State of the field in YouthenterpriSe, emploYment andlivelihoodS developmentA Guide for Programming, Policymaking,and Part...
Table of Contents      Chapter 1              Chapter 2             Chapter 3             Chapter 4              Chapter 5...
Table of Contents   Chapter 1          Chapter 2       Chapter 3        Chapter 4        Chapter 5   Conclusion   Annexes ...
Table of Contents               Chapter 1                            Chapter 2                            Chapter 3       ...
Table of Contents   Chapter 1   Chapter 2     Chapter 3         Chapter 4         Chapter 5        Conclusion         Anne...
Table of Contents    Chapter 1         Chapter 2        Chapter 3         Chapter 4         Chapter 5        Conclusion   ...
Table of Contents             Chapter 1                Chapter 2     Chapter 3         Chapter 4         Chapter 5        ...
Table of Contents   Chapter 1          Chapter 2      Chapter 3         Chapter 4         Chapter 5         Conclusion    ...
Table of Contents   Chapter 1   Chapter 2     Chapter 3         Chapter 4         Chapter 5        Conclusion         Anne...
Table of Contents   Chapter 1   Chapter 2    Chapter 3   Chapter 4   Chapter 5   Conclusion   Annexes                     ...
Table of Contents               Chapter 1              Chapter 2              Chapter 3               Chapter 4           ...
Table of Contents       Chapter 1       Chapter 2        Chapter 3        Chapter 4         Chapter 5        Conclusion   ...
Table of Contents           Chapter 1         Chapter 2        Chapter 3         Chapter 4         Chapter 5        Conclu...
Table of Contents    Chapter 1        Chapter 2         Chapter 3        Chapter 4         Chapter 5        Conclusion    ...
Table of Contents           Chapter 1         Chapter 2         Chapter 3         Chapter 4         Chapter 5        Concl...
Table of Contents        Chapter 1           Chapter 2          Chapter 3            Chapter 4          Chapter 5         ...
Table of Contents   Chapter 1   Chapter 2     Chapter 3         Chapter 4         Chapter 5        Conclusion         Anne...
Table of Contents   Chapter 1   Chapter 2   Chapter 3   Chapter 4   Chapter 5   Conclusion   Annexes                      ...
Table of Contents         Chapter 1          Chapter 2           Chapter 3            Chapter 4           Chapter 5       ...
Table of Contents       Chapter 1       Chapter 2        Chapter 3         Chapter 4         Chapter 5        Conclusion  ...
Table of Contents      Chapter 1        Chapter 2         Chapter 3        Chapter 4         Chapter 5        Conclusion  ...
Table of Contents        Chapter 1          Chapter 2           Chapter 3             Chapter 4          Chapter 5        ...
Table of Contents      Chapter 1         Chapter 2         Chapter 3         Chapter 4         Chapter 5        Conclusion...
Table of Contents   Chapter 1   Chapter 2   Chapter 3   Chapter 4   Chapter 5   Conclusion   Annexes                      ...
Table of Contents                                  Chapter 1        Chapter 2         Chapter 3        Chapter 4         C...
Table of Contents        Chapter 1              Chapter 2               Chapter 3               Chapter 4              Cha...
Table of Contents                                  Chapter 1          Chapter 2          Chapter 3             Chapter 4  ...
Table of Contents         Chapter 1          Chapter 2           Chapter 3              Chapter 4           Chapter 5     ...
Table of Contents                                     Chapter 1              Chapter 2              Chapter 3             ...
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.
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Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES.

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Una guia de recursos actualizados de información, contactos, herramientas y eventos relacionados con la promoción del emprendedurismo juvenil en el mundo que es util para los que trabajan con jóvenes en Honduras.

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Transcript of "Making Cents International 2011 State of the field. RECURSOS E INFORMACION PARA EL DESARROLLO DE EMPRESAS JUVENILES."

  1. 1. State of the field in YouthenterpriSe, emploYment andlivelihoodS developmentA Guide for Programming, Policymaking,and Partnership BuildingAlso includes information on:• 316 recently released articles, books, case studies, handbooks, interviews, publications, reports, technical briefs, toolkits, and portals.• 27 learning events related to youth enterprise, employment and livelihoods development that take place in 2011.In partnership with: THE WORLD BANK
  2. 2. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes STATE OF THE FIELD IN YOUTH ENTERPRISE, EMPLOYMENT AND LIVELIHOODS DEVELOPMENT A Guide for Programming, Policymaking and Partnership Building To provide feedback or other comments on this publication, please contact: whitney@makingcents.com • Skype: MakingCentsConference www.makingcents.com • www.YouthEconomicOpportunities.org • www.yfslink.org © 2011 Making Cents International. All rights reserved, including the right of reproduction in whole or in part in any form. Written permission from Making Cents International is required before extracting any section of this publication. If any content is used, a reference of this publication is required. All information in this publication is verified to the best of the authors’ ability. First printing, February, 2011, in the United States of America.
  3. 3. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes All presentations and presentation material from Making Cents International’s 2010 Global Youth Enterprise & Livelihoods Development Conference can be accessed at: http://www.youthenterpriseconference.org/agenda_2010.asp. To download Making Cents International’s previous post-conference “State of the Field” publications, please visit: www.makingcents.com or www.YouthEconomicOpportunities.org. Join us at the 2011 Global Youth Economic Opportunities Conference September 7-9, 2011 in Washington, DC! For more information, please visit: www.YouthEconomicOpportunities.org. Visit the new YFS-Link portal: www.yfslink.org. The one-stop-shop for information on Youth-Inclusive Financial Services. To learn more about Making Cents International’s projects, curricula and services, please visit: www.makingcents.com.
