of people benefiting from a change that they have adopted or adapted. Situation Analysis – Analysis of the social, political, and cultural contexts of a given target group. Sustainability – The state achieved when all costs are internalized by the program; the program does not rely on outside sources to cover operation costs. It also can refer to the duration of a program or organization. Annexes Value Chain Analysis – An analysis of the economic actors (and the relationships between them) who make and transact a particular product as it moves from primary producer to final consumer. The value chain comprises the players, activities and linkages that add value to products or services as they move up the chain. Village Savings and Loan – A savings-led group-based model for delivering financial services, particularly in remote, rural areas. They may or may not be linked to formal financial institutions. Vocational Training – Training that prepares learners for employment based in manual or practical activities, traditionally related to a specific trade, occupation or vocation. Youth – The period between childhood and adulthood. Definitions of the specific age range that constitutes youth vary, but the United Nations defines youth as between 15 - 24 years of age. Youth-Inclusive Financial Services – Range of financial products and services that are intentionally designed and/or adapted to meet the needs of specific youth market segments. Youth Livelihoods Development – An approach that intends to provide youth the means to live through income-earning opportunities, business services (including finance) and training. It takes into account the assets and skills young people have, as well as the context in which they live. It also often promotes policy and social change to improve young people’s livelihood prospects, and involves alliances, networks and institutions for youth to advance their economic interests. Youth-Serving Organization – An entity, generally a non-governmental organization, which has as its primary focus, or one of its main focus areas, providing services and support specifically to young people. 111
  • 115. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development Annex III: 2009-2010 Resources on Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development: Articles, Briefs, Interviews, Papers, and Technical NotesAnnexes 1 Adams, D., Nam, Y., Williams Shanks, T. R., Hicks, S., & Robinson, C. (2010). Research on Assets for Children and Youth: Reflections on the Past and Prospects for the Future. Children & Youth Services Review, 32(11), 1617-1621. Available for purchase at: childyouth.2010.04.002 This article evolved from a presentation on research challenges and opportunities in asset building for children and youth at a symposium on Child Development Accounts in the United States in late 2008. The presentation was part of a panel entitled “Reflections and Conclusions” on the final day of the symposium. The authors reflect on where the field has been, and imagine some of the challenges ahead, from diverse perspectives. 2 Angel-Urdinola, D. F., Semlali, A., & Brodmann, S. (2010). Non-Public Provision of Active Labor Market Programs in Arab-Mediterranean Countries: An Inventory of Youth Programs. World Bank Group. Accessible at: Resources/SP-Discussion-papers/Labor-Market-DP/1005.pdf This note presents and analyzes the main design features of a variety of non-publicly provided Active Labor Market Programs in Arab-Mediterranean Countries, with a specific focus on programs targeted at youth. Programs from nine countries are included in the inventory: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Egypt, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, West Bank and Gaza, and Yemen. 3 Ansong, D. (2009). Ghana Country Assessment for Youth Development Accounts. Washington University, Center for Social Development. Accessible at: Documents/CB09-39.pdf This brief is one in a series that the Center for Social Development at Washington University prepared to assess candidate countries in which to pilot the Youth Savings initiative supported by The MasterCard Foundation. Countries were assessed on four criteria: institutional capacity, national political interest, research capacity, and macroeconomic environment. 4 Ansong, D., & Chowa, G. (2009). Youth Saving Preferences in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Potential for Asset Accumulation. Center for Social Development, Washington University in Saint Louis. Accessible at: As youth transition to adulthood, their ability to save and accumulate assets becomes very important. This paper uses data from Masindi, a rural area in Uganda, to (a) investigate the savings preferences of youth in Sub-Saharan Africa, (b) examine the relationship between an asset-building intervention for youth and higher savings, and (c) determine whether gender and marital status interact in their effect on young people’s savings in Sub-Saharan Africa. 5 Arai, Y., & Madjiguene, A. C. (2010). Promoting Job Creation for Young People in Multinational Enterprises and their Supply Chains: Liberia. Employment Report No. 7, International Labour Organization. Accessible at: documents/publication/wcms_144385.pdf 112
  • 116. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development This paper examines the employment impact of multinational enterprises (MNEs) in Liberia. Its principal purpose is to explore the potential role that MNEs could play in creating more and better jobs. It is part of a broader study that also includes Côte d’Ivoire and Sierra Leone. This research is intended to provide a timely and meaningful contribution towards tackling national youth employment challenges exacerbated by fourteen years of armed conflict. 6 Assaad, R., Barsoum, G., Cupito, E., & Egel, D. (2010, January). Youth Exclusion in Yemen: Annexes Tackling the Twin Deficits of Human Development and Natural Resources. Middle East Youth Initiative. Available at: Yemen is the poorest country in the Middle East region and one of the poorest in the world. Its population, already overwhelmingly young, is expanding rapidly, creating an explosion in the number of youth aged 15 to 29. In this paper, the authors identify processes through which many Yemeni youth are excluded from the opportunity to become productive adults and positive contributors to society. They present evidence that many youth face social exclusion, whereby they are cut off from the resources and institutions that could assist them in their transition to adulthood. 7 Assaad, R., Binzel, C., & Gadallah, M. (2010). Transitions to Employment and Marriage among Young Men in Egypt. Middle East Youth Initiative. Available at: http://www.shababinclusion. org/content/document/detail/1628/ In this paper, the authors examine the transition from school to work and the transition to marriage among young men with at least a secondary education in Egypt. The authors pay particular attention to how the first transition affects the second. 8 Atkin, D. (2009, August). Working for the Future: Female Factory Work and Child Health in Mexico. Yale University. Accessible at: Manufacturing.pdf In this paper, the author shows that women induced to work in export manufacturing by the opening of a new factory nearby have significantly taller children. The author posits that this nutritional indicator is bolstered not only by higher household income, but also by the stronger bargaining power of mothers within their households. 9 Austrian, K., Ngurukie, C., & Sakwa, C. (2009, October). Integrating Financial Education and Savings Opportunities into Health Interventions for Adolescent Girls in the Kibera Slum of Nairobi, Kenya. Population Council, Kenya; MicroSave Consulting, Ltd; & Carolina for Kibera, The Binti Pamoja Center. Accessible at: KenyaUgandaSavingsICUH.pdf This paper integrates data from two studies, one of which is an evaluation of the integration of financial education into a health-based program in Kibera, Kenya and the other of which is a quantitative baseline study that was done as part of a project that is developing group-based savings accounts for adolescent girls in Kenya. These studies are used to support the authors’ theory that in order to improve the health of girls living in urban slums, they need not only health interventions, but critical money management skills and savings opportunities. 10 Awogbenle, A. C., & Iwuamadi, K. C. (2010, June). Youth Unemployment: Entrepreneurship Development Program as an Intervention Mechanism. African Journal of Business Management, 4(6). Accessible at: June/Awogbenle%20and%20Iwuamadi.pdf 113
  • 117. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development This paper examines the constraints on young Nigerians to finding employment and to explores entrepreneurship programs as a potential short-term intervention to reducing these constraints. 11 Axter, S. (2010). Youth Entrepreneurs and Support Mechanisms: Needs, Access and Impact. Youth Seen. For a copy of this paper, please contact: This paper presents research on the financial needs of youth and how they would design a financial product.Annexes The author completed interviews with youth in 18 youth-serving organizations working with Youth Initiatives Kenya (YIKE). 12 Balakrishnan, B., Siew Woei, L., Buong Yew, S.L., Chien Sing, L., Sook Yee, H.S., & Chee Pun, O. (2010). Financial Education for Urban Youth: The First Step to Poverty Eradication. In Z. Abas et al (Eds.), Proceedings of Global Year Asia Pacific 2010 (pp. 645-651). Accessible at: http://www. This paper discusses the impact of a workshop titled Finance for Youth: Financial Liberty through Financial Literacy, given under the UNESCO Participation Program for Biennium 2008-2009.The workshop was designed to empower a group of 33 youth from targeted low-income families in Malaysia. 13 Bandiera, O., Burgess, R., Goldstein, M.P., Gulesci, S., Rasul, I., & Sulaiman, M. Intentions to Participate in Adolescent Training Programs: Evidence from Uganda. Journal of the European Economic Association (8, 2-3). Accessible at: v_3a8_3ay_3a2010_3ai_3a2-3_3ap_3a548-560.htm In this paper, the authors analyze factors that contribute or detract from adolescent girls’ intention to participate in training programs in Uganda. The authors focus on BRAC’s Adolescent Development Program, which emphasizes the provision of life skills, entrepreneurship training, and microfinance. 14 Baptista, F.C.P. (2010). What Do Youth Group Members in Nairobi’s Slum Areas Say about Collective Entrepreneurship? Youth Seen. For a copy of this paper, contact: communication@ This paper focuses on collective entrepreneurship and the perceptions of young urban entrepreneurs in Nairobi, Kenya of this model as an alternative to the classical model of individual entrepreneurship. 15 Baxter, A. (2010, January 28). Development: Organizations Wake Up to the Potential of Young People. Financial Times. Accessible at: 00144feabdc0,dwp_uuid=ea045956-0af3-11df-8a26-00144feabdc0.html This article in the Financial Times discusses the importance of youth voices in international development. 16 Bertrand, A., Beauvy-Sany, M., Cilimkovic, S., Conklin, S., & Jahic, S. (2009). Monitoring and Evaluation for Youth Workforce Development Projects. The SEEP Network. Accessible at: http:// The six organizations that authored this technical note attempted to simplify and transform the M&E data collection process into a series of useful management tools. The note presents some of the basic principles and sample indicators of performance management to inform practitioners interested in M&E for market- driven youth workforce development projects. It also highlights lessons learned in measuring causal-model indicators. 114
  • 118. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development 17 Besnard, S. (2010). Biashara za Vijana. Youth Seen. For a copy of this paper, contact: This paper explores the entrepreneurial potential of poor urban youth in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. 18 Brosvik, S. (2010). Youth Entrepreneurship in Swaziland. Youth Seen. For a copy of this paper, contact: Annexes This paper presents youth perspectives on the impact of the Youth Enterprise Services (YES) program in Manzini, Swaziland. 19 Campion, A., & Eka, R. (2009, November). Assessing Youth Entrepreneurship Skills: Final Findings. AZMJ, Education Development Center, EQUIP3, Family Health International, & USAID. Accessible at: Files/uploads/AssessingYouthEbtrepreneurshipSkillsInitialFindings_CSYDRCongo_July09.pdf This brief offers final findings related to the USAID-funded Youth Enterprise Development (YED) program in Bukavu, Democratic Republic of Congo. The brief discusses the degree to which the program increased participants’ business management skills, business confidence and financial self-sufficiency. 20 Cassidy, K., & Fricker, T. (2009). Sports for Youth Development in Uganda: Monitoring and Evaluation of an Asset-Based Approach. Education Development Center. Accessible at: http:// This paper discusses the process of developing a monitoring and evaluation plan that supports an assets-based approach to youth development. The paper utilizes programmatic examples in Kumi and Lira, Uganda that highlight the multiple elements involved in an assets-based and highly participatory ap¬proach to measuring youth development. This paper is geared toward youth development practitioners who are interested in measuring project outcomes holistically. 21 Catino, J., Ruiz, M.J., Hallman, K., Roca, E., Weiner, A., Colom, A., & Aprile, S.C. (2009, September). For Mayan Girls, Leadership Skills and Participation in a National Network Lead to Social, Economic, and Political Gains. Population Council. Accessible at: http://www. This brief provides an overview of a program the Population Council, in collaboration with a range of local and international partners, launched in 2004. The program was designed to increase Mayan girls’ social support networks, connect them with role models and mentors, build a base of critical life and leadership skills, and provide hands-on professional training experience. The program has evolved and expanded in structure and content and is now national in scope. 22 Center for Social Innovation, Stanford Graduate School of Business. (2010). Design For Change: Jeroo Billimoria. Audio Lectures from Social Innovation Conversations. Recorded 2009-09-24. Retrieved October 7, 2010 from: detail4315.html. In this audio interview with the Stanford Center for Social Innovation, Jeroo Billimoria talks about how her organization, Aflatoun, fosters childrens’ social and financial awareness. She discusses how the organization works with partners, ensures the quality of its curricula around the world, and works to move such curricula into mainstream schools. Billimoria also shares challenges, course corrections, and the organization’s vision for the next five years. 115
