Genebanks and pre-breeding

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  • 1. Pre-breeding in a rational globalsystem for ex situ conservation http://croptrust.org
  • 2. International imperatives• GPA calls on countries to:  “develop an efficient goal-oriented, economically efficient and sustainable system of ex situ conservation”• ITPGRFA calls on Parties to:  “cooperate to promote the development of an efficient and sustainable system of ex situ conservation”
  • 3. Birth of the Trust• Established under international law Oct. 2004• Jointly founded by FAO and Bioversity (on behalf of CGIAR)• Endowment fund target currently $260 million  Fund at $80 mill  long-term grants ($1.8 mill/year)  + project funds (e.g. Gates Foundation)• Essential element of funding strategy of ITPGRFA• Technical framework is Global Plan of Action
  • 4. The vision A rational global systemfor the efficient and effectiveex situ conservation and use of PGRFA
  • 5. The State of the World - Challenges• A lot of duplication  A lot of un-duplicated accessions• Lack of resources  Inadequate equipment, facilities for storage• Material dying• Little international distribution from many collections
  • 6. The State of the World - Pressures• Collecting in face of climate change etc.  Especially CWR (only 10% of holdings)• Demand for impact (i.e. use)  Decline of public sector plant breeding• Interest in underutilized crops• More, better access to data and germplasm• More, better data
  • 7. The State of the World - Opportunities• Regional and crop networks• CGIAR Centres• ITPGRFA• Tools  Biotech  GIS
  • 8. A possible solutionThe present The future?
  • 9. Conservation Svalbard Global Seed Vault Safety backup Long term collection: CG Centres etc. Active national collection Breeding/working collection Use Farmers
  • 10. Towards a rational system• Finished strategies  Banana, barley, breadfruit, cassava, chickpea, coconut, faba beans, grass pea, lentil, maize, oats, pigeon pea, potato, rice, sorghum, strawberry, sweet potato, taro, wheat (+triticale, rye).• Next  Beans, cowpea, finger millet, pearl millet, yam.• All regional strategies done  Via regional PGR networks - AEGIS
  • 11. Towards a rational system• Regeneration of unique, local, threatened material  21 Annex 1 crops, >200 collections, 80,000 accessions  identified by expert consultations, regional/crop strategies, regional networks  safety duplication• Safety back-up at Svalbard International Seed Vault  from the regenerations of seed crops  in-trust international seed collections
  • 12. Total no. of Total no. of Crop collections accessions aroids 10 1,509bambara groundnut 3 227 banana 11 1,412 barley 18 6,362 bean 24 7,291 cassava 5 1,180 chickpea 14 4,183 cowpea 24 5,098 faba bean 14 2,400 finger millet 8 9,927 grasspea 10 3,952 lentil 16 3,728 maize 33 12,803 pearl millet 10 2,751 pigeon pea 3 888 potato 6 4,621 rice 14 16,435 sorghum 24 14,266 sweet potato 9 1,731 wheat 23 26,304 yam 14 3,270
  • 13. Svalbard, Norway78° North, 15°East
  • 14. Towards a rational system• Information systems  data management system for genebanks - GRIN-Global  global accession-level information system - SINGER, EURISCO, GRIN, ++++
  • 15. The future of genebanks• Outsource some storage/distribution functions• Collaborate on genotyping• Focus on phenotyping (networks?)• Share data• Become users  Need more than just “better links” to users!• “Crown jewels” are not the accessions but the products
  • 16. The future of genebanks• Re-tooling• Re-training• Re-thinking
  • 17. Thank youhttp://croptrust.org