  4. 4. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development Table of Contents Letter from Making Cents International . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Executive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Chapter I: Youth Enterprise Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Chapter 2: Workforce Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Chapter 3: Youth-Inclusive Financial Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Chapter 4: Adolescent Girls & Young Women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Chapter 5: Monitoring, Evaluation & Impact Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Annex I: Acronyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108 Annex II: Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .109 Annex III: 2009-2010 Articles, Briefs, Interviews, Papers, Technical Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . .112 Annex IV: 2009-2010 Books, Reports, Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131 Annex V: 2009-2010 Case Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .148 Annex VI: Internet-Based Resources (Portals and Websites) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .153 Annex VII: Toolkits, Guides, Handbooks, and Manuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .161 Annex VIII: 2011 Learning Events Related to Youth Enterprise, Employment, Financial Services and/or Livelihoods Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167 Annex IX: List of Participating Organizations in 2010 Global Youth Enterprise & Livelihoods Development Conference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .172 Annex X: 2010 Global Youth Enterprise & Livelihoods Development Conference Agenda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .176 1
  5. 5. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development 2
  6. 6. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development Dear Colleagues, This 2010 “State of the Field” publication is a synthesis of the key findings, lessons learned, and recommended next steps that more than 400 leaders from 63 countries examined at Making Cents International’s fourth Global Youth Enterprise & Livelihoods Development Conference. The conference was hosted by the Inter-American Development Bank September 15-16, 2010 in Washington, DC. Its demand-driven learning agenda enabled practitioners, policymakers, funders, researchers, and youth entrepreneurs to challenge assumptions, take stock of programming done to date, and examine gaps in understanding that we – as a global community – need to address if we are to effectively increase and improve economic opportunities for young people. Conference participants shared their experiences and ideas through the following 2010 conference tracks: Youth Enterprise Development; Workforce Development; Youth-Inclusive Financial Services and Financial Capabilities; Adolescent Girls and Young Women; and Monitoring, Evaluation and Impact Assessment. Participants discussed a variety of topics, such as how to effectively conduct market research to design appropriate financial products and services for youth, how to develop high-impact economic empowerment programs for girls, and how to serve both youth and employers by taking a dual client approach with youth workforce development. Participants left the conference with enhanced technical capacity, new partnerships, and access to funding opportunities. I would like to take this opportunity to express Making Cents’ sincere appreciation to all of the conference partners, Global Advisory Committee Members, presenters, exhibitors, advertisers, and participants who committed their time and expertise to the 2010 learning program. In particular, I would like to recognize RTI International, the conference’s Platinum Plus sponsor and the sponsor of the Workforce Development chapter of this publication; The MasterCard Foundation, which provided a scholarship fund to facilitate participation in the conference and partnered on this publication, and whose collaborations on youth-inclusive financial services have exponentially moved this sector forward; to the Nike Foundation, which supported the development of the chapter on Adolescent Girls & Young Women; and to ImagineNations Group for its committed support of the conference and publication since the inaugural conference in 2007. This publication builds upon the information that was shared via Making Cents’ three previous post-conference publications. The 2007, 2008, and 2009 post-conference “State of the Field” publications are downloadable from: www. YouthEconomicOpportunities.org. They have been downloaded 3,000 times in more than 200 countries to date, which shows the high demand for this information globally. Making Cents is interested in hearing how the conference and its resulting publication have made an impact on you and the work you’re doing; please let us know. As we are quickly approaching the fifth anniversary of our global conference, Making Cents is excited to announce that the Global Youth Enterprise & Livelihoods Development Conference has a new name: Global Youth Economic Opportunities (GYEO) Conference. The new name is inclusive of the diverse programming being implemented by stakeholders working to increase and improve economic opportunities for young people. It also reflects the evolving nature of this conference’s demand-driven learning agenda. We look forward to your active participation in the 2011 conference, which has as its theme: breakthroughs in youth enterprise development, youth workforce development, youth-inclusive financial services, and youth livelihoods development. We hope you will play an active role in building the evidence base of proven approaches that have the potential to achieve scale in a sustainable way. Sincerely, Fiona Macaulay Founder and President, Making Cents International Fiona@makingcents.com Skype: fmacaulay 3
  7. 7. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development Acknowledgements Making Cents International wishes to acknowledge and thank the hundreds of organizations and individuals that contributed to building the 2010 learning program. This publication is the result of a yearlong collaboration with partners that support youth enterprise, employment, and livelihoods development around the world. Thank you to RTI International for their support of the Workforce Development track at the 2010 Conference and for providing the Lead Writers, Andrew Baird and Estera Barbarosa, for the Workforce Development chapter of this publication. We would also like to make a special acknowledgement to the following additional RTI staff members who contributed in various ways to the 2010 conference and publication: Gayle Schwartz for her involvement on the Global Advisory Committee, assistance with shaping the Workforce Development track, and technical review of the Workforce Development chapter; and Christy Crais and Haden Springer who served as session reporters and organized the RTI reception. Making Cents thanks The MasterCard Foundation for a scholarship fund that facilitated youth participation in the 2010 conference, and for collaborating on the Youth-Inclusive Financial Services Linkage (YFS-Link) program and conference track. Making Cents greatly appreciates its partnership with The MasterCard Foundation to expand economic opportunities for youth in developing countries. This strategic partnership is built on the mutual belief that given the opportunity to learn and build their human and financial assets, young people have the potential to transform their lives and improve the economic opportunities of their families and communities. Thank you, Rick Little, Alan Fleischmann, the rest of the ImagineNations team, and also their Global Partnership for Youth Investment with the World Bank Group for envision • engage • empower TM their contributions to the conference and post-conference publication. A special acknowledgement to the following ImagineNations staff members who served as session reporters: Elizabeth Dowling, Anna Elfing, and Stefanie Harrington. Making Cents would also like to express its sincere appreciation to the Nike Foundation for its support of the chapter on Adolescent Girls & Young Women, and for its global initiatives that support the girl effect (www.girleffect.org). Making Cents shares the Nike Foundation’s commitment to drive resources, change the system, show the impact, and spread the word on how to effectively work with and support adolescent girls and young women around the world. Additionally, Making Cents recognizes the significant contribution of Chemonics International to the 2010 conference and this “State of the Field” publication. We have greatly appreciated our long-term collaboration with Chemonics on high-impact international development initiatives that promote meaningful change and help people live healthier, more productive, and more independent lives. Making Cents International also recognizes and acknowledges the contributions of our staff and consultants to the publication: Fiona Macaulay, Founder and President: Strategic Direction and Review Whitney Harrelson, Associate Director,Youth Enterprise & Livelihoods Development: Publication Manager and Conference Director Elena Reilly, Consultant: Publication Coordinator, Lead Writer of Chapters on Enterprise Development, Adolescent Girls & Young Women, and Monitoring, Evaluation & Impact Assessment 4