  • 119. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development 23 Choi, L. (2009, September). Bank Accounts and Youth Financial Knowledge: Connecting Experience and Education. Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco. Accessible at: http://www. Studies have shown that experiential learning can result in significant knowledge gains in a number of subject areas, but how does learning by doing fit into the context of financial education? This working paper explores this topic, analyzing data from the 2008 Jump$tart survey of U.S. high school seniors.Annexes 24 Choudry, M.T., Marelli, E., & Signorelli, M. (2010). The Impact of Financial Crises on Youth Unemployment Rate. University of Tartu. Accessible at: Choudhry%20Marelli%20Signorelli-The%20impact%20of%20financial%20crises%20on%20 youth.pdf This paper focuses on the extent and persistence of the impact of financial crises on the youth (15-24) unemployment rate, including comparisons of this impact on developing versus developed economies and male versus female young adults. Additionally, policy implications are presented and recent data on youth labor market dynamics are analyzed and discussed. 25 Cole, G. (2010, January 28). Technology: Better Access Can Level the Playing Field. Financial Times. Accessible at: 00144feabdc0,dwp_uuid=ea045956-0af3-11df-8a26-00144feabdc0.html This article in the Financial Times explores the role of technology in development and particularly its power in the hands of youth. 26 Cunningham, W. (2009, August). Unpacking Youth Unemployment in Latin America. The World Bank. Accessible at: WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2009/08/24/000158349_20090824083220/Rendered/PDF/ WPS5022.pdf High youth unemployment rates may be a signal of difficult labor market entry for youth or may reflect high job turnover. Using panel data from Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico, this report shows that Latin American youth’s high unemployment reflects high turnover while their duration of unemployment is similar to that of non-youth. The paper offers further analysis of turnover rates and gives recommendations on how to improve the efficiency of the turnover period. 27 Davis, R. (2010, January 28). Employment: Training Helps Develop Key Skills for Work. Financial Times. Accessible at: 00144feabdc0,dwp_uuid=ea045956-0af3-11df-8a26-00144feabdc0.html This article in the Financial Times discusses the potential returns for companies who invest in local youth workforce development. 28 Deshpande, R., & Zimmerman, J. (Eds.) (2010). Youth Savings in Developing Countries: Trends in Practice, Gaps in Knowledge. YouthSave Consortium. Accessible at: http://csd.wustl. edu/Publications/Documents/YouthSavingsMay2010.pdf This paper explores the potential of youth savings accounts (YSAs) as an intervention at the nexus of youth development and financial inclusion by reviewing: 1) current evidence on the potential effects of YSAs on these two development goals; 2) current trends in the state of practice on YSAs in developing countries, drawing out any implications for achieving these goals; and 3) what information is still needed before we can fully understand whether and how YSAs could actually achieve this dual potential. 116
  • 120. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development 29 Egel, D., & Salehi-Isfahani, D. (2010). Youth Transitions to Employment and Marriage in Iran: Evidence from the School-to-Work Transition Survey. Development Gateway, & Middle East Youth Initiative. Accessible at: detail/1627/ In this paper, the authors study the factors that affect transitions to employment and marriage in Iran using the 2005 School-to-Work Transition Survey (SWTS). As this survey contains detailed retrospective data on Annexes education, employment, and marital outcomes for youth ages 15-29, it provides a new and valuable tool for exploring the challenges facing these youth. 30 Eijdenberg, E. (2010). Entrepreneurial Motivation in a Developing Country. Youth Seen. For a copy of this paper, contact: This paper examines youth’s motivations for engaging in microentrepreneurial activites in Uganda. 31 Elliott, W., Sherraden, M., Johnson, L., & Guo, B. (2010). Young Children’s Perceptions of College and Saving: Potential Role of Child Development Accounts. Children & Youth Services Review, 32(11), 1577-1584. Available for purchase at: childyouth.2010.03.018 This U.S.-focused paper explores young children’s perceptions and expectations about attending college, and the potential influence of a savings program on shaping children’s perceptions about paying for college. As part of a four-year study of a school-based college savings program called I Can Save, this paper uses qualitative evidence from interviews conducted in second and fourth grades with a diverse group of 51 children. 32 Entrepreneurship Development Conference. (2009). Do Entrepreneurs Need Support? The Myths and Merits of Entrepreneurship Education and Business Creation. Accessible at: http:// This paper presents lessons from the international Entrepreneurship Development Conference, which was held in Rotterdam October 29-30, 2009. The event convened over 170 practitioners, researchers, teachers/ trainers, entrepreneurs, and policymakers from 20 nations in Europe, Africa, and the Middle East. The paper also includes a list of contact details of all participants, practical tips, and links to relevant publications and portals. 33 Ferguson, K. (2010, April). Social Development, Social Enterprise, and Homeless Youth. Oxford Scholarship Online Monographs. Available for purchase at: http:// 9780199732326-chapter-008.html This paper challenges traditional service delivery for homeless youth for its failure to replace street-survival behaviors with other legal, income-generating activities. The paper suggests that through social enterprises, homeless youths can acquire vocational and business skills, mentorship, clinical treatment, and linkages to services to facilitate their economic and social self-sufficiency. 34 Fye, S.O. (2010, August). Resettlement Process Framework (RPF). Government of Sierra Leone, & World Bank. Accessible at: WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2010/10/20/000334955_20101020043448/Rendered/PDF/ RP10090P1210521IC10AFR1RPF1P121052.pdf 117
  • 121. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development This paper presents the process framework for implementing the Youth Employment Support Project for Sierra Leone. The objective of the project is to increase access to short-term employment opportunities and to improve the employability of targeted youth. 35 Global Education Initiative. (2010). European Roundtable on Entrepreneurship Education Manifesto. World Economic Forum. Accessible at: manifesto_2010_1.pdfAnnexes This paper outlines the Global Education Initiative’s argument for Europe to increase its investment in developing entrepreneurship skills in youth. It also includes suggestions on how to achieve this. 36 Groesbeek, X., et al. (2010). Pitfalls and Possibilities: A Collection of Papers Investigating Youth Entrepreneurship. Youth Seen. For a copy of this publication, contact: communication@ This publication, an initiative of Youth Seen, includes nine papers from Dutch Masters students studying youth entrepreneurship and youth-inclusive financial services in Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya, South Africa, and Swaziland. 37 Grunder, A. (2010). The Future Promise of any Nation can be Directly Measured by the Present Prospects of its Youth. Youth Seen. For a copy of this paper, contact: communication@ Through interviews with policy makers, NGOs, youth, and professionals in Addis Abba, Ethiopia, this paper examines how to facilitate environments conducive to youth entrepreneurship. 38 GTZ. (2009). Empowering Young People, Strengthening Business. Accessible at: http:// This GTZ paper presents a range of innovative interventions in child and youth promotion and provides examples of private sector cooperation. It takes an informative look at projects from various countries in areas such as out-of-school education and the reintegration of young offenders, outlining GTZ best practices and identifying potential cooperation partners. 39 Hempel, K., & Cunningham, W. (2010). Investing in Your Country’s Children and Youth: Good Policy, Smart Economics. The World Bank. Accessible at: INTCY/Resources/395766-1187899515414/Note-Investing_Countrys_CY_Aug_2010.pdf This note argues that investing in children and youth is smart economics. Countries that produce a skilled, healthy, and productive workforce are better positioned in the global economy to achieve economic prosperity, political stability, and social well-being. Since capacities built during childhood and the youth period largely determine adult outcomes, the authors argue that effective investments in young people provide important returns not only to the individual and the community, but to society as a whole. 40 Hofer, A., & Delaney, A. (2010). Shooting for the Moon: Good Practices in Local Youth Entrepreneurship Support. OECD Local Economic and Employment Development (LEED) Working Papers. OECD Publishing. Accessible at: OECD_2010-Good_practices_in_local_youth_entrepreneurship_support.pdf This paper includes research and policy documentation about the positive role of youth entrepreneurship in local development and provides guidance on how youth entrepreneurship can be promoted and 118
  • 122. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development supported locally by partnerships of public and private agents. The paper highlights the key roles of schools, universities, incubators and business support agencies. 41 Ibrahim, M., Olaleye, R.S., & Umar, I.S. (2009, December). Effect of Credit Utilization on Output of Rural Youth Rice Farmers in Shiroro Local Government Area, Niger State. Journal of Agricultural Extension, 13(2). Accessible at: viewFile/53902/42449 Annexes This paper examined the effect of loan utilization on the output of youth rice farmers in Shiroro Local Government Area of Niger State. The study revealed a significant difference in the mean output of rice farmers who utilized loans and those who did not. 42 Ierapetritis, D. G., Lagos, D. A., & Balomenou, A. K. (2010). Outlining the Determinants of Youth Entrepreneurship in the Greek Periphery. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 11(2). Accessible at: asp?genre=article&issn=1476-1297&volume=11&issue=2&spage=205 This paper explores the main characteristics of young entrepreneurs operating in the Greek periphery, the factors that encourage or discourage them from starting a business, and the factors that help or hinder their success once they have established their business. 43 IFAD. (24 May, 2010). Speech by IFAD President at the African Amicale and United Nations Women’s Guild African Group. Africa Week Celebrations – Ensuring a Sustainable Future for Youth in Africa. Accessible at: This speech by IFAD president Kanayo F. Nwanze opened 2010’s Africa week; the week focused on creating a sustainable future for Africa’s youth in part through entrepreneurship. 44 International Center for Research on Women. (2010). The Role of Economic Empowerment Strategies in Reducing HIV Vulnerability Among Girls and Young Women. Accessible at: vulnerability-among-girls-and-young-women This paper draws on published literature related to HIV and girls and young women, and economic empowerment programs among adult women, young women, and girls. The paper addresses, among other topics, through what pathways economic empowerment might contribute to HIV reduction among girls and young women and to what extent girls are currently being reached by combined economic empowerment and HIV programs. 45 International Labour Organization. (2010). Characterizing the School-to-Work Transitions of Young Men and Women: Evidence from the ILO School-to-Work Transition Surveys. Accessible at: publication/wcms_141016.pdf This paper is based on the results of the School-to-Work Transition Survey (SWTS) the ILO conducted in Azerbaijan, China, Egypt, Iran, Kosovo, Mongolia, Nepal and Syria between 2004 and 2006.The SWTS was developed to quantify the relative ease or difficulty faced by young people in transitioning to a job that meets the basic criteria of “decency,” namely a job that provides the worker with a sense of permanency, security and personal satisfaction. The current thematic synthesis is based on the transition surveys that were conducted in eight countries in Asia, CIS, and the Middle East between 2004 and 2006. 119
