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http://croptrust.org<br />Adapting to climate change:the importance ofex situ conservationof crop genetic diversity<br />L...
A new world<br />Distributions of average (summer) temperature for 20th century (blue), and climate model projections for ...
The rainfall increases from 3064.37mm to 3129mm<br />The wet season gets wetter with 373.92mm instead of 364.09mm in the w...
Yield and temperature<br />The response of vegetative weight (A), spikes per plant (B), kernels per spike (C), reproductiv...
Yield and precipitation<br />Alemu et al., 2001<br />
New varieties in farmers’ fields<br />Seed systems<br />Breeding<br />Crop<br />diversity<br />
Breeding challenges<br />Drought<br />Waterlogging<br />High temperature<br />Frost (eg clear nights during drought in PNG...
Missing in action<br /><ul><li>Genebanks
Crop wild relatives
Information
Policy
Diversification</li></li></ul><li>Genebanks<br />
Genebanks<br />
Global Safety Backup<br />Svalbard Global Seed Vault<br />Photo: Mari Tefre; Global Crop Diversity Trust<br />
Photo: Mari Tefre; Global Crop Diversity Trust<br />
Crop wild relatives<br />O. officinalis<br />O. ridleyi<br />O. rufipogon<br />O. brachyanta<br />O. longistaminata<br />O...
Disease resistance
Tolerance abiotic stresses
QTLs for yield</li></li></ul><li>Disease resistance from CWR of rice<br />tungro virus tolerance<br />Source: Brar D.S. (2...
Pest and disease resistance from CWR<br />Musa acuminata- black sigatoga resistance<br />Manihot glaziovii- cassava mosaic...
Pest and disease resistance from CWR<br />Cassava cultivar susceptible to green mites<br />Cassava cultivar containing QTL...
Threats to CWR<br />Of approx. 80,000 total accessions of annual Cicerspecies, <br />there are 572 accessions of wild annu...
Impacts of climate change on CWRs<br />Source: Jarvis A. 2009. personal communication.<br />
Information<br />
Global interdependence<br />Food Energy Supply (calories/day)<br />= % genetic resources of crops not indigenous to countr...
Climate change and crop adaptation<br />Percentage overlap between historical and 2025 (left), 2050 (middle), and 2075 (ri...
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Crop diversity and climate change adaptation

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Transcript of "Crop diversity and climate change adaptation"

  1. 1. http://croptrust.org<br />Adapting to climate change:the importance ofex situ conservationof crop genetic diversity<br />Luigi Guarino<br />Global Crop Diversity Trust<br />Rome, Italy<br />
  2. 2. A new world<br />Distributions of average (summer) temperature for 20th century (blue), and climate model projections for 2080-2100 (red) (y=number of summers, x=departure from long-term 20th century mean) <br />Source: Battisti, D.S., and R.L. Naylor. 2009. Historical warnings of future food insecurity with unprecedented seasonal heat. Science, 323, 240-244.<br />
  3. 3. The rainfall increases from 3064.37mm to 3129mm<br />The wet season gets wetter with 373.92mm instead of 364.09mm in the wettest quarter and is 1.92C hotter<br />The dry season gets dryer with 152mm in the dryest quarter and an increase in temperature of 2.04C<br />Overall this climate becomes more seasonal in terms of variability through the year in precipitation<br />Temperatures increase, with a mean increase of 2C<br />The maximum temperature of the hottest month increases from 29.2oC to 31.43C<br />The minimum temperature of the coldest month increases from 18.43C to 20.1C<br />The daily range in temperature increases from 9.08C to 9.42C<br />The length of the dry season increases from 0.79 months to 0.87 months<br />The coefficient of variation of predictions between models is 2.99% for temperature and 4.64% for precipitation<br />400<br />35<br />Current Precipitation<br />Future Precipitation<br />Max T Current<br />350<br />30<br />Mean T Current<br />Min T Current<br />Max T Future<br />300<br />Mean T Future<br />Min T Future<br />25<br />250<br />20<br />Precipitation (mm)<br />Temperature (oC)<br />200<br />15<br />150<br />10<br />100<br />5<br />50<br />0<br />0<br />1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />5<br />6<br />7<br />8<br />9<br />10<br />11<br />12<br />Month<br />Papua New Guinea<br />
  4. 4. Yield and temperature<br />The response of vegetative weight (A), spikes per plant (B), kernels per spike (C), reproductive duration (D), grain yield per plant (E), grain yield per spike (F), kernel weight (G), and harvest index (H) of Karl 92 wheat to increasing temperature applied from 10 d after anthesis until ripeness.<br />Source: Gibson L.R. and Paulsen G.M. 1999. Yield Components of Wheat Grown under High Temperature Stress during Reproductive Growth. Crop Sci. 39: 1841-1846. <br />
  5. 5. Yield and precipitation<br />Alemu et al., 2001<br />
  6. 6. New varieties in farmers’ fields<br />Seed systems<br />Breeding<br />Crop<br />diversity<br />
  7. 7. Breeding challenges<br />Drought<br />Waterlogging<br />High temperature<br />Frost (eg clear nights during drought in PNG)<br />Biotic stresses<br />
  8. 8. Missing in action<br /><ul><li>Genebanks
  9. 9. Crop wild relatives
  10. 10. Information
  11. 11. Policy
  12. 12. Diversification</li></li></ul><li>Genebanks<br />
  13. 13.