  8. 8. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development Lara Storm-Swire, Lead Writer of Chapter on Youth-Inclusive Financial Services David James-Wilson, Contributing Writer for Chapter on Youth-Inclusive Financial Services Veronica Torres, Director,Youth Enterprise & Livelihoods Development: Review Veleka Burrell, Manager, New Business Development: Copy Editing Lindsey Witmer, Coordinator,Youth Enterprise & Livelihoods Development: Development of Annexes Ron Ivey, Executive Vice President, New Business Development and Technical Assistance: Review Thank you also to the presenters who reviewed sections of the publication pertaining to their presentations, and to the following conference sponsors that helped make the content possible. CONFERENCE HOST PLATINUM SPONSOR Inter-American Development Bank’s RTI International IDB YOUTH Program GOLD SPONSORS BRONzE SPONSORS ImagineNations Group Academy for Educational Development USAID Chemonics International EQUIP3 Education Development Center International Rescue Committee Plan International COPPER SPONSORS YOUTH SCHOLARSHIP SPONSORS CHF International The MasterCard Foundation Inter-American Foundation 5
  9. 9. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development 6
  10. 10. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes Executive Summary EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
  11. 11. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development Executive Summary All over the world, every day, young men and women open a bank account, launch a business, receive theirExecutive Summary first paycheck, save for their education, contribute to their families, and find safe and rewarding ways to achieve their economic goals. Those seemingly small successes can have lasting impacts on young peoples’ lives. Economic opportunities help many young people avoid risky behavior, adopt new technologies, find solutions to social problems, and engage with others. Those successes can reverberate through families, communities and local economies.Young people can inject new talent into the work and marketplace. They can shake-up the status quo, questioning harmful social practices. But they need adults, as well as institutions, to give them access to services, eliminate barriers, and guide them on their way. And the world’s more than 1.8 billion young people1 deserve many more successes. The youth enterprise, employment and livelihoods development (YEELD) field has been growing and evolving to respond effectively to two critical issues: the youth population surge and global youth unemployment crisis. With the largest youth population in the history of the world, developing economies struggle to provide economic opportunities, as well as health and education services, for such a large demographic. The need for a youth focus is especially acute in fragile states, conflict-affected areas, and countries where the majority of the population is under age 30, but it exists to varying degrees throughout the world. The recent global economic crisis has exacerbated challenges related to youth unemployment, impacting both developed and underdeveloped economies at unprecedented levels. During the economic crisis, youth unemployment experienced the sharpest increase ever, rising from 11.9 percent in 2007 to 13 percent at the end of 2009 for a total of 81 million unemployed young people.2 For those young people, formal employment and the social protection it affords remains out of reach; they dedicate themselves to the informal market, work for their families, and subsist on whatever opportunities arise. By channeling youth energy and innovation towards safe and viable economic opportunities, both in the formal and informal sector, young people can contribute to vibrant economies, peaceful societies, and healthier and better educated people. Making Cents International’s 2010 Global Youth Enterprise & Livelihoods Development Conference convened more than 400 stakeholders from 63 countries to share key findings and lessons learned, discuss common challenges, and reflect on next steps needed for the maturation of the YEELD field. This publication provides a snapshot of how 400 conference participants from 63 countries—those who design, implement, monitor, evaluate, and fund programs and policies in this field—work to create impact, influence policy, and achieve scale and sustainability. As the field advances and more people dedicate time, resources and energy to YEELD, it is important to take stock and chart the way forward. At the 2010 conference,YEELD stakeholders highlighted the following overall advances and recommendations for the field: • Focus on policy change. Governments need assistance to effectively support youth livelihoods. Policies should build on lessons learned in programs or pilots, bridge the gap between education 1 The Inter-Agency Network for Youth Development estimates that there are approximately 1.8 billion young people ages 10-24 years in the world today. The United Nations Population Division estimated that the global youth population (ages 15-24 years) in March 2009 was 1.1 billion youth Approximately 90 percent of young people ages 15-24 live in the developing world. www.un.org/esa/population/publications/wpp2008/ pressrelease.pdf. Note that global youth statistics can vary depending on the age range considered.Young people are considered to be inclusive of children in their early adolescence. 2 International Labour Office. “Global Employment Trends for Youth: Special issue on the impact of the global economic crisis on youth.” Geneva: August 2010. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_emp/---emp_elm/---trends/documents/publication/wcms_143349.pdf.Youth unemployment rates track young people ages 15-24, when young people in many countries are legally allowed to engage in formal employment. 8
  12. 12. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development systems and the market, institutionalize support for young people, and remove antiquated policy barriers that prevent young people from accessing the services and education opportunities they need. • Build a more nuanced knowledge base of “what works.” The knowledge base is starting Executive Summary to grow and expand; deepening and disseminating this knowledge is a critical next step. Examining “what works” and for whom, as well as what doesn’t work, strengthens learning and contributes to more intentional programs. • Mobilize donors. The number, type, and sophistication of donors funding the field indicate a growing understanding of the impact programs can have on youth, economies, and nations. Donors realize that youth as a demographic are critical to reaching socio-economic development objectives. Investment horizons of three to ten years allow for depth, impact and significant contributions to the evidence base. • Listen to and engage young people. Practitioners and policymakers have increased access to the tools, expertise, and guidance necessary to engage young people in program design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. The field still has to create stronger policy and institutional environments that give voice to young people and inspire authentic engagement with them. • Work with young people as partners. Understanding young people’s vulnerability is critical. Equally critical is acknowledging their potential to transform their own lives and communities; and also ensuring that youth development professionals, educational leaders, policy-makers, families, and community members do as well. • Promote cross-sectoral approaches. Holistic programs reflect the way young people live their lives; address the interconnected nature of economic opportunities and HIV/AIDS, reproductive health, and education; and can strengthen outcomes across those various domains. Avoiding “silos” of development, and convincing all partners to invest in and work with youth, remains a challenge. • Create networks to advocate and promote the field. National, regional, and global networks connect young people and stakeholders via technology or other types of exchanges. They publicize successes in the field, communicate its importance to policy-makers, and share new approaches and research. This is an important start but more needs to be done to organize concerted advocacy efforts. While important advances have been made in the field, stakeholders remain dedicated to its continued maturation. Details about how to fund, design, implement, evaluate, and improve YEELD programs, especially in certain contexts and with specific populations, need to be refined. Many of those gaps are highlighted as next steps in the chapters of this publication. The five tracks for learning at the 2010 conference included: youth enterprise development; workforce development; youth-inclusive financial services and financial capabilities; adolescent girls and young women; and monitoring, evaluation and impact assessment. Overlap exists between the tracks. For example, the success of youth enterprise development programs is often dependent on young people’s access to financial services. Workforce development programs may include entrepreneurial components and vice versa. Monitoring, evaluation and impact assessment, as well as gender considerations, are common to all tracks. Key findings from each of the tracks are summarized below. 9