  • 123. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development 46 International Labour Organization. (2010, August). Highest Youth Unemployment Ever: An Interview with ILO Economist Sara Elder. Accessible at: the_ILO/Media_and_public_information/Broadcast_materials/Videointerviews/lang--en/ docName--WCMS_143367/index.htm In 2009, global youth unemployment reached its highest level on record and is expected to increase through 2010. ILO TV interviewed ILO economist Sara Elder on the topic.Annexes 47 International Labour Organization. (2010). Increasing the Employability of Disadvantaged Youth: Responding to the Impact of the Financial and Economic Crisis. This draft technical note looks at ways to enhance the employment potential of disadvantaged young people so that they can more readily enter (or re-enter) the labor market as countries rebound from the global economic crisis. 48 International Youth Foundation. (2009, January). Nurturing Young People’s Creativity. Field Notes, 3 (15). Accessible at: XjU=&tabid=267 This article sheds light on what role youth development programs can play in nurturing young peoples’ creativity and innovation so that they can succeed in a fast-changing world. The experiences of youth-serving organizations in Canada, the Czech Republic, Peru, Turkey, and the United States are discussed. 49 Isak, W. A. (June, 2009). Fostering Entrepreneurship in Developing Nations: Tapping into the “Hidden Potential” of the Namibian Rural Youth. Journal of Asia Entrepreneurship and Sustainability. Accessible at: n49423692/ This paper investigates the literature as it pertains to the role of entrepreneurship in the development process and the benefits Namibia could derive by fostering a culture of entrepreneurship amongst its rural youth. 50 Islam, A., Zerihun, A., & Ramdoss, S. (2009). Scaling Adolescent Empowerment Programs: The BRAC Experience in Africa. BRAC. Accessible at: http://www. ScalingAdolescentEmpowermentprograminafrica.pdf Starting in 2008, BRAC began replicating its adolescent program in Uganda, leveraging 15 years of experience running such programs in Bangladesh. This paper aims to highlight key lessons learned and strategies adopted by BRAC in scaling-up its adolescent program in Uganda within a short period of time. 51 Javid, P., Toyama, K., & Biswas, M. (2009, April). Social Enterprises: A Vocational Entrepreneurship Framework for Street Youth. 2009 International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies and Development. Accessible at: xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?arnumber=5426685 For this paper, the authors conducted 150 days of ethnographic investigations in and around Calcutta, with an emphasis on street children who lived in train stations. The authors identified a knowledge gap regarding microentrepreneurial possibilities and, in the second half of this paper, the authors describe a preliminary trial with an NGO to expose street children to entrepreneurial possibilities using mediated video instruction. 120
  • 124. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development 52 Jorgensen, M., & Morris, P. (2010). Tribal Experience with Children’s Accounts. Children & Youth Services Review, 32(11), 1528-1537. Available for purchase at: http://dx.doi. org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2010.03.017 An important frontier in savings policy and research is the effectiveness of accounts at birth. This paper presents ideas and initial findings from the experience of American Indian nations with such policies. It describes the motivations for creating “minors’ accounts,” which are offered by approximately 70 tribes. Annexes These tribes are the only jurisdictions in the nation to offer universal, unrestricted accounts for children. Their experiences and ideas offer important insights for mainstream policy makers and program managers (in the United States and elsewhere) about how to design effective children’s accounts policy. 53 Kanaan, T.H., & Hanania, M.D. (2009, August). The Disconnect Between Education, Job Growth, and Employment in Jordan. Middle East Youth Initiative. Accessible at: http://www. This paper addresses the increased difficulty of education and employment transitions for young Jordanians in spite of improved economic conditions in recent years. It also presents opportunities for the nation to diversify and deepen its modern service and industry base in order to create a labor market that harnesses the talents of an increasingly educated workforce. 54 Macy, C. (2009, Spring). Workable Solutions: Tackling the Youth Unemployment Crisis. YOUth Magazine: Putting a Generation to Work, 3(8-13). International Youth Foundation. Accessible at: This article explains how the bulge in the global youth population is fueling the youth unemployment crisis and outlines the growing number of youth employment initiatives that are making significant progress in addressing the issue. The author also recommends future investments based on emerging trends surrounding youth unemployment. 55 Marxuach, S. M. (2010). Asset building in Puerto Rico: A study of Children’s Development Accounts in Caguas. Children & Youth Services Review, 32(11), 1555-1560. Working paper accessible at: Full publication available for purchase at: In this paper, the authors examine the establishment and operations of a CDA program in Caguas, Puerto Rico, testing whether asset-building policies can provide a new approach to social welfare in Latin American countries and Hispanic communities in the United States. 56 Masa, R. (2009). Colombia Country Assessment for Youth Development Accounts. Washington University, Center for Social Development. Accessible at: Documents/CB09-34.pdf This brief is one in a series that the Center for Social Development at Washington University prepared to assess candidate countries in which to pilot the Youth Savings initiative supported by the MasterCard Foundation. Countries were assessed on four criteria: institutional capacity, national political interest, research capacity, and macroeconomic environment. 57 Masa, R. (2009). Innovations in Youth Saving and Asset Building Around the World (CSD Research Brief 09-52). Center for Social Development, Washington University in Saint Louis. Accessible at: 121
  • 125. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development More than 1.2 billion people in the world are between the ages of 10 and 24. The economic and financial potential of this very large group of youth has led to innovations in youth savings products, services, and policies. Potential impacts of savings on the development of young people have informed and spurred the emergence of youth savings and asset building programs in many countries. This brief on youth saving provides an overview of the growing number and encouraging results of innovations in youth savings around the world.Annexes 58 Masa, R. (2009). Nepal Country Assessment for Youth Development Accounts. Washington University, Center for Social Development. Accessible at: Documents/CB09-44_Nepal.pdf This brief is one in a series that the Center for Social Development at Washington University prepared to assess candidate countries in which to pilot the Youth Savings initiative supported by the MasterCard Foundation. Countries were assessed on four criteria: institutional capacity, national political interest, research capacity, and macroeconomic environment. 59 Masa, R. (2009). Peru Country Assessment for Youth Development Accounts. Washington University, Center for Social Development. Accessible at: Documents/CB09-35.pdf This brief is one in a series that the Center for Social Development at Washington University prepared to assess candidate countries in which to pilot the Youth Savings initiative supported by the MasterCard Foundation. Countries were assessed on four criteria: institutional capacity, national political interest, research capacity, and macroeconomic environment. 60 McCormick, M. (2009). The Effectiveness of Youth Financial Education: A Review of the Literature. Association for Financial Counseling and Planning Education. Journal of Financial Counseling and Planning, 20(1). Accessible at: http://6aa7f5c4a9901a3e1a1682793cd11f5a6b73 This literature review explores the state of youth financial education and related policy, including definitions and measures of effectiveness. Delineating a range of approaches to the delivery and assessment of youth financial education, this paper reports on impact data and best practices and highlights some controversies. It concludes with a discussion of the gaps in knowledge and suggestions for further research. 61 Mennonite Economic Development Associates. (2009). Young, Restless, Out of Work: The New Frontier of Global Youth. The Marketplace, 39(6). Accessible at: images/stories/Marketplace/2009-6-Nov-Dec-TheMarketplace.pdf This issue of MEDA’s The Marketplace magazine for youth includes articles on MEDA’s work to link youth to financial services, an example of a young Afghan entrepreneur, and Business 101 for youth. 62 Mercy Corps. (2009). Youth Development Sector Approach. Accessible at: http://www. This paper outlines how Mercy Corps frames its approach to youth development programming around the world. Mercy Corps explains how it leverages its expertise in economic development, conflict management, and climate change to optimize engagement with government, the private sector, and civil society to establish solid institutional foundations that support youth. 63 Meyer, J., Masa, R., & Zimmerman, J. (2010). Overview of Child Development Accounts in Developing Countries. Children & Youth Services Review, 32(11), 1561-1569. Working paper 122
  • 126. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development accessible at: Full publication available for purchase at: This paper offers a review of Child Development Accounts in developing countries, including the types of institutions offering CDAs, and design features and delivery mechanisms common among such accounts. The paper concludes with implications of this analysis for policymakers and researchers. Annexes 64 Microsoft Unlimited Potential. (2009, June). Realizing Africa’s Potential through People and Technology. Microsoft. Accessible at: E/5FE6A3AD-03A5-4FCF-B486-424330F9E2F3/Africa_Engagement_Paper_June_09.pdf This paper outlines Microsoft’s strategy and initiatives to enhance Africa’s capacity for development, particularly through ensuring that technology supports and accelerates progress towards sustainable development and the Millennium Development Goals. 65 Mkatini, S.N. (2010). Female Youth Entrepreneurship Support Structures in South Africa. Youth Seen. For a copy of this paper, contact: This paper explores how young female urban entrepreneurs in South Africa can access and influence available support structures for creating formal SMEs. The paper includes a review of existing support structures for this cohort and interviews with young women in the townships of Johannesburg. 66 Murray, S. (2010, January 28). Education: New College Sets High Standards to Mold Africa’s Future Leaders. Financial Times. Accessible at: 11df-8a26-00144feabdc0,dwp_uuid=ea045956-0af3-11df-8a26-00144feabdc0.html This article in the Financial Times profiles Ghana’s Ashesi University, which was founded on the belief that the most powerful way to change the world is to educate its future leaders. 67 Murray, S. (2010, January 28). Future Hinges on Keeping Doors Open. Financial Times. Accessible at:,dwp_ uuid=ea045956-0af3-11df-8a26-00144feabdc0.html This article in the Financial Times profiles the first in a series of reports on youth entrepreneurship completed by Youth Business International. This report identifies steps that governments, businesses, and civil society groups can take to foster entrepreneurship among young people. 68 Myers, S. (2009). Rwanda Country Assessment for Youth Development Accounts. Washington University, Center for Social Development. Accessible at: Documents/CB09-72.pdf This brief is one in a series that the Center for Social Development at Washington University prepared to assess candidate countries in which to pilot the Youth Savings initiative supported by the MasterCard Foundation. Countries were assessed on four criteria: institutional capacity, national political interest, research capacity, and macroeconomic environment. 69 Nubler, I., Hofmann, C., & Greiner, C. (2009). Understanding Informal Apprenticeship: Findings from Empirical Research in Tanzania. International Labour Organization. This working paper analyzes the practices, institutions, and outcomes of informal apprenticeship in Tanzania. 123
