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The role of ex situ crop diversity conservation in adaptation to climate change
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The role of ex situ crop diversity conservation in adaptation to climate change

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Keynote delivered on behalf of Cary Fowler at international conference on Food Security and Climate Change in Dry Areas -- 1-4 February 2010 -- Amman, Jordan. Thanks to Colin Khoury for putting this …

Keynote delivered on behalf of Cary Fowler at international conference on Food Security and Climate Change in Dry Areas -- 1-4 February 2010 -- Amman, Jordan. Thanks to Colin Khoury for putting this together.

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  • this is current signed + likely, and includes GRDC + AVRDC + CATIE
  • Grains Research and Development Corporation providing support for collecting of specific crops. Call in 2009 for projects on GRDC crops with a focus on Africa Determine taxonomic and geographic gaps Determine other priority areas
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    • 1. Adapting to climate change: The importance of ex situ conservation of crop genetic diversity Luigi Guarino Global Crop Diversity Trust Rome, Italy http:// croptrust.org
    • 2.
      • Climate change
      • Water shortage
      • Energy limitations and instability
      • Population growth
      • Development pressures
      • Low stockpiles
      • High food prices
      • Under-investment in agricultural research
    • 3. Change in Water Availability under climate change, population growth and industrialization 1961-1990 Source: BBC, Tuesday, 8 December 2009. The key effects of climate change. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/7821082.stm
    • 4. Change in Water Availability under climate change, population growth and industrialization 2070s Source: BBC, Tuesday, 8 December 2009. The key effects of climate change. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/7821082.stm
    • 5. Likelihood (in percent) that the summer average temperature in 2050 will exceed the highest summer temperature ever observed (1900-2006). Source: Battisti, D.S., and R.L. Naylor. 2009. Historical warnings of future food insecurity with unprecedented seasonal heat. Science , 323, 240-244. Change in Temperature
    • 6. Likelihood (in percent) that the summer average temperature in 2090 will exceed the highest summer temperature ever observed (1900-2006). Source: Battisti, D.S., and R.L. Naylor. 2009. Historical warnings of future food insecurity with unprecedented seasonal heat. Science , 323, 240-244. Change in Temperature
    • 7. Distributions of average (summer) temperature for 20th century (blue), and climate model projections for 2080-2100 (red) (y=number of summers, x=departure from long-term 20th century mean) Source: Battisti, D.S., and R.L. Naylor. 2009. Historical warnings of future food insecurity with unprecedented seasonal heat. Science , 323, 240-244. Change in Temperature
    • 8. Climate Change and Crop Adaptation Source: Burke, M.B., et al., Shifts in African crop climates by 2050, and the implications for crop improvement and genetic resources conservation. Global Environ. Change (2009), doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2009.04.003 Percentage overlap between historical and 2025 (left), 2050 (middle), and 2075 (right) simulated growing season average temperature at over African maize area. Dark blue colors represent 100% overlap between past and future climates, dark red colors represent 0% overlap
    • 9. Overlap of Future Temperatures with Present average growing season temperatures, Sub-Saharan Africa Percent Source: Burke, M.B., et al., Shifts in African crop climates by 2050, and the implications for crop improvement and genetic resources conservation. Global Environ. Change (2009), doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2009.04.003
    • 10. Sources of Cereal Production Growth (2000-50) EAP: East Asia and the Pacific; MENA: Middle East and North Africa; LAC: Latin America and the Caribbean; SSA: Sub-Saharan Africa Source: Hubert et al . 2010. The Future of Food: Scenarios for 2050. Crop Sci 50.
    • 11. 6 Components of Increasing Food Supplies Source: adapted from Evans L.T. 2000. Feeding the Ten Billion: Plants and Population Growth. Cambridge University Press Crop diversity needed for breeding Crop diversity indirectly needed Increase area of land under cultivation Reduce use of grains fed to animals Reduce post-harvest losses Replace lower yielding crops with higher yielding ones Increase yield on existing lands, per crop Increase number of crops grown on the land (e.g. shorter season crops)
    • 12. We Must Prepare for the Storm
      • Collect remaining diversity from the field