  13. 13. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development Youth Enterprise Development (YED) Youth enterprise development programs encourage and support the entrepreneurial behaviors that young people need to devise innovative solutions to social or business problems, create and sustain small businesses,Executive Summary and succeed in employment.Young entrepreneurs now benefit from national networks, experienced mentors, resource-filled websites, online communities, supportive organizations, market-driven capacity building, unique partnerships, and more youth-friendly financial services. Participants in the 2010 conference reflected on how to mobilize policy-makers, link to mentors in the private sector, and encourage schools to promote entrepreneurial behaviors, creativity, and positive risk-taking. Tailoring approaches to support diverse types of entrepreneurs, from small-scale to high growth entrepreneurs, was also discussed. Workforce Development (WFD) Workforce development programs strive to provide relevant and accessible training, education, and development opportunities so that young people can secure meaningful employment in rapidly changing economies. This new sector continues to address key issues critical to its evolution: balancing public and private sector investment, addressing the supply and demand sides of WFD, ensuring that marginalized young people access services, and strengthening educational institutions to create sustainable workforce development solutions. Innovative experiences partnering with high-growth sectors, involving youth and families, and designing dual-client approaches that address both youth and employers’ needs are a few of the experiences highlighted here. Youth-Inclusive Financial Services and Financial Capabilities (YFS and YFC) Young people depend on access to youth-friendly financial services to secure their livelihoods, manage and control their assets, and make wise financial decisions for their future. Participants in the 2010 conference discussed how to identify the youth sub-segments of existing markets, develop new youth-friendly products — using both formal and informal models — by using market research to adapt existing products, and utilize innovative delivery approaches and channels — including the use of technology — to reach youth. Partnerships between financial institutions and youth-serving organizations can lead to more holistic programming and offer unique opportunities for quality, sustainability, and scale. Microfinance institutions offering youth products as part of their competitive strategies are now convincing peers of the business case for investing in youth; powerful arguments that will undoubtedly lead to the continued advancement of the sector. Adolescent Girls and Young Women (AGYW) Important investments in YEELD programming for adolescent girls and young women have contributed to more sophisticated and intentional programming for this population. Exciting programs embrace the empowerment side of the economic equation, counteracting unacceptable situations of vulnerability endured by millions of girls and young women. Participants discussed how to refine program delivery models, design girl-friendly and girl-designed financial products, integrate girls into value chains, and expand pre-existing livelihoods programs to include girls. 10
  14. 14. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development Monitoring, Evaluation and Impact Assessment (M&E) Practitioners, donors, policy-makers and other stakeholders acknowledge that while employment or financial statistics tell an important story, the building blocks of young people’s success may be more subtle and need Executive Summary to be measured at the individual level. The sector advances in finding viable ways to measure the outcomes and impacts of interventions designed specifically to increase and improve a young person’s employability, life, financial, and entrepreneurial skills and access to finance, mentors, and other resources. More sophisticated and standardized M&E tools, meta-analyses of evaluations, reflections on operational and capacity-related challenges for M&E, and careful considerations of gender-responsive M&E characterized the dialogue on this track at the conference. What’s next? Several ways forward emerged from presentations, conversations, panels, and participants at the 2010 conference. They include the following: • Develop more targeted, intentional programming for specific youth populations. Theories of change should reflect a nuanced understanding of population sub-sectors and how YEELD programming will add value to young peoples’ lives and contribute to the social and economic progress of their communities. Stakeholders, whether deciding to invest in girls, early adolescents, street children, or high-growth entrepreneurs, should map a path for change based a clear understanding of the young people’s life cycle and the individuals and institutions that make up a young person’s environment. • Determine which models and approaches merit being taken to scale and advocate for them. The development of the YEELD evidence base still lags behind the pace of implementation. Despite advances, the field still needs a more detailed understanding of which models and approaches are most effective for a particular context, population, or problem and why and when they are most effective. That knowledge should then inform advocacy, national-level policy change, and additional investment. Research is also needed to prove more explicitly the connection between YEELD programs and poverty alleviation, demonstrating which youth interventions impact local and national economies. • Use partnerships to fill current gaps and broaden the reach of the YEELD field. Partnerships offer the potential for scale and allow specialized organizations to complement each other’s expertise, resources, and geographical focus. Given the time and resources necessary to develop effective partnerships,YEELD stakeholders should strategically partner with organizations to fill existing knowledge or coverage gaps and advance the field. Communicating with partners about practical, field-level issues should be prioritized as the best-designed programs can be undone by operational challenges during implementation. • Maximize the use of media and technology in YEELD programs.Technology and media offer intriguing opportunities to reach scale, expand services, lower operating costs,democratize participation, and keep programming relevant to a dynamic world. Questions about access to technology and media—who gets left behind—need to be addressed, as do questions about the quality and purpose of content for both “new” types of social media and “old” television, radio, and print media. Both media and technology continue to offer entrepreneurial opportunities for young people as early adopters of technology. 11
  15. 15. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development Learn More and Participate in the 2011 Conference Participants in the 2010 conference left with ideas, fresh perspectives, tools, publications, pamphlets, CDs, websites, and advice from colleagues. They also left with affirmations and challenges. Their leading affirmationExecutive Summary was that youth enterprise and livelihoods development programs offer new hope for transforming the “youth problem” into a “youth solution.” Their challenge is to fix the shortcomings in their programs, build new partnerships, publish and share the results of their initiatives, find new ways to achieve sustainability, and take their intervention(s) to scale. Their other challenge, and the challenge for those who did not participate in the conference, is to read this publication, review the ideas and experiences represented, consider the questions it raises, read the annexes that lists additional resources and 2011 learning events, and apply the relevant guidance and information provided to their work. We also hope you will visit the conference’s agenda page to review the 2010 presentation material (www.youthenterpriseconference.org/agenda_2010.asp), send feedback, and register to attend the 2011 conference as presenters or participants. As more and more young people come of working age without a clear pathway for economic security, civic engagement, or personal fulfillment,YEELD stakeholders must continue to come together as a learning community. The need is as urgent as ever to create and sustain impact at scale for young people. We invite you to continue participating, consolidating learning, reflecting on achievements, filling gaps, and advancing the field. 12