  • 127. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development 70 O’Callaghan, S., Jaspers, S., & Pavanello, S. (2009, July). Losing Ground: Protection and Livelihoods in the Occupied Palestinian Territory. Overseas Development Institute. Accessible at: This paper analyzes how threats to protection are linked to livelihoods. The study explores the efforts of humanitarian organizations to link protection and livelihoods, including in the development of youth interventions, and gives recommendations on how this work could be expanded.Annexes 71 Population Council. (2010). Education and Transition to Work among Youth in Andhra Pradesh, Accessible at: This brief is a part of a sub-nationally representative study undertaken for the first time in India of key transitions experienced by young people in six Indian states. This brief is based on data obtained from 2,479 young men and 4,848 young women aged 15–24 in Andhra Pradesh. 72 Population Council. (2009). Education and Transition to Work among Youth in Jharkhand. Accessible at: This brief is a part of a sub-nationally representative study undertaken for the first time in India of key transitions experienced by young people in six Indian states. This brief is based on data obtained from 2,637 young men and 5,414 young women aged 15–24 in Jharkhand. 73 Population Council. (2009). Education and Transition to Work among Youth in Maharashtra. Accessible at: This brief is a part of a sub-nationally representative study undertaken for the first time in India of key transitions experienced by young people in six Indian states. This brief is based on data obtained from 3,082 young men and 4,488 young women aged 15–24 in Maharashtra. 74 Population Council. (2009). Education and Transition to Work among Youth in Rajasthan. Accessible at: This brief is a part of a sub-nationally representative study undertaken for the first time in India of key transitions experienced by young people in six Indian states. This brief is based on data obtained from 2,974 young men and 5,987 young women aged 15–24 in Rajasthan. 75 Population Council. (2009). Education and Transition to Work among Youth in Tamil India. Accessible at: This brief is a part of a sub-nationally representative study undertaken for the first time in India of key transitions experienced by young people in six Indian states. This brief is based on data obtained from 1,913 young men and 5,008 young women aged 15–24 in Tamil Nadu. 76 Population Council. (2009). Transition to Work Roles among Youth in Bihar. Accessible at: Looking at the current employment situation of youth in Bihar, India, this policy brief argues that significant investment in appropriate policies and programs are required to improve the employability of youth in the state and thereby enable them to find full and productive employment. 77 Population Council. (2010). Transition to Work Roles Among Youth in India. Accessible at: 124
  • 128. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development Looking at the current employment situation of youth in India, this policy brief argues that significant investment in terms of appropriate policies and programs are required to improve the employability of youth in the country and thereby enable them to find full and productive employment. 78 Robison, T. M. (2009, January 1). Be Next: Fearless Young Entrepreneurs Reveal Their MVP: Most Valuable Play. Black Enterprise. Accessible at: 3A+fearless+young+entrepreneurs+reveal+their+MVP—most+valuable...-a0192000222 Annexes This article interviews successful youth entrepreneurs in the United States.Youth share their stories and the keys to their success. 79 Scanlon, E., & Adams, D. (2009). Do Assets Affect Well-Being? Perceptions of Youth in a Matched Savings Program. Journal of Social Service Research, 35(1). Accessible at: http://www. This article presents data from a qualitative study of a youth savings account program. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 youth ages 14-19 between November 2004 and February 2005 who were participants in the Saving for Education, Entrepreneurship, and Downpayment (SEED) national demonstration project. The authors’ findings focus on youths’ perceptions of the psychological, behavioral, and social impacts of savings-program participation. 80 Signhild, B. (2010). Youth Entrepreneurship in Swaziland: Pitfalls and Possibilities. Youth Seen. For a copy of this paper, contact: In this paper, the author conducted interviews with youth taking part in the Youth Enterprise Services (YES) program at Manzini Youth Care in Manzini, Swaziland. The paper presents youth perspectives on the impact of the program in providing support and opportunities for entrepreneurship and how this has affected their well-being. 81 Sparreboom, T., & Powell, M. (2009). Labour Market Information and Analysis for Skills Development. International Labour Organization. Determining skill needs in labor markets is one of the central tasks facing manpower planners and labor market analysts, and the development of skills policies that meet these needs are a key instrument in the promotion of the Decent Work Agenda. This paper examines the role that labor market information and analysis can play in informing skills policies. 82 The Economist. (2009, March 12). All in the Mind: A Different Breed of Manager. Accessible at: This article discusses new management styles emerging in the most recent wave of entrepreneurship. 83 The Economist. (2009, September 25). Financial Innovation and the Poor: A Place in Society. Accessible at: This article discusses the creation of the Global Impact Investing Network (GIIN) at the Clinton Global Initiative in September 2009. The article outlines the motivations, key players, and intended and projected impact of the GIIN, including in the youth enterprise, employment, and livelihoods development sector. 84 The Economist. (2009). Global Heroes: Despite the Downturn, Entrepreneurs are Enjoying a Renaissance the World Over, says Adrian Wooldridge. Accessible at: http://www.economist. com/node/13216025 125
  • 129. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development This interview with Adrian Wooldridge profiles the lure of entrepreneurship in spite of the global economic downturn. 85 The Economist. (2009, March 12). Lands of Opportunity: Israel, Denmark and Singapore Show How Entrepreneurialism Can Thrive in Different Climates. Accessible at: http://www. This article discusses the thriving state of entrepreneurship in Israel, Denmark, and Singapore. 86 The Economist. (2009, March 12). Magic Formula: The Secrets of Entrepreneurial Success. Accessible at: This article discusses how to achieve entrepreneurial success. 87 The Economist. (2009, March 12). Saving the World: Entrepreneurs Are Trying To Do Good As Well As Make Money. Accessible at: This article discusses the recent growth of social entrepreneurship. 88 The Economist. (2009, March 12). The Entrepreneurial Society: Better, On The Whole, Than Managed Capitalism. Accessible at: This article discusses how policy makers can facilitate the creation of entrepreneurial societies. 89 The Economist. (2009, March 12). The More the Merrier: India and China are Creating Millions of Entrepreneurs. Accessible at: This article discusses the recent and steep rise of entrepreneurship in India and China. 90 The Economist. (2009, March 12). The United States of Entrepreneurs: America Still Leads the World. Accessible at: This article discusses how America still leads in entrepreneurialism globally and how this can be further facilitated by policymakers and other players. 91 UNDP. (2009). Green Jobs for the Poor: A Public Employment Approach. Accessible at: This paper explores the potential for governments to create ‘green jobs’ in developing countries by funding public employment activities to preserve biodiversity, restore degraded land, combat erosion, and conserve water. The paper draws on experiences in India and South Africa, including programs targeting youth. 92 UNESCO. (2010). Education, Youth and Development: UNESCO in Latin America and the Caribbean. Accessible at: The MDGs and the Education for All (EFA) goals are analyzed from the perspective of youth in this paper, which also details the contributions made toward these goals by UNESCO programs and activities. The paper also presents progress achieved and innovative experiences at the country level. 93 UNESCO. (2010). Introduction to Youth Poverty Alleviation through Tourism and Heritage: Youth PATH: An Education Tool for Sustainable Development. Accessible at: http://unesdoc. 126
  • 130. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development This paper discusses the UNESCO Youth Poverty Alleviation through Tourism and Heritage (Youth PATH) project. The goal of this project is to train youth in poor communities of the Caribbean in the development and documentation of natural and cultural heritage sites to enable these sites to become the center of domestic and/or international tourism and in so doing, develop communities and reduce poverty. 94 UNESCO. Strategy on African Youth 2009-2013. (2010). Accessible at: http://unesdoc.unesco. org/images/0018/001875/187571e.pdf Annexes On April 12, 2010, the UNESCO Executive Board endorsed this 5-year strategy that will guide UNESCOs work on youth development and civic engagement in Africa until 2013. The strategy was developed in close collaboration with Member States, the African Union Commission, and young people. 95 UNICEF. (2010). Core Commitments for Children in Humanitarian Action. Accessible at: This paper from UNICEF explains the goal of the Core Commitments for Children (CCC’s) framework and outlines the program and operational commitments required to meet the CCC’s, including livelihoods support for adolescents. It also shows how UNICEF helps achieve the CCC’s through resource mobilization and direct support to partners. 96 United Nations. (2010). Growing Together: Youth and the Work of the United Nations. Accessible at: This paper highlights how the United Nations system and the young people it serves are growing together. By taking stock of UN system activities related to youth development, the paper assesses how effectively the United Nations system is responding to this important development challenge, and it helps to identify any gaps that may exist in their approach. 97 United Nations. (2010, June). New 2010 Edition of the World Program of Action for Youth. Accessible at: This publication was prepared in response to requests by youth non-governmental organizations, youth policy practitioners, and young people for a ready reference to the World Programme of Action for Youth, its 15 priority areas, and their corresponding proposals for action. It also includes the means for implementation at the national, regional and international levels. 98 University of Minnesota. (2009, April). Youth Community Connections: Minnesota’s Statewide Afterschool Alliance: Once We Know It, We Can Grow It: A Framework for Quality Nonformal Learning. Accessible at: know-it-shortpaper.pdf There is growing agreement that quality matters in multiple dimensions of nonformal learning in the non- school hours. Quality influences the participation of youth, the satisfaction and retention of youth workers, and the impact programs have on young people, families and the community. The purpose of this paper, which has a US domestic focus, is to articulate a framework that defines quality practice and identifies essential steps that existing systems can take to improve quality. 99 USAID Sri Lanka. (2009, February). Accelerated Skills Acquisition Program (ASAP) Training for Young Entrepreneurs. Accessible at: Curriculum_Young_Entrepreneurs.pdf 127
  • 131. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development This paper presents the youth entrepreneurship curriculum, including detailed lesson plans, developed for the Accelerated Skills Acquisition Program implemented in Sri Lanka. 100 Wells, M. S., & Arthur-Banning, S. G. (2009). Mapping out Your Success: Using Mind Maps to Evaluate Youth Development Programs. Journal of Youth Development, 4(2). Accessible at: This paper presents a creative form of evaluation targeted at demonstrating the success of programs in outcomes that are historically more difficult to measure. A “mind map” is designed to be a pictorial representation of the impact of programs in areas such as connections to community organization and adult role models. Employing this technique can enable administrators in youth enterprise and livelihoods development programs to demonstrate to stakeholders the benefits they provide in a non-traditional, but highly effective, way. 101 Women’s Refugee Commission. (2010). Displaced Youth at a Glance. Accessible at: program-fact-sheet This paper looks at displaced youth and the interventions needed to ensure them a brighter future, including livelihoods development. It reveals a lack of information available on the needs of these young people and discusses how the Women’s Refugee Commission plans to address this by conducting research, developing tools, and undertaking advocacy. 102 Women’s Refugee Commission. (2009). Field Testing: Market Assessment Toolkit for Vocational Training Providers and Youth. Accessible at: reports/doc_download/465-field-testing-market-assessment-toolkit-for-vocational-training- providers-and-youth This paper explains and reflects on the success of a toolkit produced to assist vocational training programs in becoming more demand driven during its field testing in northern Uganda in March 2009. 103 World Bank Group. (2009, September). Investing In Youth in the MENA Region: How to Operationalize Youth Intervention. Accessible at: The objective of this two-part brief is to illustrate examples of youth-focused and advisory activities, investment lending, and grant-funded engagements in the Middle East and other regions. This brief argues that if well utilized, the current youth bulge could be a lucrative investment opportunity. It further argues that if investments fail to be made or do not reach youth, the youth bulge will turn into a drain on growth and society. 128