  14. 14. Genebanks<br />
  15. 15.
  16. 16. Global Safety Backup<br />Svalbard Global Seed Vault<br />Photo: Mari Tefre; Global Crop Diversity Trust<br />
  17. 17. Photo: Mari Tefre; Global Crop Diversity Trust<br />
  18. 18. Crop wild relatives<br />O. officinalis<br />O. ridleyi<br />O. rufipogon<br />O. brachyanta<br />O. longistaminata<br />O. alta<br />O. minuta<br /><ul><li>Insect resistance
  19. 19. Disease resistance
  20. 20. Tolerance abiotic stresses
  21. 21. QTLs for yield</li></li></ul><li>Disease resistance from CWR of rice<br />tungro virus tolerance<br />Source: Brar D.S. (2010). What are the main bottlenecks to the use of CWR in breeding? How can they be overcome? Presentation for ‘Adapting Agriculture to Climate Change: The Need for Crop Wild Relatives’, Bellagio, 7-9 September 2010. <br />
  22. 22. Pest and disease resistance from CWR<br />Musa acuminata- black sigatoga resistance<br />Manihot glaziovii- cassava mosaic disease (CMD) resistance<br />Aegilopstauschii- hessian fly resistance<br />Source: Okogbenin E (2010) The Use and Challenges of CWR in Breeding. Presentation for ‘Adapting Agriculture to Climate Change: The Need for Crop Wild Relatives’, Bellagio, 7-9 September 2010. <br />
  23. 23. Pest and disease resistance from CWR<br />Cassava cultivar susceptible to green mites<br />Cassava cultivar containing QTLs for resistance to green mites from wild progenitor of cassava<br />Source: Okogbenin E (2010) The Use and Challenges of CWR in Breeding. Presentation for ‘Adapting Agriculture to Climate Change: The Need for Crop Wild Relatives’, Bellagio, 7-9 September 2010. <br />
  24. 24. Threats to CWR<br />Of approx. 80,000 total accessions of annual Cicerspecies, <br />there are 572 accessions of wild annual species,<br />only 124 of which are unique and distinct.<br />
  25. 25. Impacts of climate change on CWRs<br />Source: Jarvis A. 2009. personal communication.<br />
  26. 26. Information<br />
  27. 27.
  28. 28. Global interdependence<br />Food Energy Supply (calories/day)<br />= % genetic resources of crops not indigenous to country <br />= % genetic resources of crops indigenous to country<br />Source: adapted from Palacios XF. 1998. Contribution to the Estimation of Countries’ Interdependence in the Area of Plant Genetic Resources. Rep. 7, Rev. 1, UN Food. Agric. Org. Comm. Genet. Resour. Food Agric., Rome, Italy. taken from Fowler C. and Hodgkin T. 2004. Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture: Assessing Global Availability. Annu Rev Environ Resour 29: 10.1-10.37.<br />
  29. 29. Climate change and crop adaptation<br />Percentage overlap between historical and 2025 (left), 2050 (middle), and 2075 (right) simulated growing season average temperature at over African maize area. Dark<br />blue colors represent 100% overlap between past and future climates, dark red colors represent 0% overlap<br />Source: Burke, M.B., et al., Shifts in African crop climates by 2050, and the implications for crop improvement and genetic resources conservation. Global Environ. Change (2009), doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2009.04.003<br />
  30. 30. Climate change and crop adaptation<br />Source: Burke, M.B., et al., Shifts in African crop climates by 2050, and the implications for crop improvement and genetic resources conservation. Global Environ. Change (2009), doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2009.04.003<br />
  31. 31. International Treaty for PGRFA<br />
  32. 32. Diverse farms, resilient farmers<br />
  33. 33. Missing in action no longer<br /><ul><li>Genebanks
  34. 34. Need ongoing support, should not be taken for granted
  35. 35. Crop wild relatives
  36. 36. Need to be collected, evaluated, used in breeding programmes
  37. 37. Information
  38. 38. Needs to be shared
  39. 39. Policy
  40. 40. Ratify the Treaty!
  41. 41. Diversification
  42. 42. Needs to be promoted at genetic, species and landscape level</li></li></ul><li>The Global Crop Diversity Trust“providing a permanent source of funds to support the long-term conservation of the ex-situ germplasm on which the world depends for food security”<br />
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