  16. 16. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development Voices: Why Should We Be Talking About Youth? Executive Summary The following visionaries and thought leaders “We, the old people (and I don’t like to say this), are reflected on the critical role that young people can comfortable consuming. But we need more making. play in global development. They offer their opinions Young people are well-positioned to re-invent economies. on why we need to create economic opportunities for Young people are capable of initiatives, if those are young people and how we can best support youth to enabled. My vision is that out of extreme conditions [like bring about positive change. slums] emerge new ideas on how to construct. In the global slum and city, people are motivated to initiate “The average age in Latin America and the Caribbean is rather than just consume.” 26 years old; there are a billion youth in the region. Many of the countries in the region are nearing incomes of the —Dr . Saskia Sassen, Robert S. Lynd Professor developed world. That tells us about the opportunities we of Sociology and Member, The Committee on have today. There is a direct link between development Global Thought, Colombia University. Dr. Sassen and youth development. The region has the highest emphasized the importance of nurturing talent and cellular phone penetration in the world. What will we do production in the poorer sectors as the “middle class with that technology?” will take care of itself” and our economies need to better distributed. —Mr . Luis Alberto Moreno, President, Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). In addition to speaking For more information about her research, see about the importance of technology, Mr. Moreno www.saskiasassen.com. discussed the importance of scaling-up initiatives “We have studied changemakers and learned from social through partnerships and collaboration, and seeing entrepreneurs. We found that they start early. Changes and promoting youth as agents of change for their they brought about as young people inspired a lifelong communities. mission. An adult mentor encouraged them to pursue For more information about youth and the IDB, see ideas. They work in teams. They are empathetic and www.iadb.org/idbyouth. understand other people’s situations.” “Young people are the single most untapped resource for —Ms . Diana Wells, President, Ashoka. In addition to economic growth and better governance. With the right discussing characteristics of social entrepreneurs, investments in young people, we have the opportunity to Ms. Wells discussed the importance of participation, change the planet. We need to start by listening to young asserting that more people need to have a role and people and creating the supportive environments that realize that they are part of the “conversation.” She enable us to do so.” and other panelists agreed that “shining a light” on stories about changemakers can promote positive —Ms . Reeta Roy, President and CEO, The MasterCard ideas about youth and encourage engagement. Foundation. Ms. Roy discussed how to empower young people to create their own pathways, and For more information about Ashoka, how we need to broaden the formal education see www.ashoka.org. system and teach marketable skills for a 21st Century economy. For more information about The MasterCard Foundation, see www.themastercardfoundation.org. 13
  17. 17. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods DevelopmentExecutive Summary 14
  18. 18. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes Introduction INTRODUCTION
  19. 19. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development INTRODUCTION A . Why Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development? Young men in Jamaican slums enter the value chain of the US$6 billion ornamental fish industry. Andean artisans contribute traditional designs to the world of high fashion. Blind Colombian children benefit from the ingenuity of local engineering students. Central American coffee farmers connect to fair-trade retailers. Brazilian teenagers transfer skills learned on the soccer field to the workplace. High school students analyze the ethical consequences of their role in the marketplace. And like many of the young entrepreneurs behind these success stories, practitioners in the youth enterprise, employment, and livelihoods development (YEELD) field catalyze and support the creative, social and entrepreneurial potential of young people for a greater social and economic good.YEELD programs may: • Protect youth from trafficking, sexual exploitation, unsafe labor, risky behaviors or recruitment into criminal or armed groups that destabilize countries and threaten global security. • Empower young people, especially girls or other marginalized populations, by promoting their safeIntroduction participation in local economies and in their communities. • Support educational systems to improve quality and relevance, teach entrepreneurial behaviors, and assist young people to translate ideas for income-generation into the local marketplace. • Prepare young people for formal employment in traditional and growth economies in their local contexts through public and private partnerships that bridge the “learning and earning” divide. • Provide access to age-appropriate financial services to give young people control over their assets and the guidance they need to make informed financial and life decisions. YEELD programs make sense for economies, societies and nations: economies depend on the continual flow of talent and new ideas into the workforce and marketplace, societies depend on empathetic individuals to devise solutions to vexing social problems; and nations benefit from a young, productive, and engaged citizenry that contributes to socio-economic growth, builds the private sector, and develops civil society. The YEELD field must continually advance by building on past experiences, documenting lessons learned, assessing impact, filling knowledge gaps, and developing richer and more sophisticated evidence-based approaches that have been proven effective. The 2010 Global Youth Enterprise & Livelihoods Development Conference convened more than 400 practitioners, educators, funders, policy-makers, researchers, and youth entrepreneurs from 63 countries to focus on that task. The conference provided a learning platform to reflect on the field’s advances and chart a shared course for the next 10 to 20 years. Participants learned about new tools, debated promising practices, shared successes and failures, networked with colleagues, and engaged with visionaries. The 20103 conference responded to the same impulse that drove the organization of the first event in 2007.4 a need to better understand how to increase and improve economic opportunities effectively for young people around the world. The 2010 conference, in its fourth year, continued to tackle issues of global relevance. Statistics paint a bleak picture for adolescents and youth. Nine out of ten of the world’s young people live in developing countries.3 Over 81 million young people were unemployed in 2009, 7.8 million people more than in 2007.4 Formal employment, and the social services that frequently accompany it, remain out of reach for millions; young 3 http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_emp/---emp_elm/---trends/documents/publication/wcms_143349.pdf, page. 1 4 Ibid, page. 1 16
  20. 20. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development people must seek the economic opportunities they need to continue education, stay healthy, build their future, and support their families. Since young people are key to developing strong families, open societies, fair governments and vibrant local and national economies, the situation calls for a comprehensive response. With access to appropriate educational and financial services, guidance and social support, and facilitating policy environments, the “youth problem” becomes an opportunity. B . What Are The Key Ingredients Of Youth Enterprise And Livelihoods Development Programs? Participants in the 2010 conference deliberated over key ingredients that are necessary to include in programming and policymaking in order for young people to obtain a decent job or start a successful business. The following are key ingredients that participants agreed lead to high-impact YEELD initiatives: • Connection with classrooms. Connecting with school systems or other formal learning institutions provides YEELD programs opportunities to bridge the learning and earning divide, impact large numbers of young people, and influence national policy through curriculum change. Introduction Some YEELD programs, such as workforce development with in-school youth or financial education for children, may be based entirely in schools. Other programs may focus on out-of-school young people or employ a hybrid approach, focusing on non-formal education but connecting with traditional classrooms when necessary. • Access to financial products, services and education. Financial products, services, and education are the basic building blocks of the YEELD field. Without access to financial products and services, young people often cannot save income, receive credit to start small businesses, or control their assets. Financial education can complement life skills, entrepreneurial education and other learning components offered in YEELD programs. Services may be offered by commercial banks, informal