  • 132. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development 104 World Bank Group. (2009, April). Youth Unemployment: A Major Challenge for African Countries. Accessible at:, ,contentMDK:22157069~menuPK:396483~pagePK:64020865~piPK:149114~theSitePK:396445,00. html This article summarizes the outcomes of the Spring Meetings of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, during which a panel of experts on youth employment from Ghana, Kenya, Mali, and Annexes Colombia convened to discuss ways to alleviate the growing problem of youth unemployment in Africa. 105 World Bank Group. (2010, August). Youth Worldwide Risk Becoming a “Lost Generation.” Accessible at:,,contentM DK:22675604~menuPK:396483~pagePK:64020865~piPK:149114~theSitePK:396445,00.html This article discusses the importance of investing in youth workforce development in light of the high rates of unemployment caused by the global economic crisis. 106 Yifu Lin, J., & Cunningham, W. (2010, January 28). Opinion: Seizing Opportunity Now Will Make the World Fairer and Safer. Financial Times. Accessible at: s/0/842fb0ae-0ad9-11df-8a26-00144feabdc0,dwp_uuid=ea045956-0af3-11df-8a26-00144feabdc0. html This article in the Financial Times discusses the need to invest greater resources in the global youth enterprise, employment, and livelihoods development field. 107 Yohalem, N., Pittman, K., & Lovick Edwards, S. (2010, January). Strengthening the Youth Development/After-School Workforce: Lessons Learned and Implications for Funders. The Forum for Youth Investment, & Cornerstones for Kids. Accessible at: http://www. This paper provides a brief summary of what is known about youth workers, why investments in this workforce matter, and what funders can do to spark and support these investments. The authors set the stage for discussions about how funders can support workforce development through strengthening and expanding youth development programs and systems. 108 Youth Employment Network. (2009, April). YEN’s Revised Lead Country Process. Accessible at: The Lead Country Process aims to encourage the engagement of governments in the development and promotion of improved employment opportunities for young people. It was initiated in 2001 to prioritize youth employment in the development agenda. A recent analysis of the Process revealed opportunities to improve its effectiveness and results. This note introduces the Revised Process and provides key information on the new features and guidelines to become a Lead Country. 109 Zeller-Berkman, S. (2010). Critical Development? Using a Critical Theory Lens to Examine the Current Role of Evaluation in the Youth Development Field. The American Evaluation Association. Accessible at: In this paper, the author analyzes evaluation in youth development and challenges the emphasis on individual youth outcomes as programmatic outcome measures. The author argues that this paradigm overemphasizes individual gains related to academic achievement or personal development at the expense of attention to community- or systems-level outcomes. 129
  • 133. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development 110 Zou, L. (2009). China Country Assessment for Youth Development Accounts. Washington University, Center for Social Development. Accessible at: Documents/CB09-33.pdf This brief is one in a series that the Center for Social Development at Washington University prepared to assess candidate countries in which to pilot the Youth Savings initiative supported by the MasterCard Foundation. Countries were assessed on four criteria: institutional capacity, national political interest,Annexes research capacity, and macroeconomic environment. 130
  • 134. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development Annex IV: 2009-2010 Resources on Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development: Books, Reports, and Studies Annexes 1 Abdou, E., Fahmy, A., Greenwald, D., & Nelson, J. (2010). Social Entrepreneurship in the Middle East: Toward Sustainable Development for the Next Generation. Middle East Youth Initiative. Accessible at: This report explores the pressure the “youth bulge” in the Middle East is putting on educational systems, labor markets, health care, natural resources, and infrastructure. It also outlines a social entrepreneurship model, which the authors of this report believe could be the model to address the multi-sectorial challenges young people in the Middle East face. 2 Acharya, R., Kalyanwala, S., & Jejeebhoy, S. J. (2010). Broadening Girls’ Horizons: Effects of a Life Skills Education Program in Rural Uttar Pradesh. Population Council. Accessible at: This report assesses the extent to which a promising and extensively implemented life skills education program, the Better Life Options program for adolescent girls in India, can empower adolescent girls and address the vulnerabilities they face. In particular, the project sought to assess the extent to which participation in the intervention program enhanced girls’ awareness of sexual and reproductive health matters; built agency in terms of mobility, decision-making and sense of self-worth; fostered egalitarian gender role attitudes; developed vocational skills and future work aspirations; influenced perceptions about marriage and their ability to negotiate marriage-related decisions; and succeeded in delaying marriage and first pregnancy. 3 Adams, D., Boshara, R., Clancy, M., Cramer, R., Friedman, B., Howard, R., Krotki, K., Marks, E., Mensah, L., Rhodes, B., Rist, C., Scanlon, E., Williams Shanks, T., Sherraden, M., Stevens, J., Tivol, L., & Zager, R. (2010, September). Lessons from SEED: A National Demonstration of Child Development Accounts. Washington University, Center for Social Development. Accessible at: Saving for Education, Entrepreneurship, and Downpayment (SEED) is a policy, practice, research, communication, and market development initiative designed to test the efficacy of, and inform policy for, a national system of savings and asset-building accounts for children and youth in the United States. SEED is implementing and studying inclusive saving in the form of Child Development Accounts (CDAs), established as early as birth and ideally lasting across the full life course for all Americans. This summary report on SEED is based on CDA experience with over 1,171 children and their families in 12 states and communities. 4 Aflatoun. (2010). Children and Change 2010: Children and Savings. Accessible at: http:// This report explores the current state of research on the topic of children and savings. It examines the models that Aflatoun promotes to encourage children’s savings and describes – through eight case studies – the best ways in which partners have generated or adapted these models to best serve the children in their program. 5 Africa Commission. (2009, May). Realizing the Potential of Africa’s Youth. Accessible at: 131
  • 135. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development This report presents the Africa Commission’s recommendation to refocus Africa’s development agenda on mobilizing Africa’s youth workforce through private sector-led growth. The Commission addresses the rationale for its focus on youth and provides recommendations for five concrete initiatives that are vital to private sector-led growth in Africa. 6 American Institutes for Research. (2009, October). USAID/Brazil’s Disadvantaged Youth Program Quarterly Progress Report July-September 2009. Accessible at: pdf_docs/PDACN798.pdf This quarterly report covers the progress of the Enter Jovem program from July to September 2009. The program was designed to increase the access of youth to the formal job market in Brazil and includes training and job placement components with an emphasis on scale and sustainability. 7 Ashoka’s Youth Venture. (2010). Stories of Change Vol. 2: Youth Making A Difference. Accessible at: Stories of Change is Ashoka’s electronic book series. This volume, meant to provide inspiration to both youth and the practitioners who serve them, offers the stories of ten young “changemakers” from around the world. 8 Atkin, D. (2010, August). Endogenous Skill Acquisition and Export Manufacturing in Mexico. Yale University. Accessible at: Acquisition_Mexico.pdf Studies based on firm-level data find that both exporting firms and multinational corporations pay higher wages for a given skill level. The author of this study, however, uses the case of Mexico to support his thesis that the existence of export manufacturing firms in the developing world deleteriously affects the educational choices of local youth. The author finds that these relatively high-paying jobs disincentivize youth from pursuing further education and graduating to higher skill levels that would ultimately be more lucrative. 9 Baird, S., Chirwa, E., McIntosh, C., & Ozler, B. (2009). The Short-Term Impacts of a Schooling Conditional Cash Transfer Program on the Sexual Behavior of Young Women. The World Bank. Accessible at: IB/2009/10/22/000158349_20091022111746/Rendered/PDF/WPS5089.pdf This report examines the short-term impact of the Zomba Cash Transfer Program, a randomized, ongoing conditional cash transfer intervention targeting young women in Malawi that provides incentives (in the form of school fees and cash transfers) to current schoolgirls and recent dropouts to stay in or return to school. 10 Baird, S., McIntosh, C., & Ozler, B. (2009, October). Designing Cost-Effective Cash Transfer Programs to Boost Schooling among Young Women in Sub-Saharan Africa. The World Bank. Accessible at: SBairdDesigningCostEffectiveCashTransfer.pdf This study presents one-year schooling impacts from a conditional cash transfer experiment among teenage girls and young women in Malawi that was designed to address the following issues: conditionality status, size of separate transfers to the schoolgirl and the parent, and village-level saturation of treatment; all were independently randomized. 132
  • 136. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development 11 Bajracharya, A., & Amin, S. (2010). Poverty, Marriage Timing, and Transitions to Adulthood in Nepal: A Longitudinal Analysis Using the Nepal Living Standards Survey. Population Council. Accessible at: This study examines the influence of household poverty in early childhood on livelihood outcomes for girls in Nepal. Annexes 12 Bateson, L. A. (2009). A Follow-Up Study of Ohio State University Extension’s Youth Financial Literacy Program Real Money, Real World: Behavioral Changes of Program Participants. The Ohio State University. Accessible at: pdf?osu1244049887 The purpose of this study was to determine the behavior changes made by participants in the OSU Extension’s youth financial literacy program Real Money, Real World as well as the barriers participants encountered that prevented them from making changes in the areas of spending, saving, and educational behavior. 13 Beauvy, M., Israel, R., Johnson, S., & Previlion, M.G. (2010). Lessons Learned from Moving the Haitian Out-of-School Youth Livelihood Initiative (IDEJEN) Beyond Pilot Phase. Education Development Center. Accessible at: pdf This report explains the lessons EDC learned when transitioning the Haitian Out-Of-School Youth Livelihood Initiative (IDEJEN) out of its pilot phase. 14 Bosma, N., & Levie, J. (2009). Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Special Report: A Global Perspective on Entrepreneurship Education and Training. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. Accessible at: This report, based on more than 180,000 interviews in 54 nations, presents data across a large variety of countries on attitudes toward entrepreneurship and aspirations of entrepreneurs for their businesses. 15 Brand, B. (2009, November). High School Career Academies: A 40-Year Proven Model for Improving College and Career Readiness. The National Career Academy Coalition. Accessible at: This report developed by Betsy Brand of the American Youth Policy Forum features high school career academies. It describes this time-tested model for improving academic outcomes and preparing students for both college and careers along with policy recommendations to expand the model. 16 Center for Global Development. (2009, October). Start with a Girl: A New Agenda for Global Health. Accessible at: This report is a complement to the Center for Global Development’s 2008 publication, “Girls Count: An Action and Investment Agenda,” and is part of a series of publications centered around the importance of adolescent girls’ education, health, and economic empowerment in the developing world. 17 Chen, W., Weng, C., & Hsu, H. (2010). A Study of the Entrepreneurship of Taiwanese Youth by the Chinese Entrepreneur Aptitude Scale. Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Available for purchase at: 133