      • Conserve it – securely and permanently
      • Screen it for traits essential to meet climate change, water, energy and food security challenges – and also help mitigate climate change!
      • Breed new climate-ready crop varieties
    • 13. Impacts of Climate Change on CWRs Arachis (peanut, groundnut) Current 2055 Source: Jarvis, A., Ferguson, M., Williams, D., Guarino, L., Jones, P., Stalker, H., Valls, J., Pittman, R., Simpson, C. & Bramel, P. 2003. Biogeography of Wild Arachis: Assessing Conservation Status and Setting Future Priorities. Crop Science 43, 1100-1108.
    • 14. Impacts of Climate Change on CWRs Source: Jarvis A., Ramirez J., Zapata E., and Guevara E. 2008. Use of GBIF data for conserving and adapting agricultural biodiversity in the face of climate change. Powerpoint Presentation.
    • 15. Impacts of Climate Change on CWRs Source: Jarvis A. 2009. personal communication.
    • 16.  
    • 17.
      • Storage of unique samples in 2 facilities meeting international standards
      • Safety back-up in Svalbard
      • Secure funding
      • Information system
      • Facilitated access and benefit sharing (International Treaty on PGRFA)
      A Global Ex Situ System
    • 18. Source: adapted from Palacios XF. 1998. Contribution to the Estimation of Countries’ Interdependence in the Area of Plant Genetic Resources. Rep. 7, Rev. 1, UN Food. Agric. Org. Comm. Genet. Resour. Food Agric., Rome, Italy. taken from Fowler C. and Hodgkin T. 2004. Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture: Assessing Global Availability. Annu Rev Environ Resour 29: 10.1-10.37. Global interdependence Food Energy Supply (calories/day) = % genetic resources of crops not indigenous to country = % genetic resources of crops indigenous to country
    • 19. Global Interdependence: “Veery” Wheat Source: Payne T. 2009. International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center. personal communication Country sources - 49 landraces and 66 cultivars from 20 countries
    • 20. Global Interdependence: “Veery” Wheat Countries of release - 160 cultivars in 35 countries Source: Payne T. 2009. International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center. personal communication; Rajaram S. 2009. personal communication.
    • 21. Climate Change and Crop Adaptation Source: Burke, M.B., et al., Shifts in African crop climates by 2050, and the implications for crop improvement and genetic resources conservation. Global Environ. Change (2009), doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2009.04.003
    • 22. % of World Ex Situ Collection Source: Wiews 2009 Countries Cassava Maize Potato Sweet Potato Wheat Brazil 18 3 0 5 4 China 0 6 0 4 5 India 8 2 5 0.1 8 Philippines 0.2 1 0 1 0 USA 0.3 8 4 4 7
    • 23. Conservation Use Svalbard Global Seed Vault Safety backup Long term storage: CG Centres, regional organizations Active national etc. collections Breeding/working collections Farmers
    • 24.
      • 90,000 accessions
      • 230 collections
      • 100 institutes
      • 67 countries
      Regeneration (Regeneration, Characterization, Safety Duplication) Photos: Instituto Nacional Autonomo de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIAP). 2009.
    • 25.
      • 300,000 accessions deposited with support from Trust
      • Long-term support from Trust for Vault operations at $150,000 pa
      Photo: Mari Tefre; Global Crop Diversity Trust Global Safety Backup Svalbard Global Seed Vault
    • 26. Photo: Global Crop Diversity Trust; Stattsbygg
    • 27. Photo: Mari Tefre; Global Crop Diversity Trust
    • 28.
      • 15 international collections managed by CGIAR Centers
      • 2 collections at Secretariat of the Pacific Community
      • Svalbard Global Seed Vault
      • Total $1.8 million annually
      Long-term Sustainable Funding Photos: Global Crop Diversity Trust, IRRI Philippines rice, bean, yam, sorghum, banana, grasspea, cassava, wheat, barley, pearl millet, faba bean, lentil, forage crops
    • 29. Genebank Data Management Software Source: USDA-ARS. 2009. GRIN-Global_manual_v1-022409.pdf
    • 30.  
    • 31. Source: Bioversity International 2009. http://www.global-alis.org / Global Portal for Accession-level Information
    • 32. Smart Collecting Strategies Threat assessment: use climate change models to determine vulnerability of populations Rare traits: compare distribution with environmental factors Areas of species richness not previously sampled Source: Jarvis A. 2008. Protocol for Gap Analysis in Wild Species. Draft Report for the Global Crop Diversity Trust.
    • 33. Endowing a Global System for a Crop
    • 34.  
    • 35. The Global Crop Diversity Trust “providing a permanent source of funds to support the long-term conservation of the ex-situ germplasm on which the world depends for food security”

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