savings and loan arrangements, schools, or through family members. Mentors or peer leaders also serve to guide young people as they develop entrepreneurial, financial, and life skills. • Private sector partnerships. YEELD programs are intimately connected to local economies. In most cases, young people are already actors in their local marketplaces, though their contributions may not be recognized. Private sector partnerships allow YEELD programs to tap into available resources, uch as mentors, meeting space, and products that can serve as in-kind donations. They can also help ensure YEELD programs are market-led. In many cases, private sector partnerships benefit both the private sector company and the individual client(s) since young people or their families may become new clients for businesses or banks. Financial services, value chain approaches, micro-franchising, internships, and mentoring all involve private sector partnerships. • Enabling environments for systemic change. YEELD pilots or small-scale programs serve to test delivery mechanisms, refine financial services or products, target marginalized young people, and improve the lives of a select group of young people. Nevertheless, program impact will be limited to a geographic area or a target group unless programs also take a macro-level approach to policy change. That policy change will be context-dependent; it might mean allowing minors to open bank accounts, integrating entrepreneurial education into the formal school system, or requiring both public and private financing for workforce development. Whatever the change, a focus on the enabling environment will allow for impact beyond a limited geographic area or target group. 17
  21. 21. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development C . How Can We Engage Young People As Participants And Partners In Development? Youth engagement and participation emerged as a key ingredient that cross-cut all conference tracks. Successful YEELD and youth development programs engage young people as active participants in their own development and partners in the development of their communities. Engaging youth begins with the belief that young people are capable of developing successful economic and social initiatives when given the appropriate support. Listening to young people is also an important step in design, implementation, and evaluation phases of programming and policymaking.Young people can share which YEELD program and policy components would be most effective to them in securing employment, starting a business, and utilizing financial services. Resources exist within the YEELD field to assist stakeholders to guarantee authentic engagement and participation by young people. Many resources are documented throughout the publication though the following ones deserve a special highlight: • Web-based networks and social media for youth and youth-serving organizationsIntroduction connect young people to organizations and opportunities that exist close to home and on the global stage. They allow young people to drive the conversation and provide support and resources when necessary. • Media outlets can promote positive images of young people, communicating to youth and the general public the impact that young people can have on their communities. They may use celebrities or other traditional media channels to access young people who are not participating in youth development or YEELD programs. • Youth representatives tell their stories, highlighting their path to success and explaining which types of support helped them achieve their goals. Testimonies from young people can help YEELD practitioners understand what young people need to succeed and what facilitates youth participation. The following section describes the experiences of several young entrepreneurs, or those who support them. The following pages of this publication are rich with examples of how various organizations navigated through complex operating environments to impact the lives of young people throughout the world. Many of those organizations explain how young people were engaged in various steps of program design, implementation, and evaluation. Other organizations share how: • Projects were tailored to fit the particular context of a given country or target population or adjusted to respond better to young peoples’ needs or a changing operating context. • Partnerships allowed them to combine resources and expertise to make an idea a reality. • They created a tool to fill a programming need or create guidance based on their YEELD experiences. • Monitoring and evaluation results led them to think differently about their programming. Given the diversity and number of organizations sharing their experiences, the following section will assist readers to know how best to use the publication to meet their learning needs or particular interests. 18
  22. 22. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development Voices: Young Entrepreneurs Speak to their Experiences Marcella Echavarria began as a journalist and an his friends designed and tested a device that would aficionado of traditional handicrafts in Colombia and help blind children distinguish and feel colors, thus the Andean region. After connecting with artisans allowing them to participate in the world and have a throughout Latin America, she cold-called Donna more fulfilling experience in traditional classrooms. Karan in New York, looking for a connection to the Over a period of years, DUTO S.A. and its IRIS project fashion world. From that fortuitous moment, she have received international recognitions. People told launched her own company, SURevolution, selling John he was crazy, but he and his team believed in the traditional designs to a luxury market. She took risks, product and its potential to change children’s lives. defended the integrity of traditional design, expanded www.duto.org. to Asia and Africa, and is thrilled to see Colombians, as well as fashion-lovers everywhere, valuing the Noah Bopp founded the School for Ethics and traditional designs of artisans from around the world. Global Leadership, a semester-long charter school www.surevolution.com/intro.htm that educates American high school students to be ethically strong and internationally aware. He said, Introduction www.marcellaechavarria.com “It’s not enough to create more leaders, we have to Nicardo Neil described the work of the think about what kind of leaders we want to create.” In Competitiveness Company promoting a value chain Washington DC, the school provokes young people to in the ghettos of Jamaica where young men deal with think about how the world works, identify solutions to the daily realities of unemployment and violence. problems in their communities, and focus on solving Young men reported that they raised fish in tubs in those problems as a keystone project. their backyards for varying reasons, either they were www.schoolforethics.org. taught by a father figure or they enjoyed keeping fish as children. Nicardo and his team researched the value Martin Mayorga and his family fled Nicaragua and chain and found that ornamental fish, ranging from migrated to the United States over 25 years ago. Of pet goldfish to high-end tropical fish like Discus and Guatemalan and Nicaraguan heritage, Martin grew Koi, are part of a US$6 billion global export industry. up visiting both countries and bringing back coffee The company has worked to form clusters of over and cigars. He launched Mayorga Coffee, paying for 300 young men, trained them in fish cultivation, most of the start-up costs on a credit card, to change provided them better technology, and created enough the antiquated structure of the coffee export business producers to achieve the volume necessary for export. in Central America and create a more advantageous They’ve also worked to develop more local exporters, relationship for coffee producers who are often at the a critical component if the production of so many mercy of unfair pre-harvest financing. The company small fish farmers is to be aggregated and marketed now employs more than 100 people and wholesales to worldwide. over 1,500 retailers, including Costco Wholesale, Giant www.youtube.com/watch?v=Df_UQy5-dKM Foods, Whole Foods, Sodexo, Sams Club, and other regional and national chains. Mayorga Coffee is proud John Alexis Guerra, as an engineering student in a to support organic and environmentally sustainable small city of Colombia, was interested in a final thesis coffee. For more information, see project that didn’t “make rich people richer.” He and www.mayorgacoffee.com/learn/about. D . What Should I Know About This Publication? This publication is a consolidation and synthesis of the key findings and lessons learned, common challenges and recommended next steps that participants highlighted during the 2010 conference. While it is not an exhaustive review of global practice, it offers an intriguing look into the current state and evolution of the field. The experiences and ideas in this publication detail how many members of the global community are building upon the past and working towards achieving ambitious goals for the field. Their recent experiences, 19