  • 137. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development This study explored the reliability and validity of the Chinese Entrepreneur Aptitude Scale (CEAS). Additionally, the study compared the CEAS scores among different segments of youth in China and the scores of Chinese youth with Taiwanese youth. 18 ChildFinance. (2010, June 7-9). International ChildFinance Expert’s Meeting Report. Accessible at: ChildFinance_meeting_report.pdfAnnexes The International ChildFinance Expert’s meeting was held June 7 – 9, 2010 in Zandvoort, The Netherlands. During the conference, participants discussed the various themes of ChildFinance and how they can be further developed. This report presents the outcomes of the meeting. 19 Chowa, G., Ansong, D., & Masa, R. (2010). Assets and Child Well-Being in Developing Countries: A Research Review. Children & Youth Services Review, 32(11), 1508-1519. Available for purchase at: The impact of assets on child well-being in developing countries has received considerable attention in the last decade. Increased recognition of the critical role played by assets in enhancing children’s well-being has spurred efforts to study the relationship between assets and a range of outcomes for children. This chapter reviews studies conducted within the past 10 years that explore the relationship of asset ownership and children’s outcomes in the areas of health, education, and child labor. Overall, the studies reviewed show that asset ownership improves children’s health conditions, advances schooling outcomes, and decreases the incidence of child labor. 20 Dhillon, N., Djavad, S., Dyer, P., Youfef, T., Fahmy, A., & Kraetsch, M. (2010). Missed by the Boom, Hurt by the Bust; Making Markets Work for Young People in the Middle East. Brookings: Middle East Youth Initiative. Accessible at: reports/2009/05_middle_east_youth_dhillon/05_middle_east_youth_dhillon_final.pdf This report reflects on the damage done to young people in the Middle East by the turbulent economy, and what measures can be and are being taken by governments and international organizations to protect them. 21 Dhillon, N. (Ed.), & Tarik, Y. (Ed.). (2009, October). Generation in Waiting: The Unfulfilled Promise of Young People in the Middle East. Brookings: Middle East Youth Initiative. Book preview and purchase accessible at: detail/1457/ This book portrays the plight of youth in the Middle East, urging greater investment to improve the lives of this critical group. The book discusses some of the complex challenges facing the region’s youth, including access to decent education, opportunities for employment, availability of housing and credit, and transitioning to marriage and family formation. The authors present policy implications and set an agenda for future economic development. This webpage includes a fact sheet, a sample chapter and a link to order the book. 22 Education Development Center. (2009). Rwanda Youth Employment Assessment Report. Accessible at: This report is an in-depth assessment of the challenges and opportunities for urban young people, aged 15- 24, in Rwanda. The report was created to inform the fielding of a USAID initiative to respond to the need among Rwandan youth for education and healthy and sufficient livelihoods opportunities. 134
  • 138. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development 23 Education Development Center. (2009). Youth Councils: An Effective Way to Promote Youth Participation (Some Initial Findings from Africa). Accessible at: docs/e3-youthcouncils.pdf This report from the Education Development Center explains the important role of youth councils operating at local, national, regional and international levels in promoting information exchange, building leadership, Annexes fostering civic engagement, and creating opportunities for young people. 24 Education Development Center. (2009, May). Youth Have Opportunities for Work in East Timor Quarterly Report January 1 – March 31, 2009. USAID. Accessible at: http://pdf.usaid. gov/pdf_docs/PDACO221.pdf This quarterly report covers the phase I progress (January-March, 2009) of the Youth Have Opportunities for Work in East Timor project. This USAID-funded program aims, over a period of three years, to provide at least 2,500 minimally-educated rural men and women, ages 16-30, with a workforce preparation program that combines off-the-job instruction with on-the-job training. The report summarizes major accomplishments of the program in this period and plans for the next period. 25 Elliott, W., Kim, K., Jung, H., & Zhan, M. (2010). Asset Holding and Educational Attainment among African American Youth. Children & Youth Services Review, 32(11), 1497-1507. Available for purchase at: This study examines the relationship between children’s wealth and parental wealth and math and reading scores. It also examines whether different forms of wealth (net worth, homeownership, and children’s savings for school) have different effects and whether wealth (parental and/or children’s) effects vary across racial groups. 26 European Financial Marketing Association (EFMA), & Oracle Financial Services. (2010, September). Are Banks Ready for the Next Generation Customer? Accessible at: http://www. This report addresses the fact that a large proportion of banks’ customer base is currently constituted by Generation Y customers. It addresses the need for a dedicated strategy to engage and reach out to this group and presents recommendations. 27 European Union. (2010). Guiding At-Risk Youth through Learning to Work: Lessons from Across Europe. Accessible at: This report draws attention to guidance measures and initiatives applied across Europe to aid school completion and the education-to-work transitions of young people who risk dropping out of mainstream education and training or who already have done so. 28 European Union. (2010). ICT and Youth at Risk: How ICT-Driven Initiatives Can Contribute to their Socio-Economic Inclusion and How to Measure It. Accessible at: EURdoc/JRC58427.pdf This report aims to provide policymakers with an overview of how ICT can be used to address the livelihoods needs of youth at risk. It provides examples of initiatives actively using ICT to foster the socio- economic inclusion of young people, how they are creating an impact and how this impact is evaluated. The report includes information the potential role of ICT in helping youth find jobs and further education and training opportunities. 135
  • 139. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development 29 Feldbaum, M., & States, H. (2009). Going Green: The Vital Role of Community Colleges in Building a Sustainable Future and Green Workforce. Academy for Educational Development, and the National Council for Workforce Education. Accessible at: Publications/upload/GoingGreen.pdf This report examines the role of community colleges in creating a clean energy economy and provides examples of innovative strategies used by community colleges to address climate change, environmentalAnnexes stewardship, and green youth workforce development. 30 Felton, N. (2009, January). Early Lessons Targeting Populations with a Value Chain Approach. Cardno Emerging Markets Group, Ltd. Accessible at: node/2323 In order to identify some of the effects of applying a value chain approach to specific target populations— such as youth, orphans, and vulnerable children—the Emerging Markets Group evaluated three of its projects. In this report, the authors garner key themes from this evaluation that can be useful to other practitioners in determining an appropriate method for integrating a market-based approach with social objectives. 31 Fien, R., Maclean, R., & Park, M. (2009). Work, Learning, and Sustainable Development: Opportunities and Challenges. UNESCO-UNEVOC Book Series. Accessible at: http://www. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the way education systems and institutions in a wide range of countries have responded to the call for an integration of youth learning for work, citizenship, and sustainability. 32 Gallup, & Silatech. (2009, June). The Silatech Index: Voices of Young Arabs. Accessible at: This report analyzes the attitudes of young Arabs with respect to their human capital, work, and entrepreneurship opportunities. 33 Green, M., Kanesathasan, A., Hollingworth, G., Browning, J., & Goldstein-Siegel, E. (2010). On the Map: Charting the Landscape of Girl Work. International Center for Research on Women. Accessible at: The International Center for Research on Women designed a mapping exercise to identify the scope and range of girl work being undertaken by key development actors and to analyze the core directions, synergies, opportunities, and gaps inherent across the efforts of multiple stakeholders. This report presents the key findings from this exercise, describing lessons about the donors and organizations engaged in girl work, the policy and program efforts underway, and current and future directions for the field. 34 Herrmann, K. (2010). Starting from Scratch: The Challenges of Including Youth in Rebuilding Southern Sudan. Women’s Refugee Commission. Accessible at: http:// challenges-of-including-youth-in-rebuilding-southern-sudan The purpose of this study was to identify young women and men’s skill-building needs, challenges and opportunities, extract lessons learned from existing training programs, and document current and emerging demand for skills in the Southern Sudanese labor market. The assessment sought to establish how vocational 136
  • 140. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development training and alternative education programs could be designed to better suit the demands of the Southern Sudanese economy and accommodate the specific needs of different sub-groups of youth. 35 Hirschland, M. (2009). Youth Savings Accounts: A Financial Service Perspective. USAID. Accessible at: Savings accounts are seen as one in a promising package of services that can help youth cushion themselves Annexes against economic shocks, build assets, and accumulate wealth that can be used to invest in a better future. This literature and program review report looks at youth savings services from a financial service rather than a youth service perspective. 36 Hofer, A. et al. (2010). From Strategy to Practice in University Entrepreneurship Support: Strengthening Entrepreneurship and Local Economic Development in Eastern Germany: Youth, Entrepreneurship and Innovation. OECD Local Economic and Employment Development (LEED) Working Papers. OECD Publishing. Accessible at: http://dx.doi. org/10.1787/5km7rq1xvnxp-en This report from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Center for Entrepreneurship brings together findings from case studies in Berlin and Rostock, Germany on best practices in entrepreneurship support provided youth in university settings. 37 Holmes, R., & Barrientos, A. (2009). Child Poverty: A Role for Cash Transfers? West and Central Africa. Overseas Development Institute and UNICEF. Accessible at: http://www.odi. This report examines social assistance in the form of cash transfers for children in West Central Africa and explores how this can contribute to addressing specific risks and vulnerabilities faced by children in the region. 38 Inter-American Development Bank, & International Youth Foundation. (2009, September). Final Report of the Entra21 Program, Phase 1: 2001-2007. Accessible at: uploads/ENTRA21_Phase1.pdf This report evaluates the results of the first phase of the Entra21 program, a regional employability program targeting disadvantaged youth in Latin America and the Caribbean. It describes how 35 locally executed projects have implemented varying strategies to train some 19,000 young people, placing more than 10,000 in good jobs, and the lessons learned from these experiences. 39 International Center for Research on Women. (2010, April). Emerging Insights: Linkages Between Economic Empowerment and HIV Interventions for Girls and Young Women – Meeting Report. Accessible at: girl-expert-meetings/economic-empowerment-HIV Girls and young women are disproportionately affected by both poverty and HIV. Donors, policymakers, researchers, and program implementers are exploring economic empowerment programs as a strategy to improve the economic and health status of girls and young women. But the linkages between HIV status and economic status are complex, and the role that economic approaches play in preventing HIV infection and mitigating its impact is unproven. In April 2010, ICRW with support from the Nike Foundation convened a meeting of researchers, program implementers, policymakers, and donors to explore these linkages and approaches. 137
  • 141. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development 40 International Labour Organization. (2009). Final Evaluation Report: Project Skills Development and Youth Employment in Kosovo: Phases I and II. This technical report provides background on a skills development and youth employment project implemented by the ILO in Kosovo. The report reviews the project’s implementation and presents findings and recommendations.Annexes 41 International Labour Organization. (2010, August). Global Employment Trends for Youth. Accessible at: trends/documents/publication/wcms_143349.pdf This report presents the latest global and regional labor market trends for youth and explores how the global economic crisis has exposed the vulnerabilities of young people. 42 International Labour Organization. (2009, October). Independent Evaluation of the ILO’s Strategy to Increase Member States’ Capacities to Develop Policies and Programmes Focused on Youth Employment. This evaluation analyzes the ILO’s strategy to address the issue of youth employment in member states. The report discusses the effectiveness and efficiency of ILO support, as well as internal coordination and management for youth employment at the global level. It draws on project documentation, interviews, and country case studies to identify useful lessons for future work. 43 International Labour Organization. (2009). Supporting Entrepreneurship Education: A Report on the Global Outreach of the ILO’s Know About Business Programme. This report presents an estimate of the global reach of the ILO’s Know About Business (KAB) entrepreneurship education program; and gives a glimpse of the breadth and depth of national efforts to introduce and integrate entrepreneurship education into secondary, vocational/technical training, and higher education systems. 44 International Youth Foundation. (2010, February). Building on Hope: Findings from a Rapid Community Appraisal in Jordan. Accessible at: YWJ_RCA_Full_0.pdf Youth:Work Jordan (YWJ) is a five-year initiative to improve employment and civic engagement among the country’s most vulnerable youth between the ages of 15 to 24. This Rapid Community Appraisal (RCA) report paints a challenging picture of unmet needs, gaps in existing services, community infrastructure deficits, and very low levels of civic engagement among youth. It also looks at potential ways for youth to improve their circumstances and presents concrete recommendations for action. 45 International Youth Foundation. (2010, April). Education and Employment Alliance: An Evaluation of Partnerships in Support of Youth Employability. Accessible at: http://www.iyfnet. org/sites/default/files/EEA_Final_Global_Evaluation_Report.pdf An initiative of the International Youth Foundation, the Education & Employment Alliance (EEA) was launched in 2005 with support from USAID to benefit disadvantaged, unemployed youth in countries with emerging economies and high rates of youth joblessness, helping them to acquire marketable employability skills, gain decent employment, and make a full and successful transition to adulthood. This report covers the program’s accomplishments, offers lessons learned, and identifies best practices. 138