  23. 23. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development generated in countries, classrooms, foundations, governments, and businesses throughout the world, represent the “real-time” evolution of the field. Chapters reflect the insights, analysis, and recommendations generated by conference presenters and/or the synergy between presenters and participants. To capture the rich and multi-faceted learning from the event, this publication follows the overall design of the conference. The five tracks/themes of the conference were: • Youth Enterprise Development • Workforce Development • Youth-Inclusive Financial Services and Financial Capabilities • Adolescent Girls and Young Women • Monitoring, Evaluation and Impact Assessment Within the publication, the key findings and programmatic examples related to these tracks/themes are dispersed within and across different chapters. Some examples fit into more than one track. For example, gender approaches to workforce development are included in the workforce development chapter, althoughIntroduction they could also fit in the chapter on adolescent girls and young women. E . How Should I Use This Publication? Feel free to extract information and learning from chapters of particular interest or review all chapters based on your interests and needs. Programmatic examples provide additional insight and ground lessons learned within their operative contexts. In order to facilitate a quick read, certain sections include a small icon to help identify what the example offers. Noteworthy Results share evaluation or other results from YEELD programs operating throughout the world and include a brief description of the program. New tools include training manuals, monitoring and evaluation resources, websites, publications, and any other resources that might be of use to members of the YEELD field. The annexes also include relevant resources that members of this community produced in 2009-2010. Hot topics refer to points of debate or discussion within the field. These may be topics that have recently emerged or that have consistently inspired debate amongst practitioners. Bright ideas include new or interesting approaches worth highlighting. They may refer to an innovation relevant to the entire field or to a region or operating context. Practical tips capture practitioners’ advice, techniques or some other learning crystallized from programmatic examples and on-the-ground experience. Checklists offer new ways for practitioners and others to think about whether they have the components necessary to be successful. They are extracted from presentations shared at the conference. Voices of participants, presenters or other experts in the field make learning personal; describing anecdotes and experiences that shaped colleagues’ perspectives about an issue in the field. 20
  24. 24. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes Chapter 1: Approaches to Youth Chapter 1: Youth Enterprise Development Enterprise Development
  25. 25. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development Introduction Youth enterprise development (YED) seeks to equip young people with the skills, information and support they need to make an idea a reality, start a social or income-generating venture, seek out financial and other resources needed to begin or grow their social ventures or businesses, and make informed education and employment decisions for their future. While skill-building forms the back bone of youth entrepreneurial development,YEELD practitioners presenting at the 2010 conference emphasized the importance of creating environments that support and promote entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial behavior for all young people. Presenters discussed the diverse population groups that youth enterprise development initiatives target, including small-scale or “necessity” entrepreneurs, growth-oriented or “opportunity” entrepreneurs, social entrepreneurs or “change-makers,” and young people who could benefit from entrepreneurship education and apply it to various facets of their lives. Given the diversity of young business people and their backgrounds, the field must segment its offerings to ensure that programs are applicable and relevant to the specific type of young people they target. Creating safe and viable pathways for young people’s income generation remains a primary concern for YEELD practitioners. For “necessity entrepreneurs,” income-generation can help young people negotiate the challenges of poverty. Additional income can improve young people’s quality of life, enable them to contribute to their household spending needs, and allow them to further their education. “Opportunity” entrepreneurs frequently come from more privileged backgrounds, middle-income countries, or environments that otherwise facilitate business development. These young entrepreneurs leverage educational or economic advantage they might have to convert a business idea into a successful business, and they have greater propensity to be growth-oriented. Both types of entrepreneurs are critical to the overall panorama of social and economic development, and it isChapter 1: Youth Enterprise Development important to distinguish between those who are true “entrepreneurs” and those who are starting a business that has been run many times before. Nevertheless, entrepreneurship, broadly speaking, should not be mistaken as a panacea for the youth unemployment crisis but it should rather be seen as a viable option for integrating young people into a larger strategy for social and economic growth. At the 2010 conference, presenters focused on the following aspects of the sector: micro-franchising, entrepreneurship education, global networks for entrepreneurship, and successful partnerships for youth entrepreneurship development. Social entrepreneurship emerged as a key area requiring greater attention, with many presenters reminding participants that the gap between business entrepreneurship and social entrepreneurship continues to narrow. 22
  26. 26. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development 1 .1 Voices: Leaders Discuss Additional Key Ingredients for High-Impact YEELD Programs Leaders from the field added their thoughts on key Ortmans felt that key ingredients for the field include ingredients needed to create high-impact YEELD elevating the quality of economic research, improving programs. Each spoke to their area of expertise, program performance through robust research, and explaining why those particular areas are important changing how policy leaders view entrepreneurship. to socio-economic development and the rights of Mr. Ortmans and the Kauffman Foundation believe young people. They noted emerging priorities for the that entrepreneurs are at the heart of new economic continued advancement of the field. growth; as such, the field cannot be relegated to the sidelines but rather must be actively creating Jonathan Ortmans, Senior Fellow, Ewing Marion connections with Presidents and high-level decision- Kauffman Foundation. The Ewing Marion Kauffman makers. As important as entrepreneurship is to Foundation is one of the thirty largest foundations economic growth, practitioners must also remember in the United States, supporting entrepreneurship, the fun, social, and collaborative opportunities it innovation, education, and research and policy. Mr. provides to young people. www.kauffman.org. Key Findings and Lessons Learned A. Promoting Dynamic Entrepreneurship Educational Opportunities, Within and Outside the Chapter 1: Youth Enterprise Development Formal Educational System, Encourages Youth Innovation and Entrepreneurship Entrepreneurship education is at the heart of the sector and offers the clearest and most sustainable path to scale through the formal education system. According to the International Labor Organization (ILO), creating entrepreneurial societies starts with education that fosters creativity, problem-solving skills, positive risk-taking, and enterprising mindsets for both girls and boys. The goal is not to transform all youth into entrepreneurs but rather to expose youth to positive attributes and skills behind entrepreneurship. This requires leadership and a fundamental change in curriculum by integrating entrepreneurship education with content that is gender sensitive and adapted to the country’s context. It also requires a change in how schools encourage entrepreneurial behaviors, provide learning experiences relevant to future income generation, and how teachers embrace active and participatory teaching methodologies. Considering the emphasis placed on rote learning and memorization in many educational systems, the task seems gargantuan. Nevertheless, entrepreneurship education can jump-start the educational system by creating a level of excitement in schools that transcends entrepreneurship and promotes effective approaches to education. The “how” of entrepreneurial education can take many forms and depends on context. The ILO feels that entrepreneurship skills, and also life skills and adaptability, should be embedded across the curriculum for all ages.5 Financial education can provide an entry-point for entrepreneurial education, though most teachers will still need significant support to jump from teaching financial education and literacy to promoting entrepreneurial mindsets. Partnerships between in-school curricula and extra-curricular activities can assist the formal education system to change as out-of-school activities allow for more freedom and experimentation. Non-formal education holds the promise of working with more vulnerable out-of-school adolescents and youth. Opportunities exist to link formal and non-formal activities and encourage cross-fertilization. 5 For discussion of the “nature versus nurture” debate in entrepreneurship education, as well as a look into “necessity and opportunity entrepreneurs” see the 2009 State of the Field Publication for a synthesis of ILO’s previous presentation at the Conference, page 54. 23