  • 142. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development 46 International Youth Foundation. (2010). Obra Learning and Launch Event Proceedings. Accessible at: This report is an overview of the proceedings of the Youth:Work Project Obra Learning and Launch Event, which was held in Kingston, Jamaica April 12-14, 2010. The overall goals of the meeting were to: review the socio-economic context and challenges facing youth in the Latin America and Caribbean region; analyze significant barriers and opportunities for youth; develop a common language around the target population, Annexes a shared understanding of key elements of the Obra program, and the core components of a unified vision across countries; explore the theme of multi-sectoral partnerships and strategies for success; learn how to use positive youth messaging to reach targeted audiences and the wider public; and prepare initial elements of the Partnership Action Plans to be developed in the three sub-regional partnerships between the Caribbean, Central America and South America. 47 International Youth Foundation. (2009, October). Youth Entrepreneurship: Lessons from India. Field Notes, 3(16). Accessible at: FieldNotes16Tsunami1262151559.pdf This study presents the experiences and lessons learned of the Community Collective Society for Integrated Development (CCFID), a nongovernmental organization in India that for the past three years has promoted youth entrepreneurship in a region devastated by the 2004 tsunami. 48 Jones, N., Harper, C., & Watson, C. (2010). Stemming Girls’ Chronic Poverty: Catalyzing Development Change by Building Just Social Institutes. Chronic Poverty Research Centre. Accessible at: This report discusses the importance of considering cultural and social norms and practices when trying to fully understand girls’ experiences of chronic poverty and to identify possible entry points for intervention. 49 Junior Achievement. (2009, October). 2009 Teens and Entrepreneurship Survey. Accessible at: Junior Achievement took the entrepreneurial pulse of American teens with its 2009 “Teens and Entrepreneurship” Poll. The report shares the surveyed teens’ opinions about the role of entrepreneurship training in the U.S. education system and when it should be taught. 50 Kabani, N. (2009, March). Why Young Syrians Prefer Public Sector Jobs. Middle East Youth Initiative Policy Outlook. Accessible at: +Outlook+2+English.pdf&tabid=308&mid=826&language=en-US This report examines how public sector employment policies in Syria affect youths’ transition from school to work. Despite the effort to shift to private sector solutions, Syria’s traditional socio-economic model and incentives in the public sector continue to reinforce preferences among youth for public sector employment. The report includes policy recommendations to create new opportunities for youth. 51 Karamchandani, A., Kubzansky, M., & Frandano, P. (2009, March). Emerging Markets, Emerging Models: Market-Based Solutions to the Challenges of Global Poverty. Monitor Group. Accessible at: MonitorUnitedStates/Articles/PDFs/Monitor_Emerging_Markets_NEDS_03_25_09.pdf This report investigates “market-based solutions” as a means to providing an enduring solution to those residing at the base of the global income pyramid. The report is addressed to organizations and individuals interested in utilizing market-based solutions and presents successful business models operating in low- 139
  • 143. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development income markets and how they work. The report is based on Monitor’s extensive research into hundreds of market-based solutions around the world, with a particular focus on India. 52 Kauffman Foundation. (2010). Young People Dream of Becoming Entrepreneurs Despite America’s Lingering Recession. Accessible at: youth_eship_factsheet_2010.pdfAnnexes Despite a difficult economic climate, many young Americans are still interested in entrepreneurial pursuits. A Kauffman Foundation survey conducted by Harris Interactive finds that four out of ten young people, ages eight to twenty-one, would like to start their own business in the future, and another 37 percent did not close the door to entrepreneurship, saying they were just unsure about it. The report includes this and related findings. 53 Kenyon, P. (2009). Partnerships for Youth Employment: A Review of Selected Community- Based Initiatives. International Labour Organization. This report identifies and describes a set of community-based youth employment projects from across the globe that represent valuable examples of collaboration between development players. The report highlights outstanding examples of public-private partnerships and their success factors as guidance to others interested in forming similar alliances. 54 Lloyd, C. (2009). New Lessons: The Power of Educating Adolescent Girls. Population Council. Accessible at: This report offers new evidence of the returns girls reap when they remain in school during adolescence. It also provides a compendium of promising, girl-friendly educational initiatives with key features of hundreds of programs, sorted by region and country. The report includes a ten-step plan to count, invest in, and advocate for adolescent girls’ education. 55 Making Cents International. (2010). State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development: Programming and Policymaking in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development; and Youth-Inclusive Financial Services. Accessible at: http:// This publication is a synthesis of the key learning points and programmatic examples that were shared during Making Cents International’s 2009 Global Youth Enterprise Conference. Key stakeholders in the growing community of youth enterprise, employment, and livelihoods development convened to share experiences and discuss what holds potential, what is working and how to measure success. Topics covered include, but are not limited to: market-driven approaches; entrepreneurship education; monitoring, evaluation and impact assessment; and youth-inclusive financial services. 56 Martinez, et. al. (2010). Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Special Report: A Global Perspective. Babson, Universidad del Desarrollo, Reykjavik University. Accessible at: http:// This report presents expert opinions on the current state of entrepreneurship education and training in 30 countries. The report details the level and sources of training received by the adult population (18-64) in the countries surveyed. The authors develop profiles of individuals most and least likely to have received training, as well as the effects of training on an individual’s entrepreneurial awareness, attitudes, intentions and activity in each of the participating countries. 140
  • 144. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development 57 Masa, R., Sherraden, M. S., Zou, L., Ssewamala, F., Johnson, E., & Ansong, D., et al. (2010). Youth Savings Around the World: Youth Characteristics, Savings Performance, and Potential Impacts. Washington University, Center for Social Development. Accessible at: http://csd. This report reviews available evidence on youth savings programs, characteristics of youth savers, savings performance, and potential impacts of saving on youth development. Annexes 58 Mason, L. R., Nam, Y., Clancy, M., Kim, Y., & Loke, V. (2010). Child Development Accounts and Saving for Children’s Future: Do Financial Incentives Matter? Children & Youth Services Review, 32(11), 1570-1576. Working paper accessible at: Documents/WP09-54.pdf. Full publication available for purchase at: This study examines savings outcomes in the first large-scale demonstration of Child Development Accounts (CDAs) in the United States—the Saving for Education, Entrepreneurship, and Downpayment (SEED) initiative. It is also the first empirical study, to the authors’ knowledge, to investigate associations between savings outcomes and incentives in an asset-building program for children. This study enhances knowledge about saving in CDAs, incentives in public policy in general, and incentives in savings policy in particular. Results can inform CDA policy design. 59 Microfinance Opportunities, Freedom from Hunger, & Citigroup Foundation. (2009, Spring). Global Financial Education Program. Financial Education Update, 3(3). Accessible at: http:// The Global Financial Education Program develops curricula targeted at low-income households and trains a broad range of service organizations. This report discusses the growth of financial education outreach, new curricula from the Global Financial Education Program, and financial education for adolescent girls. 60 Miller, P. (2009, September). Youth Entrepreneurship at the Robinson Community Learning Center: An Evaluation of Context, Processes, and Outcomes. Mendoza College of Business, University of Notre Dame. Accessible at: This study evaluates the youth entrepreneurship programming at the Robinson Community Learning Center in South Bend, Indiana. The program is funded by the U.S. Small Business Association and is administered by the University of Notre Dame. 61 Monitor Group. (2009, January). Paths to Prosperity: Promoting Entrepreneurship in the 21st Century. Accessible at: DownloadFiles/NED_report_final.pdf Drawing on decades of experience advising governments on economic competitiveness, Monitor Group has studied and identified the crucial factors that encourage or impede entrepreneurship throughout the world. This report presents key findings and provides policymakers with better tools to assess the state of the entrepreneurial environment in their region, and with better strategies to improve it. 62 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2009). Evaluation of Programmes Concerning Education for Entrepreneurship. OECD Working Party on SMEs and Entrepreneurship, OECD. Accessible at: 141
  • 145. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development The overall aim of this study is to strengthen the culture of evaluation within entrepreneurship education by providing guidelines for evaluation in order to gain a better understanding of how to promote entrepreneurship education. 63 Peeters, P., Cunningham, W., Acharya, G., & Van Adams, A. (2009). Youth Employment in Sierra Leone: Sustainable Livelihood Opportunities in a Post-Conflict Setting. The World Bank. Available for purchase at: This study examines the supply and demand sides of the labor market in Sierra Leone to better understand the situation of young people relative to that of adults; it further presents an evidence-based menu of potential programs for Sierra Leone. The authors conclude that youth are a dynamic part of the country’s labor market and that the observed youth employment patterns are a result of the economy’s structure rather than constraints facing youth. 64 Pickens, M., Porteous, D., & Rotman, R. (2009, October). Scenarios for Branchless Banking in 2020. CGAP & DFID. Accessible at: The growing use of branchless banking channels over the coming years is inevitable in most countries. But it’s far less certain whether large numbers of the unbanked poor, including youth, will use these alternative channels for financial services beyond payments, such as savings and credit. CGAP and DFID undertook a six-month scenario-building project in which almost 200 experts from more than 30 countries helped answer the question “How can the government and private sector most affect the uptake and usage of branchless banking among the unserved majority by 2020?” 65 Pillai, R., Carlo, R., & D’souza, R. (2010). Financial Prudence Among Youth. Accessible at: This study has a domestic U.S. focus. It explores the magnitude of financial literacy among youth with a focus on their expenditure and saving trends. 66 Plan International. (2009). Because I Am a Girl: The State of the World’s Girls 2009: Girls in the Global Economy: Adding it All Up. Accessible at: plan/resources/publications/campaigns/because-i-am-a-girl-girls-in-the-global-economy- 2009/?searchterm=because%20i%20am%20a%20girl This publication is the third in a series of annual reports published by Plan International. It presents new analysis of the important role that girls and young women play in economic growth and the missed opportunities of failing to invest in their futures. The report is also a call to action to invest early in girls’ education and meaningful work opportunities to ensure a more prosperous and equitable society. 67 Plan International. (2010). Because I Am a Girl: The State of the World’s Girls 2010: Digital and Urban Frontiers. Accessible at: urban-frontiers-2010.php This publication is the fourth in a series of annual reports published by Plan International. Focusing on two of the 21st Century’s fastest growing areas, the boom in city populations and the explosion of information and communication technology, the report looks at the prospects and perils facing girls. 68 Population Council. (2009). Adolescent Experience In-Depth: Using Data to Identify and Reach the Most Vulnerable Young People. Accessible at: publications/serialsbriefs/AdolExpInDepth.asp 142