  27. 27. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development The Kauffman Foundation promotes “messy” entrepreneurship education in a non-classroom setting. Their research tells them that rigid frameworks will not lead to the organic innovations and ideas that characterize entrepreneurship. An example of “what works” is Startup Weekend, www.startupweekend.org, which provides a dynamic, non-traditional approach to entrepreneurship education in a 54-hour event. 1 .2 Checklists: How Can You Support Entrepreneurship Education in Your Country? The ILO put together the following checklist to spark messages content into entrepreneurship education ideas on how best to advocate and support the and translated into local languages? Ensured development of entrepreneurship education at the effective support and ongoing learning of teacher national policy and program level. Have you, your trainers? Been realistic about the amount of time organization, or your coalition: necessary to integrate entrepreneurship education into the curriculum (2-5 years?) Connected in-school ✔ Reviewed existing economic development and and out-of-school programs? employment policies? Identified champions from government, private sector, and civil society to ✔ Piloted the program first in a select number of advance entrepreneurship education nationally? regions including urban, semi-urban and rural schools? Integrated monitoring and evaluation ✔ Invited a broad range of stakeholders to participate mechanisms that are simple and can track a small in policy development? Cooperated with the number of core impacts onyouth employability business community? Established roles and and attitude changes among young participants?Chapter 1: Youth Enterprise Development responsibilities between stakeholders through Prepared a report to the government about pilot dialogue? Developed greater cooperation between results that highlights the need for entrepreneurship Ministries? education and includes the voices of teachers and ✔ Created teacher training in entrepreneurship students? education and worked with teachers’ colleges? For more information about the ILO, www.ilo.org/seed. Integrated gender equality, disability, and HIV/AIDS B. Creating Effective Partnerships Are Critical For Developing High-Impact Entrepreneurship Programs that Have the Potential to Achieve Scale and Sustainability Effective partnerships, though challenging, are key to achieving scale and sustainability in the YEELD field. Many organizations create global and local partnerships to inspire and support youth entrepreneurs by connecting them to networks, mentors, and other useful resources. Partnerships with formal school systems, training institutions, financial services, and local businesses are often key to designing comprehensive YEELD programs that have the potential to survive after project funding runs out. At the 2010 conference, Peace Corps shared advice on creating effective partnerships, drawn from their experiences with developing youth entrepreneurship programs in Central America. 24
  28. 28. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development 1 .3 Practical Tips: Advice from Peace Corps in Central America on Creating Effective Partnerships Peace Corps (PC) Honduras and Nicaragua shared • Work with many levels of the government guidance at the 2010 conference on how organizations simultaneously. PC Nicaragua knew that integrating can develop effective partnerships. This guidance entrepreneurship into the national curriculum is based on lessons learned from Peace Corps’ would transform an after-school activity into a management of youth entrepreneurship and business nationwide change. They signed agreements with incubator programs in Honduras and Nicaragua. both local and national Ministry of Education officials to ensure that all stakeholders were engaged and • Build local capacity through effective that entrepreneurship, life skills, workreadiness and methodologies for support and sharing. In technology were integrated into the secondary Nicaragua, Peace Corps volunteers co-teach and meet curriculum. with local teachers regularly. • Be patient, be persistent and celebrate successes. • Document experiences and training Most partnerships require patience. It took ten years methodologies. Replication for growth is only for the Nicaraguan government to make the Peace possible if experiences are well-documented. This is Corps-volunteer designed curriculum part of the especially important in Peace Corps since volunteers national curriculum. The media are an ally in raising only serve two year terms. awareness and interest in a program. • Adapt a national model to local contexts. PC • Flexibility counts. Programs need to adapt to Honduras learned that cookie-cutter approaches to political and social instability; youth need support Chapter 1: Youth Enterprise Development program replication often don’t adjust for differences during those times. in rural-urban contexts, literacy, and food security levels in diverse regions. Program designers should For more information on Peace Corps, see: solicit community input to help understand local www.peacecorps.gov. contexts and what elements of the program need to be adapted. While most organizations are usually able to agree on the “why” of partnerships, the “how” can be challenging. Negotiating between various organizations should include a discussion on how to divide roles and responsibilities, as well as on general partnership principles.Youth Business International, drawing lessons from a global portfolio of partners, has developed the following guiding questions to support organizations’ partnership-building process. 25
  29. 29. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Annexes State of the Field in Youth Enterprise, Employment, and Livelihoods Development 1 .4 Checklists: Youth Business International Shares Guiding Questions for the Partnership-Building Process Youth Business International (YBI) has supported over ✔ Transparency. Are we saying what we think? 100,000 young people, ages 18-35, start their own businesses. YBI partners with NGOs, governments, and ✔ Consultation. Have we talked to all partners? local communities to provide mentors and funding ✔ Understanding. Are we speaking the same for young entrepreneurs. They know how important language? If we are partnering with a business, are partnership building is to successful programming and we acting business-like? promoting enterprise development for young people around the world. YBI asks the following questions For more information on YBI’s experiences with during their partnership-building process, which have partnerships and entrepreneurship, see their “Making proven to make the difference in securing effective Entrepreneurship Work” series, including the report, partnerships: “Recommendations for Action: How governments, businesses and civil society organizations can help ✔ Mutual benefit. Do all partners stand to gain from young people get started in business” at www. the partnership? youthbusiness.org/media/making-entrepreneurship- work.aspx. C. Global and Regional Alliances and Networks Support and Raise Awareness on theChapter 1: Youth Enterprise Development “Multiplier Effect” Youth Entrepreneurship Can Have Global and regional alliances are critical to getting the word out about youth entrepreneurship opportunities and the potential entrepreneurship has to transform individuals, communities, and local economies—often called the social and economic “multiplier effect.”6 Many of the presenters at the 2010 conference discussed alliances and networks that support entrepreneurial development in a globalized way. Those collaborations build on individual organizations’ strengths to raise awareness on the multiplier effect and get local success stories to a global stage. They often link young people, universities, organizations, governments and private sector partners, thus promoting a global policy and programmatic environment that supports youth entrepreneurship in various countries and contexts. The following text boxes provide examples of high-impact alliances and networks that are facilitating information exchange, partnership building, and access to resources. 6 “Resolutions adopted by the International Labour Conference at its 93rd Session, Geneva, June 2005.” www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/ilc/ilc93/pdf/resolutions.pdf 26

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