  • 146. The purpose of this report, which draws principally on data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), is to provide decision makers at all levels—from governments, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and advocacy groups—with data on the situation of adolescent girls and boys aged 10-24 years. The data are presented in graphs, tables, and maps (wherever possible), providing multiple formats to make the information accessible to a range of audiences.69 Population Council. (2010, February). Survey of Young People in Egypt: Preliminary Report. AnnexesAccessible at: The 2009 Survey of Young People in Egypt (SYPE) builds upon the ASCE survey from the previous decade with a larger group of young people ages 10 to 29. This report focuses on the five key life transitions for youth: health, education, employment and livelihood, family formation, and civic participation.70 Salkowitz, R. (2010). Young World Rising: How Youth Technology and Entrepreneurship areChanging the World from the Bottom Up. Wiley Publishing. Available for purchase at: This book explores how the spread of data networks is empowering youth to build new kinds of organizations adapted to a “flat and crowded” world. It includes a tour of the new centers of entrepreneurial innovation on five continents, exploring the dynamics driving the emergence of the Young World; demonstrating how wired Young World insurgents are reinventing entrepreneurship; providing an inside look at some of the most innovative Young World businesses from India, Africa, Latin America and Southeast Asia; and identifying how existing organizations can capitalize on the rise of the Young World to find new talent, open new markets, identify investment opportunities, and more.71 Sayre, E., & Al-Botmeh, S. (2010). Youth Exclusion in the West Bank and Gaza Strip: TheImpact of Social, Economic, and Political Forces. Middle East Youth Initiative. Accessible at: This report studies the transition to adulthood for youth in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip through education, training, finding employment, and starting a family. It explains the difficulties of the transition to adulthood in an area of political, social, and economic extremes, and concludes with policy recommendations.72 Semlali, A., & Osicka, T. (2009, July). Youth Investments in the World Bank Portfolio. Childand Youth Development Notes, 3(2). Accessible at: This report provides a summary of World Bank projects that were designed to target youth from 1995 to 2007. It identifies trends in lending and grants in terms of loan amounts, the number of projects, sectorial emphases and regional distribution. Some of the projects have a focus on youth enterprise, employment, and/or livelihoods development.73 Sijbers, H. (2010). The Impact of Microfinance Loans on the Growth of Small Businesses:Youth Entrepreneurs in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. Youth Seen. For a copy of this paper, This study presents the impact of microfinance on business growth for youth entrepreneurs in Tanzania as well as recommendations for improving service delivery.74 Swanepoel, E. (2009, August). The Effect of the Interventions of the South AfricanBreweries’ Kickstart Youth Entrepreneurship Program on Entrepreneurial and Small Business
  • 147. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development Performance in South Africa. University of South Africa. Accessible at: bitstream/10500/1875/1/thesis.pdf This study examined the effectiveness of the South African Breweries’ (SAB) KickStart program in supporting young South Africans in establishing and growing small businesses. The SAB KickStart program comprises five phases: an awareness campaign, recruitment and training, a business plan competition for grants, success enhancement, and national awards.Annexes 75 The Academy for Educational Development. (2009). Kosovo Anti-Trafficking Program (KAP): Report of Kosovo Community Youth Mapping Data Analysis. Accessible at: http://www.aed. org/Publications/loader.cfm?url=/commonspot/security/getfile.cfm&pageid=35043 This report examines the Kosovo Anti-Trafficking Program, which in part aims to increase the vocational, education, employment, and business opportunities of at-risk youth in Kosovo. It discusses the program’s implementation, introduces its methodology, and presents the data analysis and results that emerged from the data Youth Mappers collected through the program. 76 The SEEP Network. (2009). Linking Youth with Knowledge and Opportunities in Microfinance (LYKOM) Project, Morocco. Accessible at: Save_Zakoura_Youth_FS_Case_Study.pdf This report introduces the reader to, and provides lessons and recommendations from, the Linking Youth with Knowledge and Opportunities in Microfinance (LYKOM) project, funded by USAID and implemented by Save the Children and Fondation Zakoura Micro-Credit in Morocco. The program includes financial and business literacy training, savings promotion, and access to credit for youth-run businesses. 77 Tower, C., McGuinness, E., & Sebstad, J. (2010, June). Savings and Financial Education for Girls in Mongolia. Microfinance Opportunities. Accessible at: http://www. Girls%20in%20Mongolia.pdf The Savings Innovation and Expansion for Adolescent Girls and Young Women project in Mongolia offers a combined program for adolescent girls including financial education classes and a savings product. The ultimate objective of the program is to unleash the power of girls to create positive change in their families and communities. This report presents the results of the baseline impact assessment of the program. 78 UNDP. (2010, August). Synthesis Report of 18 Poverty and Social Impact Analysis Studies. Accessible at: &id=2819389 This synthesis report presents the key findings from Poverty and Social Impact Analysis (PSIA) economic crisis studies based on a review of 18 country reports. PSIA studies conducted in these countries cover a variety of problems exacerbated by the economic crisis, including youth unemployment, and present wide- ranging policy options to mitigate them. 79 UNDP. (2010, June). What Will it Take to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals? An International Assessment. Accessible at: asset/?asset_id=2620072 Building on the lessons from the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) Synthesis Report, this document specifies what is required to accelerate MDG progress in the next five years. The assessment includes 144
  • 148. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development mention of youth enterprise and employment and is helpful in seeing the YEELD field in the “big picture” of achieving the MDGs. 80 UN-Habitat. (2010). State of the Urban Youth 2010-2011. Summary Sheets Accessible at:, and documents/SOWC10/L3.pdf. Full report available for purchase at: pmss/listItemDetails.aspx?publicationID=2928 Annexes This report focuses on youth exclusion from opportunities in urban areas. The report is based on data from UN-HABITAT’s Global Urban Indicator Database, as well as surveys of, and focus group discussions with, selected representative groups of young people in five major cities located in four developing regions: Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), Mumbai (India), Kingston (Jamaica), Nairobi (Kenya), and Lagos (Nigeria). 81 UNICEF. (2009). ADAP Learning Series Volume 4: Youth Participation in Poverty Reduction Strategies and National Development Plans. Accessible at adolescence/files/FINAL_ADAP_Learning_series_no4_April_8_2009.pdf This report examines the possibilities for the use of social entrepreneurship in UNICEF programs. It provides an overview and history of social entrepreneurship and discusses methods for scaling up social entrepreneurship through government policies. 82 USAID Health Policy Initiative. (2009, November). Sustainable Livelihood Programs and HIV/AIDS. Accessible at: This factsheet presents information on the link between livelihood development programs and HIV/AIDS. 83 Volkmann, C., Wilson, K.E., Mariotti, S., Rabuzzi, D., Vyakarnam, S., & Sepulveda, A. (2009, April). Educating the Next Wave of Entrepreneurs: Unlocking Entrepreneurial Capabilities to Meet the Global Challenges of the 21st Century. Global Education Initiative, and World Economic Forum. Accessible at: Education_Report.pdf This report consolidates existing knowledge and global good practices in entrepreneurship education to facilitate sharing and scaling and to enable the development of innovative new tools and delivery methods. It provides a landscape of entrepreneurship education practices for youth. The report also outlines specific approaches and recommendations for stakeholders. 84 Walker, C., Millar-Wood, J.C., & Allemano, E. (2009, April). Liberia Youth Fragility Assessment. USAID. Accessible at: This report provides a portrait of the difficult realities faced by Liberian youth and recommendations for USAID to use education to develop sustainable livelihoods for youth. These recommendations are based on observations of local leaders and youth representatives and analysis from NGOs, independent researchers, and the Liberian government. 85 Women’s Refugee Commission. (2009, September). Dreams Deferred: Educational and Skill-Building Needs and Opportunities for Youth in Liberia. Accessible at: http://www. This report is based on an assessment completed in Liberia in July 2009 to gather information to inform efforts aimed at helping young people earn a dignified living and con¬tribute to the reconstruction of their communities. The assessment sought to identify the goods and services that are in demand in two 145
  • 149. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development counties of Liberia with high concentrations of conflict-affected youth. In collaboration with young people and stakeholders in the areas of education and skills training, the Women’s Refugee Commission also took stock of the experience of post-war training efforts to date, documented existing programs, and developed recommendations for addressing gaps in services and strength¬ening interventions. 86 Women’s Refugee Commission. (2009, May). Refugee Girls: The Invisible Faces of War. Accessible at: Eighty percent of the more than 40 million people displaced by war and human rights abuses are women, children and young people. The Women’s Refugee Commission writes in this book about many aspects of displaced girls’ lives, including girl soldiers, trafficking, life in a refugee camp, and girls’ and young women’s livelihoods options. 87 World Bank Group. (2009, March). Argentine Youth: An Untapped Potential. Accessible at: 1/000333037_20090511001608/Rendered/PDF/484600PUB0Arge101Official0Use0Only1.pdf Argentina’s youth cohort is the country’s largest ever, while 46 percent of youth are at-risk. This report applies this group the framework of the 2007 World Development Report and examines the five life- changing transitions that all youth confront: leaving school and continuing to learn, starting to work, developing and maintaining a healthy lifestyle, forming a family, and exercising citizenship. 88 World Bank Group. (2010, November). Doing Business 2011: Making a Difference for Entrepreneurs. Accessible at: business-2011 Doing Business 2011 is the eighth in a series of annual reports benchmarking the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. The report presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights for 183 countries. The data are current as June 2010. Doing Business indicators help policymakers to learn from global best practices and prioritize reforms. 89 World Bank Group. (2010). World Bank International Essay Competition 2010: Youth Unemployment. Accessible at: Competition_Newsletter_October2010.pdf The World Bank launched the 2010 Competition on Youth Unemployment in January 2010, inviting young people around the world to submit essays and videos responding to the following questions: 1) How does youth unemployment affect you, your country, town, or local community, and 2) What can you do to find a sustainable solution for job seekers through youth entrepreneurship? The competition attracted more than 2,000 submissions in English, French, and Spanish from over 130 countries (95 percent of submissions came from developing countries). This summary report includes general conclusions and quotes from contest submissions. 90 World Bank Group. (2009). Youth and Employment in Africa: The Potential, the Problem, the Promise. Accessible at: Employment-in-Africa-2008-2009.pdf This year’s publication of the Africa Development Indicators 2008-2009 includes an essay on youth and employment on the African continent. Published by the Africa Region of the World Bank, the report introduces facts about youth and labor markets, analyzes past interventions and potential policy responses and offers case study examples from Burkina Faso and Kenya. 146
  • 150. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development 91 World Economic Forum. (2009, April). Educating the Next Wave of Entrepreneurs. Accessible at: This World Economic Forum report profiles a broad spectrum of entrepreneurship education initiatives with the aim of providing a sense of the variety and scale of these programs around the world. 92 Youth Business International. (2009). Youth Entrepreneurship: Recommendations for Annexes Action. Accessible at: recommendations-for-action/ This report provides suggestions for how businesses, governments, and civil society organizations can help young people get started in business. Specifically, the report draws on best practices from multiple different organizations to